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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 631 matches for " EJ Essien "
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Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uyo, Nigeria
BC Unadike, NA Akpan, EJ Peters, IO Essien, OE Essien
African Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism , 2009,
Abstract: Background: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that is responsible for most of the excess cardiovascular morbidity amongst persons with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The metabolic syndrome increases the risk for coronary heart disease and stroke by three-fold with a marked increase in cardiovascular mortality. Objectives: This study set out to find the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and the commonest metabolic abnormalities in them in Uyo, South-South Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cross sectional study carried out at the diabetes clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, between January and August, 2008. Data obtained included anthropometric indices, blood pressure and fasting serum lipids. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 10. Results: Two hundred and forty subjects (106 males, 134 females) were enrolled for the study. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 62.5%. . Majority of the subjects with metabolic syndrome were aged between 41-70 years with a mean age of. 53±7years. Hypertension was the most common metabolic abnormality present in 130 (86.6%) of the subjects with metabolic syndrome, while low high density lipoprotein (HDL) was the least common abnormality present in 26 (17.3%) of the subjects with metabolic syndrome. Two metabolic abnormalities were present in 114 (76%) of the subjects, while four abnormalities were present in 4 (2.6%) of the subjects with metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 DM patients in Uyo, South-South of Nigeria is high. With the cardiovascular risk associated with this syndrome, efforts must be geared towards addressing these abnormalities through lifestyle modification, health awareness and medications in order to reduce this complication in type 2 DM patients.
HIV/AIDS - Related Stigma and Discrimination in Nigeria: Review of Research Studies and future directions for Prevention Strategies
E Monjok, A Smesny, EJ Essien
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2009,
Abstract: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS remain a major public health crisis in Nigeria which harbors more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India. A significant challenge to the success of achieving universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010 is HIV-AIDS stigma and discrimination. Eight studies looking at some degree of measurement of stigma and discrimination in Nigeria were reviewed in an attempt to investigate the cultural context of stigma, health seeking behavior and the role both perceived and community stigma play in HIV prevention. Results suggest that reducing stigma does increase the individual as well as community acceptance of people living with HIV-AIDS (PLWHAs), but long term studies are needed. Some suggestions are recommended for future research on culture specific stigma studies in Nigeria (Afr J Reprod Health 2009; 13[3]:21-35).
Epidemiologic and behavioral characterization of knowledge of condom use and modeling among military personnel
L Holmes, G Ogungbade, DD Ward, MW Ross, E Ekong, EJ Essien
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2008,
Abstract: How accurately condoms are being used vary across populations and knowledge of the factors determining its proper use remains unclear. Knowledge of such differentials and determinants would aid in evaluating the contributions of condom use to HIV epidemic reduction. Baseline data from the Situationally Focused Individual HIV/AIDS intervention to promote HIV protective behavior among 2,213 Nigerian Military Personnel were analyzed. Educational status as a predictor variable was assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression model. Compared to those with less than high school education, those with high school and some college education were two times more likely to demonstrate knowledge of condom use and modeling, prevalence odds ratio (POR), 2.32, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.60-3.37. After adjustment for the relevant covariates, higher education attainment was associated with nonsignificant 62% increase in knowledge and modeling, POR, 1.62, 95% CI=0.78-3.38. This study is indicative of low knowledge of condom use and modeling among the Nigerian military personnel; as well as a direct correlation between education attainment and knowledge of condom use and modeling.
Elevation in D-dimer concentrations is positively correlated with gestation in normal uncomplicated pregnancy
Jeremiah ZA, Adias TC, Opiah M, George SP, Mgbere O, Essien EJ
International Journal of Women's Health , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S32655
Abstract: tion in D-dimer concentrations is positively correlated with gestation in normal uncomplicated pregnancy Original Research (1827) Total Article Views Authors: Jeremiah ZA, Adias TC, Opiah M, George SP, Mgbere O, Essien EJ Published Date August 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 437 - 443 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S32655 Received: 05 April 2012 Accepted: 10 May 2012 Published: 31 August 2012 Zaccheaus A Jeremiah,1 Teddy C Adias,2 Margaret Opiah,3 Siyeoforiye P George,4 Osaro Mgbere,5 Ekere J Essien6 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; 2Bayelsa State College of Health Technology, Ogbia-Town, Nigeria; 3Department of Maternal and Child Health, Faculty of Nursing, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; 4Postgraduate Hematology Unit, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 5Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Houston, TX, USA; 6Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Background: D-dimer levels have been reported to increase progressively during pregnancy, but how this affects Nigerian women is not well known. Objective: This study aims to determine the D-dimer concentration and its relationship to other coagulation parameters among pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Method: In a cross-sectional observational study conducted in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 120 pregnant women and 60 nonpregnant controls, drawn from a tertiary health institution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were assessed, using the standard procedures, for the following parameters: D-dimer concentration, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results: The median D-dimer concentration of 153.1 ng/mL in the pregnant group was found to be significantly elevated when compared with the control value of 118.5 ng/mL (t = 2.348, P = 0.021). Conversely, there was a marked depression in the platelet count among pregnant women (193.5 × 109/L) when compared with 229.0 × 109/L in the control group (t = 3.424; P = 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the values for the prothrombin time and the activated partial thromboplastin time between pregnant and nonpregnant women. D-dimer values correlated positively and significantly with gestation (r = 0.36; P < 0.01) and negatively with international normalized ratio values (r = –0.281; P < 0.05). About 63.3% of the pregnant women had normal D-dimer values (0–200 ng/mL), 26.7% of the pregnant women had elevated D-dimer levels (201–499 ng/mL), while 10.0% of the pregnant women were found to be at risk of thrombosis (D-dimer > 500 ng/mL). A linear relationship was found to exist between D-dimer and gestation (y = 8.355x + 36.55; R2 = 0.130; P < 0.005). Conclusion: 10% of the pregnant women in this population had elevated D-dimer levels over 500 ng/mL, and through comparison with what has been reported in the literatu
Impact of short-term antiretroviral therapy (START) on some fibrinolytic markers in HIV-infected Nigerian adults: preliminary findings from the START study
Jeremiah ZA, Obazee Y, Okogun GR, Adias TC, Mgbere O, Essien EJ
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S29027
Abstract: ct of short-term antiretroviral therapy (START) on some fibrinolytic markers in HIV-infected Nigerian adults: preliminary findings from the START study Original Research (1808) Total Article Views Authors: Jeremiah ZA, Obazee Y, Okogun GR, Adias TC, Mgbere O, Essien EJ Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 87 - 94 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S29027 Received: 09 December 2011 Accepted: 06 January 2012 Published: 10 July 2012 Zaccheaus A Jeremiah1, Yetunde Obazee2, Godwin R Okogun3, Teddy C Adias4, Osaro Mgbere5,6, Ekere J Essien6 1Hematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, 2General Hospital, Maitama District, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria; 4College of Health Technology, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 5Houston Department of Health and Human Services, 6Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA Background: Derangement in fibrinolytic markers can result in thrombosis and cardiovascular problems. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been reported to affect the levels of these markers. It is unclear how long a patient can be exposed to ART before the effect of the drugs on the fibrinolytic markers becomes noticeable; this short-term antiretroviral therapy (START) study aimed to answer this question. Methods: Twenty human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive subjects on ART and 20 controls (non-ART) were progressively monitored for three months. CD4 T-cell count was determined while D-dimer, t-PA, and PAI-1 parameters were determined. Results: CD4 T-cell count increased from 192 μL/mL at baseline to 323 μL/mL at month 3 among patients on ART. D-dimer concentrations decreased from 301.0 μL/mL at baseline to 172.0 μL/mL at month 2, then increased to 226.0 μL/mL at the end of the third month. The median baseline concentration of PAI-1 at the beginning of therapy was 14.0 μg/mL, which increased progressively to 18.2 μg/mL at the end of the third month. The baseline concentration of t-PA at the beginning of therapy was 5.15 μg/mL. This progressively declined to 1.10 μg/mL at the end of the first month and reached 1.45 μg/mL and 1.5 μg/mL at the end of the second and third months, respectively. D-dimer was positively and significantly correlated with CD4 cell counts in both AIDs-associated retrovirus (ARV) and non-ARV patients (r = –0.304, P < 0.01 vs r = –0.477, P < 0.001). t-PA was negatively correlated with CD4 T-lymphocytes in those undergoing ART (r = –0.294, P < 0.01). Conclusion: A progressive increase in PAI-1 and steady decline in t-PA concentrations within 3 months of commencement of ART could predispose patients to thrombotic disorders earlier than is expected. Pre-thrombotic assessment during therapy is therefore advocated.
Dealing With A Controllable Risk Factor Like Diet In The Management Of Cardiovascular Disease
A Essien
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2008,
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a silent killer in Nigeria and many parts of the world. Certain factors increase the risk of CVD. While there are controllable factors that contribute and predispose to the development of CVD like diet, exercise, tobacco use, high blood pressure and obesity, there are uncontrollable factors like age, sex and heredity, which are out of the control of the individual. Freedom from CVD is an intricate interaction of many factors. Diet is one strong means of staying free of CVD. This paper posits that rather than calling for a complete boycott of red meat and poultry eggs, thereby throwing those involved in this line of business out of work, professionals involved in animal production, can resort to genetic, dietary, non-dietary, and pharmacological means of controlling cholesterol in meat and eggs. Even though CVD is more common among the aged, artherogenesis (the beginning of artery plaque formation) starts in early childhood. Education is a very important factor in our search for freedom from CVD. Medical personnel, human nutritionists, veterinarians and animal scientists should form a strong synergy in the fight against this scourge.
Effect Of Varying Rates Of Organic Amendments On Porosity And Infiltration Rate Of Sandy Loam Soil
OE Essien
Journal of Agriculture and Environment , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/aej.v12i0.7563
Abstract: Infiltration rate and porosity of sandy loam soil amended separately with goatyard manure (GYM) and poultry waste at 30, 50 and 70 tonnes/hectare each were investigated and the results were statistically analyzed using SPSS ver 17 package. Infiltration rates under GYM amendment and poultry waste amendment showed significant difference (p?0.01), indicating that the variation of infiltration under GYM amendment was superior to the use of poultry waste. Infiltration rates under poultry waste amendment and those of the control soil correlated perfectly (r= 0.99, p?0 .01). The application of 70t/ha of GYM indicated no superior short-term effect on soil’s infiltration rate than its lower amendment rates. The constant infiltration rate of amended soil under 30T/ha of GYM was reduced to 1.60cm/min below the 2.28cm/min for its GYM counterpart and 1.69cm/min for the control soil; and is recommended for optimum irrigation water conservation in sandy loam soil. The change in porosity was less under GYM amendment than under poultry waste amendment.
Computational Studies of Bacterial Colony Model  [PDF]
Ond?ej Pártl
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2013.32023

Microbiological experiments show that the colonies of the bacterium bacillus subtilis placed on a dish filled with an agar medium and nutrient form varied spatial patterns while the individual cells grow, reproduce and migrate on the dish in clumps. In this paper, we discuss a system of reaction-diffusion equations that can be used with a view to modelling this phenomenon and we solve it numerically by means of the method of lines. For the spatial discretization, we use the finite difference method and Galerkin finite element method. We present how the spatial patterns obtained depend on the spatial discretization employed and we measure the experimental order of convergence of the numerical schemes used. Further, we present the numerical results obtained by solving the model in a cubic domain.

Levels of toxic metal in Achatina achatina from parts of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Essien D Udosen,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2000,
Abstract: IntroductionSnailsaretypicalunivalvesthatbelongtothephylummollusca.Theyareeitheraquaticorterrestrialandthecommonterrestrialsp?..
Variations in oxygen and some related pollution parameters in some streams in ITU Area of Nigeria
Essien D Udosen,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2000,
Abstract: The analyses of water from four tributaries of Ikpa River: Afaha Nsai Stream (ANS), Ikot Ekpuk Stream (IES), Afaha Itam Stream(AIS) and Nduetong Stream (NDS) in International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Local Government Area of Akawa Ibom State in Nigeria were carried out using standard analytical procedures. The parameters investigated were temperature(Temp.), hydrogen ion concentration(pH), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Correlation analysis carried out between pairs of variables showed that only the correlation coefficients between TDS and DO in ANS( p <0.05); Temp. and TDS in IES ( p <0.05) and between Temp. and TDS in AIS ( p <0.01) were significant. None of the pairs of the variables in NDS showed any significant correlation. The coefficients of variation for the parameters were also computed and used in determining their stability in the water. The possible effects of these variables on each other and on the aquatic ecosystem were discussed.
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