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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4890 matches for " Eco-ethics "
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“Go out and gather each day ...”: implications of the ethics of Exodus 16 for modern consumerism
J.M. Vorster
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v76i1.12
Abstract: This article focuses on the implied ethical principles of the history of the manna in Exodus 16 and the relevance of these ethical principles for the contemporary culture of consumerism. The principles that can be derived from this history are the principle of labour and rest, of sharing, the ethical principles of responsible consumption, the protection of creation and of remembrance of God’s concern for humankind and creation. Modern consumerism with its underlying neo-liberal economic philosophy appears to violate these principles in many ways. The implied ethical principles of the manna history is thus highly relevant in the ethical discourse about economic planning,labour and rest, the environment and God’s involvement in the modern world.
‘n Ekoteologiese besinning oor die Christelik-etiese implikasies van stamselnavorsing en -terapie
Stephan Hoffman,Johan Buitendag
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v66i1.333
Abstract: An Eco theological reflection on Christian-ethical implications of stem cell research and therapy The new biotechnological context in which in vitro fertilisation, the human genome project, and stem cell research have become realities, confronts both society and theology with unique challenges. These realities compel us to revisit ethical questions regarding human life. The main aim of this study is to contribute to the transversal debate about Christian ethics, natural sciences and biotechnological development, from a post-foundational perspective. The research results do not aim to lay down ethical rules as absolute truths, but rather to reflect on different viewpoints, values, characteristics, virtues, moral narratives and perspectives with regard to these complex ethical dilemmas. The broadening of moral narratives, and the revaluing of relational Christiananthropological perspectives, are being presented as an alternative to the strict monolithically orientated ideas of truth, objectivity and reason. How to cite this article: Hoffman, S. & Buitendag, J., 2010, ‘‘n Ekoteologiese besinning oor die Christeliketiese implikasies van stamselnavorsing en –terapie’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 66(1), Art. #333, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v66i1.333
Numeracy and sustainability
John Cairns Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2003,
Abstract: Sustainable use of the planet is based on the assumption that humankind can maintain conditions suitable for inhabiting the planet indefinitely. No robust evidence supports this assumption nor rejects it, and adequate evidence on this issue may not be available for centuries. Numeracy is the ability to use or understand numerical techniques of mathematics. Even if adequate numerical data were available, the important decisions humankind makes regarding sustainable use of the planet should not be guided by numerical information alone, such as economic numbers, but by eco- and sustainability ethics, which provides a values framework that indicates how the numbers should be used and interpreted.
A preliminary declaration of sustainability ethics: making peace with the ultimate bioexecutioner
John Cairns Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2003,
Abstract: Sustainability is a utopian vision that requires living harmoniously with nature, which will exact harsh penalties on species that exceed Earth's carrying capacity and violate nature's laws. To make this vision a reality, humankind needs a global ethical consensus on sustainable use of the planet - sustainability ethics. Sustainability ethics has the goal of developing a sustainable, mutualistic relationship between humankind and the interdependent web of life that serves as Earth's ecological life support system. The quest for sustainable use of the planet is a value judgment that has more than one component. Arguably, the most important is increased attention to and compassion for posterity's quality of life, in short, leaving a habitable planet for future generations. This requires leaving natural capital and the ecosystem serves it provides undiminished at the least and increased at best. Although material possessions can be left to direct descendants, protecting the planet's ecological life support system must not only be for all of humankind's descendants but those of the 30+ million other species with which we share the planet. This is difficult because the recipients are distance (as individuals) both temporally and spatially. Therefore, this quest will not be realised until an agreement emerges on the values and attitudes necessary to make sustainbility a reality. Science can then develop the standards and criteria necessary to reach this goal. In view of present unsustainable practices, a basis ethical consensus is necessary to develop sustainable practices.
Sovereignty, individuality, and sustainability
John Cairns Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2003,
Abstract: Humans must acknowledge that the biosphere is the essential support for all living organisms. In order to achieve sustainable use of the planet, humans must proceed beyond egocentrism, ethnocentrism, homocentrism, and biocentrism to ecocentrism. National states, with present policies, are a major obstacle to sustainable use of the planet. However, there is some evidence that the individual has increasing sovereignty at the expense of both nation states and the environment. Still, the primary obstacle to sustainability is inherent in the present system of sovereign nation states. The basic question is how much sovereignty must nation-states and individuals relinquish to preserve the health of Earth's biospheric life support system. A free and open exchange of thoughts on this subject is long overdue. To acheive sustainable use of the planet, humankind must view its identity within the context of the interdependent web of life.
A declaration of eco-ethics
John Cairns Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2002,
Abstract: Eco-ethics is the essential foundation for sustainable use of the planet. Such a foundation must consist of a series of value judgments to which humanity is committed. This declaration is a tentative attempt to provide some illustrative examples.
Coping with ecological catastrophe: crossing major thresholds
John Cairns, Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2004,
Abstract: The combination of human population growth and resource depletion makes catastrophes highly probable. No long-term solutions to the problems of humankind will be discovered unless sustainable use of the planet is achieved. The essential first step toward this goal is avoiding or coping with global catastrophes that result from crossing major ecological thresholds. Decreasing the number of global catastrophes will reduce the risks associated with destabilizing ecological systems, which could, in turn, destabilize societal systems. Many catastrophes will be local, regional, or national, but even these upheavals will have global consequences. Catastrophes will be the result of unsustainable practices and the misuse of technology. However, avoiding ecological catastrophes will depend on the development of eco-ethics, which is subject to progressive maturation, comments, and criticism. Some illustrative catastrophes have been selected to display some preliminary issues of eco-ethics.
Ethical issues in ecological restoration
John Cairns Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2003,
Abstract: The acid test of humankind's relationship to natural systems is the degree to which ecological damage caused by humans is repaired by humans. Technology and science are available, so the remaining stimulus needed for implementation of ecological restoration is the ethical responsibility to do so. Ecological restoration can be regarded as enlightened self-interest for humankind since it increases both natural capital and ecosystem services. However, well-designed ecological restoration proecjts should have a major ethical component since the future of non-human life forms on Earth requires more than self-interest. Although the field of science has provided various rationales for ecological restoration, ethical issues associated with such activities must also be considered. If, as seems likely, human society and natural systems are co-evolving, restoration of damaged ecosystems will improve both ecological and human health. The term 'ecosocietal restoration' emphasizes this close relationship. However, if ecological restoration considers only human needs and does not emphasize ecological integrity, human-dominated ecosystems could become the norm. Such domination is already marked but the relationship could easily worsen. This article lists seven major ethical issues in ecological restoration. This list is not encyclopedic but illustrative. Finally, there are five questions that human society must address that require robust scientific information to make a sound ethical judgment.
Integrating top-down/bottom-up sustainability strategies: an ethical challenge
John Cairns Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2003,
Abstract: Sustainable use of the planet will require multiple sustainability strategies, which will range from the entire system, the entire Earth, the local or regional. Strategies starting at the highest system level are referred to as 'top-down', and strategies designed for components, local or regional, are referred to as 'bottom-up'. Doubtless, several intermediate levels will eventually be required, although the number is far from clear at this time. It is abundantly clear that both top-down and bottom-up strategies must be integrated effectively or neither will work well. Furthermore, there will be significant uncertainties at both levels of organisation, which will be reduced as evidence accumulates. However, sustainability is too complex and dynamic to reduce scientific uncertainty to a level desired by most decision makers. A great emphasis on sustain-ethics and value judgements will improve communications between those working at different organisational levels since humankind's wish to leave a habitable planet for its descendants and those of other life forms is clearly a value judgement.
Reparations for environmental degradation and species extinction: a moral and ethical imperative for human society
John Cairns Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2003,
Abstract: While the history of reparations within Homo sapiens is lengthy, only recently has the concept been applied to events that have caused degradation or damage to natural systems. Some effects have been unmistakable, even to the untrained eye, and reparations have been made in a short temporal span. However, what should be done about ecological damage that has occurred incrementally over large temporal or spatial spans? If all parties involved are no longer living (e.g. slavery, colonialism), should the descendants of one group, who had nothing to do with the situation and are individually innocent, pay descendants of the other, who did not suffer directly? Degradation of the planet's ecological life support system will cause all humans to suffer, directly or indirectly, regardless of the degree to which they contributed to the damage. Repair of ecological damage is an act of enlightened self-interest, as well as an ethical imperative. Although current events may make restoring the planet's ecological life support system seem futile, even irrational, the forces of destruction cannot exceed those of restoration for a substantial period of time without resulting in severe disequilibrium, whether societal or ecological. The only long-term hope for the human species - sustainability - is a constructive, compassionate approach. Regardless of what happens to humankind, it is probably that some species will survive until the sun fails. Even if the human species does not, it seems ethical to make an exit that is notable for acts of compassion rather than acts of rage and revenge.
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