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Search Results: 1 - 8 of 8 matches for " EFO Enato "
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Plasmodium falciparum malaria and antimalarial interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and opportunities
EFO Enato, AO Okhamafe
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2004,
Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases affecting sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of interventions. It exerts tremendous socio-economic and medical burden on the continent, particularly in under five children and pregnant women. In this review, we have attempted to highlight the problems, constraints and the opportunities that are available for effective prevention and control within the region.
Profile of Antimicrobial Drug Use Patterns in a Nigerian Metropolitan City
EFO Enato, CF Uwaga
International Journal of Health Research , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate self-medication practices and prescribing patterns of antimicrobial agents. Methods: The study was carried out in Port Harcourt, Nigeria in 6 hospitals/clinics, 4 community pharmacies and the campus of University of Port Harcourt. 1,200 case files or charts of outpatients treated at the selected hospitals/clinics were reviewed for relevant information. Thereafter, independent physician assessors evaluated the “appropriateness” of antimicrobial prescribing. The antibiotic self-medication practices were assessed at the university campus and selected community pharmacies. Results: Metronidazole, ampicillin/cloxacillin (19%), amoxicillin (16%) and co-trimoxazole (12%) were the most frequently prescribed antimicrobials. Malaria (21%), followed by upper respiratory tract infection (19%), were the most frequent medical conditions in which antimicrobials were used. Over onehalf (56%) of the antimicrobial prescriptions were considered “appropriate” by the physician assesors; 23% of the cases “inappropriate”, while in 17% and 4% of cases, there were disagreement and query, respectively. There was a significant difference in the patterns of antimicrobial prescribing by physicians at both public and private hospitals, (χ2 = 16.808, df = 3, P< 0.01). Cough (20%), stomach upset (20%) and boils (20%) were the most frequent conditions in which the respondents self-medicated with antimicrobials. Ampicillin (23%), co-trimoxazole (17%) and tetracycline (16%) were the frequently used antimicrobial agents. Conclusion: Antimicrobial drug use was common. Sometimes, the agents were inappropriately used by the public and private health facilities as well as members of the public through self-medication.
Patients’ Assessment of Pharmacists’ Medication Counseling in a Psychiatric Hospital in Nigeria
I Offor, EFO Enato
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: To assess the impact of an educational intervention on pharmacists’ medication counselling practice, and evaluate the reliability of an instrument to assess medication counselling in a psychiatric setting. Methods: The study was undertaken on a sample of 297 psychiatric patients. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were conducted immediately after the patients had been attended to at the hospital’s outpatient pharmacy, using a self-administered questionnaire, comprising 4 components. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was computed using Cronbach’s alpha. Differences between means or proportions of variables were evaluated using Student’s t-test or Chi-square test, as appropriate. Results: The study achieved a response rate of 89 and 92 % for pre– and post–intervention surveys, respectively. Cronbach’s alpha reliability of the instrument was found to be 0.74. The mean values for the different components evaluated during the pre- and post–intervention surveys were: Needs assessment, 1.89± 0.76 and 2.58 ± 0.61; Precaution and warning, 1.50 ± 0.67 and 2.15 ± 0.63; Managing therapy, 1.87 ± 0.89 and 2.46 ± 0.78, and Communication, 2.23 ± 0.77 and 2.69 ± 0.62, respectively. The post–intervention results were significantly higher in all the components (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The educational intervention provided for pharmacists resulted in an improvement in patient counselling. The survey instrument achieved a fairly satisfactory reliability result in a psychiatric setting. Efforts to sustain this intervention are recommended.
A study of the pharmaceutical quality of chloroquine and paracetamol products sold in a major Nigerian “market”
J Ofonaike, EFO Enato, AO Okhamafe
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Malaria is a major public health problem in endemic countries, and the quality of antimalarial products is a concern in the therapeutic management of individual patient. In this study, we have evaluated the pharmaceutical quality of chloroquine and paracetamol oral products obtained from a major Nigerian drug “market” using a less elaborate sampling procedure. Results have shown that there are still some defects in the pharmaceutical quality of these drugs, despite the activities of the Nigeria\'s drug regulatory agency (National agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, NAFDAC). 21% (7/34) of the drug products were not registered by NAFDAC. The pharmaceutical properties of the products indicated that 6, 15, 9, and 9% of them failed tests for disintegration, dissolution, crushing strength, and percentage of active content, respectively. 4 out of the 6 chloroquine liquid preparations evaluated had inadequate active content. These defects could have resulted from deliberate counterfeiting, poor quality control during manufacture or decomposition of the products. However, this could not be ascertained from the data available to us in this study. The implication of these findings, however, is that the newer anti-malarial drugs that have recently been introduced into the Nigerian market should be safeguarded, if their therapeutic usefulness must be sustained. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 14 (3-4) 2007: pp. 164-170
Assessment of prescription profile of pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics.
Eze UI,Eferakeya AE,Oparah AC,Enato EF
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2007,
Abstract: Managing medical complications in pregnancy is a challenge to clinicians. Objectives: This study profiled some disease and prescription patterns for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Nigeria. A risk classification of the medicines was also determined. Methods: Medical case files of 1,200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 3 health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria were investigated. Disease pattern was determined from their diagnoses. The prescription pattern was assessed using WHO indicators, and the United States Food and Drug Administration classification of medicines according to risk to the foetus. Results: A total of 1,897 prescriptions of the 1,200 pregnant women attendees during the period under review were evaluated. Results indicated that malaria 554 (38%) was the most prevalent disease, followed by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs, 13%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (GIT, 12%). The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was found to be 3.0, and 2,434 (43%) of medicines were prescribed by generic name. Minerals/ Vitamins 2,396 (42%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines, and antibiotics occurred in 502 (8.8%) of the total medicines. Of all medicines prescribed, 984 (17%) were included in the foetal risk category C and 286 (5%) in category D. Conclusion: The study concluded that malaria fever occurred most frequently followed by URTIs and GIT disturbances among the pregnant women. Minerals, vitamins and to a less extent anti-malarials topped the list of the prescribed medicines. The average number of medicines per encounter was much higher than WHO standards. The occurrence of contraindicated medicines was low.
Assessment of disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns of health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria
Ehijie F.O. Enato,Adebukola A. Sounyo,Parvaz Madadi
Journal of Public Health in Africa , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2012.e25
Abstract: Few studies have systematically characterized drug-prescribing patterns, particularly at the primary care level in Nigeria, a country disproportionately burdened with disease. The aim of this study was to assess the disease profiles and drug-prescribing pattern in two health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. The medical records of 495 patients who attended a primary or secondary health care facility in Owan-East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between June and November 2009 were reviewed. Disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns were assessed. Data were analyzed based on the World Health Organization Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and core drug prescribing indicators. Five hundred and twelve clinical conditions were identified. Infectious disease was most prevalent (38.3%), followed by disorder of the alimentary tract (16.4%). Malaria was responsible for 55.6% of the infectious diseases seen, and 21.3% (109/512) of the total clinical conditions managed at the two health facilities during the study period. Consequently, anti-infective medications were the most frequently prescribed medicines (21.5%), followed by vitamins (18.2%). Use of artesunate monotherapy at both facilities (15.7%), and chloroquine at the primary health facility (24.9%) were common. Paracetamol (41.8%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (24.9%) were the most frequently used analgesic/antipyretic. At the primary health care facility, dipyrone was used in 21.6% of cases. The core drug prescribing use indicators showed inappropriate prescribing, indicating poly-pharmacy, overuse of antibiotics and injectio. Inappropriate drug use patterns were identified at both health care facilities, especially with regard to the use of ineffective antimalarial drugs and the use of dipyrone.
Peer education: The effects on knowledge of pregnancy related malaria and preventive practices in women of reproductive age in Edo State, Nigeria
Petra F Mens, Pauline FD Scheelbeek, Hind Al Atabbi, Ehijie FO Enato
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-610
Abstract: 1105 women of child bearing age were interviewed in their households using a structured questionnaire about their knowledge of malaria in general, MIP and use of preventive measures. Thereafter, a peer education campaign was launched to raise the level of knowledge in the community. The interviews were repeated after the campaign and the responses between the pre- and post-intervention were compared.In the pre-assessment women on average answered 64.8% of the question on malaria and its possibility to prevent malaria correctly. The peer education campaign had a significant impact in raising the level of knowledge among the women; after the campaign the respondents answered on average 73.8% of the questions correctly. Stratified analysis on pre and post assessment scores for malaria in general (68.8 & 72.9%) and MIP (61.7 & 76.3%) showed also significant increase. Uptake of bed nets was reported to be low: 11.6%Peer education led to a significant increase in knowledge of malaria and its prevention but we could not asses its influence on the use of preventive measures.Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy poses a substantial risk to mother and foetus; it leads to an estimated 10,000 maternal anaemia-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa annually [1]. Furthermore, malaria during pregnancy leads to an increased risk of low birth weight (LBW) in neonates and is responsible for up to 35% of preventable LBW neonates in malaria-endemic areas [2].In recent years, convincing evidence has shown that preventive methods such as the use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-sp) can greatly reduce the adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy [3,4], and since 1998 this measures has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).IPTp and ITNs are key components of the National Malaria Control Program of the Nigerian Ministry of Health, and these strategies are expected to re
Assessment of prescription profile of pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics
Eze,Uchenna I.; Eferakeya,Adego E.; Oparah,Azuka C.; Enato,Ehijie F.;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2007, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552007000300007
Abstract: managing medical complications in pregnancy is a challenge to clinicians. objectives: this study profiled some disease and prescription patterns for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ancs) in nigeria. a risk classification of the medicines was also determined. methods: medical case files of 1,200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 3 health facilities in benin city, nigeria were investigated. disease pattern was determined from their diagnoses. the prescription pattern was assessed using who indicators, and the united states food and drug administration classification of medicines according to risk to the foetus. results: a total of 1,897 prescriptions of the 1,200 pregnant women attendees during the period under review were evaluated. results indicated that malaria 554 (38%) was the most prevalent disease, followed by upper respiratory tract infections (urtis, 13%) and gastrointestinal disturbances (git, 12%). the average number of drugs prescribed per encounter was found to be 3.0, and 2,434 (43%) of medicines were prescribed by generic name. minerals/ vitamins 2,396 (42%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines, and antibiotics occurred in 502 (8.8%) of the total medicines. of all medicines prescribed, 984 (17%) were included in the foetal risk category c and 286 (5%) in category d. conclusion: the study concluded that malaria fever occurred most frequently followed by urtis and git disturbances among the pregnant women. minerals, vitamins and to a less extent anti-malarials topped the list of the prescribed medicines. the average number of medicines per encounter was much higher than who standards. the occurrence of contraindicated medicines was low.
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