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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167719 matches for " E. Vignati "
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Using measurements for evaluation of black carbon modeling
S. Gilardoni, E. Vignati,J. Wilson
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: The ever increasing use of air quality and climate model assessments to underpin economic, public health, and environmental policy decisions makes effective model evaluation critical. This paper discusses the properties of black carbon and light attenuation and absorption observations that are the key to a reliable evaluation of black carbon model and compares parametric and nonparametric statistical tools for the quantification of the agreement between models and observations. Black carbon concentrations are simulated with TM5/M7 global model from July 2002 to June 2003 at four remote sites (Alert, Jungfraujoch, Mace Head, and Trinidad Head) and two regional background sites (Bondville and Ispra). Equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations are calculated using light attenuation measurements from January 2000 to December 2005. Seasonal trends in the measurements are determined by fitting sinusoidal functions and the representativeness of the period simulated by the model is verified based on the scatter of the experimental values relative to the fit curves. When the resolution of the model grid is larger than 1° × 1°, it is recommended to verify that the measurement site is representative of the grid cell. For this purpose, equivalent black carbon measurements at Alert, Bondville and Trinidad Head are compared to light absorption and elemental carbon measurements performed at different sites inside the same model grid cells. Comparison of these equivalent black carbon and elemental carbon measurements indicates that uncertainties in black carbon optical properties can compromise the comparison between model and observations. During model evaluation it is important to examine the extent to which a model is able to simulate the variability in the observations over different integration periods as this will help to identify the most appropriate timescales. The agreement between model and observation is accurately described by the overlap of probability distribution (PD) curves. Simple monthly median comparisons, the Student's t-test, and the Mann-Whitney test are discussed as alternative statistical tools to evaluate the model performance. The agreement measured by the Student's t-test, when applied to the logarithm of EBC concentrations, overestimates the higher PD agreements and underestimates the lower PD agreements; the Mann-Whitney test can be employed to evaluate model performance on a relative scale when the shape of model and experimental distributions are similar.
Using measurements for evaluation of black carbon modeling
S. Gilardoni,E. Vignati,J. Wilson
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-10-11315-2010
Abstract: The ever increasing use of air quality and climate model assessments to underpin economic, public health, and environmental policy decisions makes effective model evaluation critical. This paper discusses the properties of black carbon and light attenuation and absorption observations that are the key to a reliable evaluation of black carbon model and compares parametric and nonparametric statistical tools for the quantification of the agreement between models and observations. Black carbon concentrations are simulated with TM5/M7 global model from July 2002 to June 2003 at four remote sites (Alert, Jungfraujoch, Mace Head, and Trinidad Head) and two regional background sites (Bondville and Ispra). Equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations are calculated using light attenuation measurements from January 2000 to December 2005. Seasonal trends in the measurements are determined by fitting sinusoidal functions and the representativeness of the period simulated by the model is verified based on the scatter of the experimental values relative to the fit curves. When the resolution of the model grid is larger than 1°×1°, it is recommended to verify that the measurement site is representative of the grid cell. For this purpose, equivalent black carbon measurements at Alert, Bondville and Trinidad Head are compared to light absorption and elemental carbon measurements performed at different sites inside the same model grid cells. Comparison of these equivalent black carbon and elemental carbon measurements indicates that uncertainties in black carbon optical properties can compromise the comparison between model and observations. During model evaluation it is important to examine the extent to which a model is able to simulate the variability in the observations over different integration periods as this will help to identify the most appropriate timescales. The agreement between model and observation is accurately described by the overlap of probability distribution (PD) curves. Simple monthly median comparisons, the Student's t-test, and the Mann-Whitney test are discussed as alternative statistical tools to evaluate the model performance. The agreement measured by the Student's t-test, when applied to the logarithm of EBC concentrations, overestimates the higher PD agreements and underestimates the lower PD agreements; the Mann-Whitney test can be employed to evaluate model performance on a relative scale when the shape of model and experimental distributions are similar.
Aerosol distribution over Europe: a model evaluation study with detailed aerosol microphysics
B. Langmann,S. Varghese,E. Marmer,E. Vignati
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: This paper summarizes an evaluation of model simulations with a regional scale atmospheric climate-chemistry/aerosol model called REMOTE, which has been extended by a microphysical aerosol module. Model results over Europe are presented and compared with available measurements in surface air focusing on the European distribution and variability of primary and secondary aerosols. Additionally, model results obtained with detailed aerosol microphysics are compared to those based on an aerosol bulk mass approach revealing the impact of dry deposition fluxes on atmospheric burden concentration. An improved determination of elevated ozone and sulfate concentrations could be achieved by considering a diurnal cycle in the anthropogenic emission fluxes. Deviation between modelled and measured organic carbon concentrations can be mainly explained by missing formation of secondary organic aerosols and deficiencies in emission data. Changing residential heating practices in Europe, where the use of wood is no longer restricted to rural areas, need to be considered in emission inventories as well as vegetation fire emissions which present a dominant source of organic carbon.
Formation of secondary organic aerosol from isoprene oxidation over Europe
M. Karl, K. Tsigaridis, E. Vignati,F. Dentener
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: The role of isoprene as a precursor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) over Europe is studied with the two-way nested global chemistry transport model TM5. The inclusion of the formation of SOA from isoprene oxidation in our model almost doubles the atmospheric burden of SOA over Europe compared to SOA formation from terpenes and aromatics. The reference simulation, which considers SOA formation from isoprene, terpenes and aromatics, predicts a yearly European production rate of 1.0 Tg SOA yr 1 and an annual averaged atmospheric burden of about 50 Gg SOA over Europe. A fraction of 35% of the SOA produced in the boundary layer over Europe is transported to higher altitudes or to other world regions. Summertime measurements of organic matter (OM) during the extensive EMEP OC/EC campaign 2002/2003 are better reproduced when SOA formation from isoprene is taken into account, reflecting also the strong seasonality of isoprene and other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emissions from vegetation. However, during winter, our model strongly underestimates OM, likely caused by missing wood burning in the emission inventories. Uncertainties in the parameterisation of isoprene SOA formation have been investigated. Maximum SOA production is found for irreversible sticking (non-equilibrium partitioning) of condensable vapours on particles, with tropospheric SOA production over Europe increased by a factor of 4 in summer compared to the reference case. Completely neglecting SOA formation from isoprene results in the lowest estimate (0.51 Tg SOA yr 1). The amount and the nature of the absorbing matter are shown to be another key uncertainty when predicting SOA levels. Consequently, smog chamber experiments on SOA formation should be performed with different types of seed aerosols and without seed aerosols in order to derive an improved treatment of the absorption of SOA in the models. Consideration of a number of recent insights in isoprene SOA formation mechanisms reduces the tropospheric production of isoprene derived SOA over Europe from 0.4 Tg yr 1 in our reference simulation to 0.1 Tg yr 1.
Formation of secondary organic aerosol from isoprene oxidation over Europe
M. Karl,K. Tsigaridis,E. Vignati,F. Dentener
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: The role of isoprene as a precursor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) over Europe is studied with the two-way nested global chemistry transport model TM5. The inclusion of the formation of SOA from isoprene oxidation in our model almost doubles the atmospheric burden of SOA over Europe compared to SOA formation from terpenes and aromatics. The reference simulation, which considers SOA formation from isoprene, terpenes and aromatics, predicts a yearly European production rate of 1.0 Tg SOA yr 1 and an annual averaged atmospheric burden of about 50 Gg SOA over Europe. A fraction of 35% of the SOA produced in the boundary layer over Europe is transported to higher altitudes or to other world regions. Summertime measurements of particulate organic matter (POM) during the extensive EMEP OC/EC campaign 2002/2003 are better reproduced when SOA formation from isoprene is taken into account, reflecting also the strong seasonality of isoprene and other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emissions from vegetation. However, during winter, our model strongly underestimates POM, likely caused by missing wood burning in the emission inventories. Uncertainties in the parameterisation of isoprene SOA formation have been investigated. Maximum SOA production is found for irreversible sticking (non-equilibrium partitioning) of condensable vapours on particles, with tropospheric SOA production over Europe increased by a factor of 4 in summer compared to the reference case. Completely neglecting SOA formation from isoprene results in the lowest estimate (0.51 Tg SOA yr 1). The amount and the nature of the absorbing matter are shown to be another key uncertainty when predicting SOA levels. Tropospheric isoprene SOA production over Europe in summer more than doubles when, in addition to pre-existing carbonaceous aerosols, condensation of semi volatile vapours on ammonium and sulphate aerosols is considered. Consequently, smog chamber experiments on SOA formation should be performed with different types of seed aerosols and without seed aerosols in order to derive an improved treatment of the absorption of SOA in the models. Consideration of a number of recent insights in isoprene SOA formation mechanisms reduces the tropospheric production of isoprene derived SOA over Europe from 0.4 Tg yr 1 in our reference simulation to 0.1 Tg yr 1.
Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM
G. J. Roelofs,P. Stier,J. Feichter,E. Vignati
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.
Sources of uncertainties in modelling Black Carbon at the global scale
E. Vignati,M. Karl,M. Krol,J. Wilson
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Our understanding of the global black carbon cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of the properties of black carbon. This work investigates uncertainties related to modelling black carbon: due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of observed black carbon, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the measurements used for the model evaluation. The schemes for the atmospheric processing of black carbon that have been tested with the model are (i) a simple approach considering black carbon as bulk aerosol and a simple treatment in the removal and (ii) a more complete description of microphysical aging within an aerosol dynamics model, where removal is coupled to the microphysical properties of the aerosol. In the first approach a fixed 70% of black carbon is scavenged in clouds and removed when rain is present. The second leads to a global average of 40% black carbon that is scavenged in clouds and subsequently removed by rain, thus resulting in a longer lifetime. This difference is reflected in comparisons between both sets of modelled results and the measurements. Close to the sources, both anthropogenic and vegetation fire source regions, the model results do not differ significantly, showing that the emissions are the prevailing mechanism determining the concentrations and the choice of the aerosol scheme does not influence the levels. In more remote areas such as oceanic and polar regions the differences can be orders of magnitude, due to the differences between the two schemes. The more complete description reproduces the seasonal trend of the black carbon observations in those areas, although not always the magnitude of the signal, while the more simplified approach underestimates black carbon concentrations by orders of magnitude. The sensitivity to wet scavenging has been tested varying in-cloud and below-cloud removals. BC lifetime increases by 10% when large scale and convective scale precipitation are reduced by 30%, while the variation is very small when below-cloud scavenging is zero. Since the emission inventories are representative of elemental carbon-like substance, the model output should be compared to elemental carbon measurements, and, if known, the ratio of black carbon to elemental carbon mass should be taken into account when the model is compared with black carbon observations.
Model of the response function of large mass bolometric detectors
M. Vignati
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1063/1.3498808
Abstract: Large mass bolometers are used in particle physics experiments to search for rare processes. By operating at low temperature, they are able to detect particle energies from few keV up to several MeV, measuring the temperature rise produced by the energy released. This study was performed on the bolometers of the CUORE experiment. The response function of these detectors is not linear in the energy range of interest, and it changes with the operating temperature. The non-linearity is found to be dominated by the thermistor and its biasing circuit. A method to obtain a linear response is the result of this work. It allows a great simplification of the data analysis.
An algebra whose subalgebras are characterized by density
Alessandro Vignati
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We refine a construction of Choi, Farah and Ozawa to build a nonseparable amenable operator algebra $\mathcal A\subseteq\ell_\infty(M_2)$ whose nonseparable subalgebras, including $\mathcal A$, are not isomorphic to a $C^*$-algebra. This is done using a Luzin gap and a uniformly bounded group representation. Next, we study additional properties of $\mathcal A$ and of its separable subalgebras, related to the Kadison Kastler metric.
Sources of carbonaceous aerosol in the Amazon basin
S. Gilardoni, E. Vignati, E. Marmer, F. Cavalli, C. Belis, V. Gianelle, A. Loureiro,P. Artaxo
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: The quantification of sources of carbonaceous aerosol is important to understand their atmospheric concentrations and regulating processes and to study possible effects on climate and air quality, in addition to develop mitigation strategies. In the framework of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Interactions (EUCAARI) fine (Dp < 2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5 μm < Dp <10 μm) aerosol particles were sampled from February to June (wet season) and from August to September (dry season) 2008 in the central Amazon basin. The mass of fine particles averaged 2.4 μg m 3 during the wet season and 4.2 μg m 3 during the dry season. The average coarse aerosol mass concentration during wet and dry periods was 7.9 and 7.6 μg m 3, respectively. The overall chemical composition of fine and coarse mass did not show any seasonality with the largest fraction of fine and coarse aerosol mass explained by organic carbon (OC); the average OC to mass ratio was 0.4 and 0.6 in fine and coarse aerosol modes, respectively. The mass absorbing cross section of soot was determined by comparison of elemental carbon and light absorption coefficient measurements and it was equal to 4.7 m2 g 1 at 637 nm. Carbon aerosol sources were identified by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of thermograms: 44% of fine total carbon mass was assigned to biomass burning, 43% to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and 13% to volatile species that are difficult to apportion. In the coarse mode, primary biogenic aerosol particles (PBAP) dominated the carbonaceous aerosol mass. The results confirmed the importance of PBAP in forested areas. The source apportionment results were employed to evaluate the ability of global chemistry transport models to simulate carbonaceous aerosol sources in a regional tropical background site. The comparison showed an overestimation of elemental carbon (EC) by the TM5 model during the dry season and OC both during the dry and wet periods. The overestimation was likely due to the overestimation of biomass burning emission inventories and SOA production over tropical areas.
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