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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145588 matches for " Earl F Cook "
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Liver transplantation in the critically ill: a multicenter Canadian retrospective cohort study
Constantine J Karvellas, Thomas Lescot, Peter Goldberg, Michael D Sharpe, Juan J Ronco, Eberhard L Renner, Hina Vahidy, Zafrina Poonja, Prosanto Chaudhury, Norman M Kneteman, Markus Selzner, Earl F Cook, Sean M Bagshaw, the Canadian Liver Failure Study Group
Critical Care , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/cc12508
Abstract: Multi-center retrospective cohort study consisting of two datasets: 1) all critically-ill cirrhotic patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission prior to LT at five transplant centers in Canada from 2000-2009 (one site 1990-2009) and 2) critically ill cirrhotics receiving LT from ICU (n=115) and those listed but not receiving LT prior to death (n=106) from two centres where complete data was available.In the first dataset, 198 critically ill cirrhotics receiving LT (mean [SD] age 53 [10] years, 66% male, median [IQR] model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) 34 [26-39]) were included. Mean (SD) SOFA scores at ICU admission, at 48 hours, and at LT were 12.5 (4), 13.0 (5) and 14.0 (4). Survival at 90-days was 84% (n=166). In multivariable analysis, only older age was independently associated with reduced 90-day survival (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14, p=0.013). SOFA score did not predict 90-day mortality at any time-point. In the second dataset, 47.9% (n=106) of cirrhotics listed for LT died in ICU waiting for LT. In multivariable analysis, higher SOFA at 48 hours after admission was independently associated with lower probability of receiving LT (OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97, p=0.006). When including serum lactate and SOFA at 48 hours in the final model, elevated lactate (at 48 hours) was also significantly associated with lower likelihood of receiving LT (0.32; 0.17-0.61, p=0.001).SOFA appears poor at predicting 90-day survival in critically ill cirrhotics following LT, but higher SOFA score and elevated lactate 48 hours after ICU admission are associated with a lower probability receiving LT. Older critically ill cirrhotics (over 60) receiving LT have worse 90-day survival and should be considered for LT with caution.
Editorial on the Status of Hernia Surgery Back to Pure Tissue Repair or Forward to Tohubohu  [PDF]
Earl Byrnes Shouldice
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.513100
Abstract:

Edoardo Bassini is considered the father of modern surgery. His early results revealed a 2.7% recurrence rate. Earl Shouldice, his true successor, has improved the results to less than 1%. These results were produced by several well-known surgeons from 1970-2000 and well published. The need for mesh was meant for a small segment of the surgical patient population. What has happened? Generally, recurrence rates with mesh have not come down; instead, pain has become the bane of hernia repair as we begin the 21st century. A pain which makes the patient wish that he had a recurrence instead!

A Comparison of Children’s Fitness in the Northwest and Southwest of England  [PDF]
Spencer Earl Boyle
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2014.44020
Abstract: The data from this paper was gathered from a larger cross-sectional study examining children’s physical activity participation in the Northwest and the Southwest of England. The purpose of this study was to carry out a battery of health and fitness tests with children in both areas to examine possible differences in various aspects of fitness or health by area. Heart rate recovery, flexibility, body fat, hand grip strength, upper body strength, explosive strength and agility were all measured using youth fitness tests endorsed by EUROFIT and YMCA with 59 boys and 57 girls across both areas. There were no statistically significant differences in both groups of children in hand grip strength, flexibility and agility. Statistically significant differences were noted between both groups of children in explosive strength, upper body strength and measured body fat percentage. Overall the study showed mixed results that may indicate area of residence influences aspects of fitness or activity. Further study is recommended to assess whether physical activity could play a role in the associated fitness characteristics.
Investor Na?veté and Asset Prices  [PDF]
Jonathan Cook
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.34047
Abstract:

This paper describes strategic behavior in a nonequilibrium model of asset pricing with heterogeneous sophistication. Both risk and return are increasing in the na?veté of investors in the market. Optimal investment involves in considering the effect that na?e investors have on the market. Further, we derive a simple characterization of the asset price dynamics that results from an arbitrary combination of a countably infinite set of investor types.

Skeptical and Optimistic Robust Priors for Clinical Trials
COOK,JOHN; FúQUENE,JAIRO; PERICCHI,LUIS;
Revista Colombiana de Estadística , 2011,
Abstract: a useful technique from the subjective bayesian viewpoint, is to ask the subject matter researchers and other parties involved, such as pharmaceutical companies and regulatory bodies, for reasonable optimistic and pessimistic priors regarding the effectiveness of a new treatment. up to now, the proposed skeptical and optimistic priors have been limited to conjugate priors, though there is no need for this limitation. the same reasonably adversarial points of view can take with robust priors. robust priors permit a much faster and efficient resolution of the disagreement between the conclusions based on skeptical and optimistic priors. as a consequence, robust bayesian clinical trials tend to be shorter. our proposal in this paper is to use cauchy and intrinsic robust priors for both skeptical and optimistic priors leading to results more closely related with the sampling data when prior and data are in conflict. in other words, the use of robust priors removes the dogmatism implicit in conjugate priors. dogmatism here has very precise meaning: conjugate priors affect the posterior conclusions by a fixed rate, regardless if there is a conflict between prior and data. robust priors are automatically discounted by bayes theorem in the presence of conflict.
SKEPTICAL AND OPTIMISTIC ROBUST PRIORS FOR CLINICAL TRIALS ENSAYOS CLíNICOS BAJO UN ENFOQUE BAYESIANO ROBUSTO CON PREVIAS ESCéPTICAS Y OPTIMISTAS
Cook John,Fúquene Jairo,Pericchi Luis
Revista Colombiana de Estadística , 2011,
Abstract: A useful technique from the subjective Bayesian viewpoint, is to ask the subject matter researchers and other parties involved, such as pharmaceutical companies and regulatory bodies, for reasonable optimistic and pessimistic priors regarding the effectiveness of a new treatment. Up to now, the proposed skeptical and optimistic priors have been limited to conjugate priors, though there is no need for this limitation. The same reasonably adversarial points of view can take with robust priors. Robust priors permit a much faster and efficient resolution of the disagreement between the conclusions based on skeptical and optimistic priors. As a consequence, robust Bayesian clinical trials tend to be shorter. Our proposal in this paper is to use Cauchy and intrinsic robust priors for both skeptical and optimistic priors leading to results more closely related with the sampling data when prior and data are in conflict. In other words, the use of robust priors removes the dogmatism implicit in conjugate priors. Dogmatism here has very precise meaning: Conjugate priors affect the posterior conclusions by a fixed rate, regardless if there is a conflict between prior and data. Robust priors are automatically discounted by Bayes Theorem in the presence of conflict. Ensayos clínicos bajo un enfoque de estadística Bayesiana están adquiriendo cada vez mayor importancia. Anteriormente se sugirió una idea que ha dado ventaja al uso de previas bayesianas: suponer dos densidades a priori con información muy distinta sobre la efectividad de un nuevo tratamiento: una previa escéptica que refleje pesimismo sobre la superioridad del tratamiento nuevo. Esta es la posición de los organismos reguladores que autorizan o no los nuevos medicamentos que deben ser vendidos en el mercado. También proponen una densidad previa optimista (o “entusiasta”) que refleja la posición de los investigadores y compa ías farmacéuticas que proponen el nuevo tratamiento. Esta diversidad de opiniones es sumamente útil y queremos preservarla. En la propuesta original, sin embargo, se supone que la forma funcional de las densidades previas es normal, lo cual es más simple de analizar y asignar. Infortunadamente, la simplicidad exige un precio muy grande. Para que haya acuerdo entre los dos análisis se necesita muchísima información muestral. En este artículo se propone mantener las dos previas que representan puntos de vista adversos, pero con una forma funcional de colas gruesas, como la densidad Cauchy. Las previas robustas permiten una resolución del desacuerdo de forma más rápida y eficiente; por t
The relationship between brain oscillatory activity and therapeutic effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depressive disorder
Andrew F. Leuchter,Ian A. Cook
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00037
Abstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is marked by disturbances in brain functional connectivity. This connectivity is modulated by rhythmic oscillations of brain electrical activity, which enable coordinated functions across brain regions. Oscillatory activity plays a central role in regulating thinking and memory, mood, cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter levels, and restoration of normal oscillatory patterns is associated with effective treatment of MDD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a robust treatment for MDD, but the mechanism of action (MOA) of its benefits for mood disorders remains incompletely understood. Benefits of rTMS have been tied to enhanced neuroplasticity in specific brain pathways. We summarize here the evidence that rTMS entrains and resets thalamocortical oscillators, normalizes regulation and facilitates reemergence of intrinsic cerebral rhythms, and through this mechanism restores normal brain function. This entrainment and resetting may be a critical step in engendering neuroplastic changes and the antidepressant effects of rTMS. It may be possible to modify the method of rTMS administration to enhance this MOA and achieve better antidepressant effectiveness. We propose that rTMS can be administered: (1) synchronized to a patient's individual alpha frequency (IAF), or synchronized rTMS (sTMS); (2) as a low magnetic field strength sinusoidal waveform; and, (3) broadly to multiple brain areas simultaneously. We present here the theory and evidence indicating that these modifications could enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of MDD.
Approximate Killing Vectors on S^2
Gregory B. Cook,Bernard F. Whiting
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.041501
Abstract: We present a new method for computing the best approximation to a Killing vector on closed 2-surfaces that are topologically S^2. When solutions of Killing's equation do not exist, this method is shown to yield results superior to those produced by existing methods. In addition, this method appears to provide a new tool for studying the horizon geometry of distorted black holes.
Geodesic Fréchet Distance Inside a Simple Polygon
Atlas F. Cook IV,Carola Wenk
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: We unveil an alluring alternative to parametric search that applies to both the non-geodesic and geodesic Fr\'echet optimization problems. This randomized approach is based on a variant of red-blue intersections and is appealing due to its elegance and practical efficiency when compared to parametric search. We present the first algorithm for the geodesic Fr\'echet distance between two polygonal curves $A$ and $B$ inside a simple bounding polygon $P$. The geodesic Fr\'echet decision problem is solved almost as fast as its non-geodesic sibling and requires $O(N^{2\log k)$ time and $O(k+N)$ space after $O(k)$ preprocessing, where $N$ is the larger of the complexities of $A$ and $B$ and $k$ is the complexity of $P$. The geodesic Fr\'echet optimization problem is solved by a randomized approach in $O(k+N^{2\log kN\log N)$ expected time and $O(k+N^{2)$ space. This runtime is only a logarithmic factor larger than the standard non-geodesic Fr\'echet algorithm (Alt and Godau 1995). Results are also presented for the geodesic Fr\'echet distance in a polygonal domain with obstacles and the geodesic Hausdorff distance for sets of points or sets of line segments inside a simple polygon $P$.
American Society for Clinical Oncology 39th Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 31 May to 3 June 2003: Breast cancer neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy – prognostic and predictive markers
Helena Earl
Breast Cancer Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/bcr647
Abstract: The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting is a leading educational and scientific event for oncologists, clinical researchers, academics and other health care professionals involved in multidisciplinary cancer care. This year the congress was held in Chicago, Illinois, from May 31 to June 3. The theme for the 39th annual meeting was 'Commitment, care, compassion: honouring people with cancer'. The goal of the meeting was to promote communication among cancer related medical specialities and the exchange of ideas arising from ongoing advances in oncology. This encompassed the areas of pathophysiology, diagnosis and management, and included innovations in therapies. For the first time this year, an oral presentation session was devoted to pharmacogenomics. A wide range of translational scientific research relevant to breast cancer was covered as well as new clinical data pertinent to breast oncology management.Worldwide, many research groups are concentrating on breast cancer gene expression and molecular profiling, and this area was given significant coverage at the ASCO meeting. The first presentation in the meeting's plenary session, given by Lajos Pusztai from the MD Anderson group, dealt with the predictive nature of profiling in terms of response to chemotherapy. Their group described the use of gene expression profiling in predicting complete pathological response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with a paclitaxel and anthracycline combination (abstract #1 [1]). In 21 patients the overall accuracy of response prediction based on a group of five genes (three oestrogen sulphotransferases, nuclear factor 1/A, and histone acetyltransferase) was 81% and the positive predictive value for pCR was 75%, with an overall specificity of 93%, although sensitivity fell to 50%.The group from Baylor College (abstract #32 [1]) presented their work on gene expression patterns for de novo and acquired resistance to docetaxel. Twenty-four patients had paired
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