Abstract:
The PM10 mass concentration levels and inorganic chemical composition were determined on 12-h resolution sampling during August 2003 and March 2004, in the centre of Athens, Greece. The August 2003 campaign mean PM10 mass concentration, obtained by Beta Attenuation at 5 m above ground in Athinas Street, was 56 μg m 3 while the corresponding value for March 2004 was 92 μg m 3. In both campaigns the E.U. imposed daily limit of 50 μg m 3 was exceeded on several days. During the March campaign, in Athinas Street, additionally obtained DSFU-PM10 (PM10-2.5+PM2.5) gravimetric mass concentrations (mean: 121 μg m 3) in the "breathing zone", at 1.5 m above ground were significantly higher compared to the respective mean PM10 mass concentrations obtained by the same method at 25 m above ground, in a second site (AEDA; mean: 86 μg m 3) also in the centre of the city. The above findings suggest that, for a realistic estimation of the exposure of citizens to particulate matter, PM10 sampling in the "breathing zone" (1.5–3 m above ground) is necessary. Such data are presented for the first time for the centre of Athens. In both campaigns, calcium was found to be the predominant component of the coarse fraction while crust-related aluminosilicates and iron were the other major components. The above elements constitute the most important components of the fine fraction, together with the predominant sulphur. All toxic metals were found in concentrations below the established air quality limits, and most of them in lower concentrations compared to older studies. Lead in particular, appeared mostly in the fine fraction and in very low concentrations compared to studies dating more than a decade back. The predominant ions of the coarse fraction have been found to be Ca2+, NO3 , Na+ and Cl , while SO42 , Ca2+ and NH4+ were the major ionic components of the fine fraction. In the fine particles, a low molar ratio of NH4+/SO42 indicated an ammonium-poor ambient air, and together with inter-ionic correlations suggested that atmospheric ammonia is the major neutralizing agent of sulfate, while being insufficient to neutralize it to full extend. The formation of NH4NO3 is therefore not favored and additional contribution to the neutralization of acidity has been shown to be provided by Ca2+ and Mg2+. In the coarse particle fraction, the predominantly abundant Ca2+ has been found to correlate well with NO3 and SO42 , indicating its role as important neutralizing agent in this particle size range. The proximity of the location under study to the sea explains the important concentrations of salts with marine origin like NaCl and MgCl2 that were found in the coarse fraction, while chloride depletion in the gaseous phase was found to be limited to the fine particulate fraction. Total analyzed inorganic mass (elemental+ionic) was found to be ranging between approximately 25–33% of the total coarse particle mass and 35–42% of the total fine particle mass.

Abstract:
Mass concentration levels and the inorganic chemical composition of PM10 (two fractions; PM10 2.5 and PM2.5) were determined during August 2003 and March 2004, in the centre of Athens, Greece. August 2003 monthly mean PM10 mass concentration, at 5 m above ground, was 56 μg/m3 and the EU imposed daily limit of 50 μg/m3 was exceeded on 16 occasions. The corresponding monthly mean for March 2004 was 92 μg/m3 and the aforementioned daily limit was exceeded on 23 occasions. The PM10 (PM10 2.5+PM2.5) mass concentrations at 1.5 m above ground were found to be approximately 20% higher compared to the respective PM10 measured at 5 m. Consequently, for a realistic estimation of the exposure of citizens to particulate matter, PM10 sampling at a height of 1.5–3 m above ground, in the "breathing zone" is necessary. Such data are presented for the first time for the centre of Athens. In both campaigns, calcium was found to be the predominant component of the coarse fraction while crust-related aluminosilicates and iron were found to be the other major components of the same fraction. The above elements constitute the most important components of the fine fraction, together with the predominant sulphur. Toxic metals were found to be below the air quality limits and in lower concentrations compared to older studies, with the exception of Cu and V for which some increase was observed. Pb, in particular, appeared mostly in the fine fraction and in very low concentrations compared to studies dating more than a decade back. The major ions of the coarse fraction have been found to be Ca2+, NO3 and Cl , while SO4 2, Ca2+ and NH4+ were the major ionic components of the fine fraction. The low molar ratio of NH4+/SO4 2 indicated an ammonium-poor ambient air, where atmospheric ammonia is not sufficient to neutralize all acidity and the formation of NH4NO3 does not occur to a significant extend. Calcium predominated the coarse fraction and its good correlations with NO3 and SO4 2 indicated its role as an important neutralizing agent of atmospheric acidity in this particle size range. In the fine fraction, both Ca2+ and NH4+ participate in the neutralizing processes with NH4+ being the major neutralizing agent of SO4 2. Chloride depletion from NaCl or MgCl2 was not found to occur to a significant extend. Total analyzed inorganic mass (elemental+ionic) was found to be ranging between approximately 25–33% of the total coarse particle mass and 35–42% of the total fine particle mass.

Abstract:
A novel procedure has been developed to retrieve, simultaneously, the optical, microphysical and chemical properties of tropospheric aerosols with a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system in the troposphere over an urban site (Athens, Greece: 37.9° N, 23.6° E, 200 m a.s.l.) using data obtained during the European Space Agency (ESA) THERMOPOLIS project, which took place between 15–31 July 2009 over the Greater Athens Area (GAA). We selected to apply our procedure for a case study of intense aerosol layers that occurred on 20–21 July 2009. The National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) EOLE 6-wavelength Raman lidar system has been used to provide the vertical profiles of the optical properties of aerosols (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio) and the water vapor mixing ratio. An inversion algorithm was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean effective radius (reff), single-scattering albedo ω) and mean complex refractive index (m)) at selected heights in the 2–3 km height region. We found that reff was 0.14–0.4 (±0.14) μm, ω was 0.63–0.88 (±0.08) (at 532 nm) and m ranged from 1.44 (±0.10) + 0.01 (±0.01)i to 1.55 (±0.12) + 0.06 (±0.02)i, in good agreement (only for the reff values) with in situ aircraft measurements. The water vapor and temperature profiles were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to propose a possible in situ aerosol composition consistent with the retrieved m and ω values. The retrieved aerosol chemical composition in the 2–3 km height region gave a variable range of sulfate (0–60%) and organic carbon (OC) content (0–50%), although the OC content increased (up to 50%) and the sulfate content dropped (up to 30%) around 3 km height; the retrieved low ω value (0.63), indicates the presence of absorbing biomass burning smoke mixed with urban haze. Finally, the retrieved aerosol microphysical properties were compared with column-integrated sun photometer CIMEL data.

Abstract:
We study sparse hypergraphs which satisfy a mild pseudorandomness condition known as $L_p$ regularity. We prove appropriate regularity and counting lemmas, and we extend the relative removal lemma of Tao in this setting. This answers a question of Borgs, Chayes, Cohn and Zhao.

Abstract:
We consider some variants of the Gowers box norms, introduced by Hatami, and show their relevance in the context of sparse hypergraphs. Our main results are the following. Firstly, we prove a counting lemma which applies to $L_p$ graphons for any $p>1$. Secondly, we give natural examples of pseudorandom families, that is, sparse weighted uniform hypergraphs which satisfy relative versions of the counting and removal lemmas.

Abstract:
We prove a variant of the abstract probabilistic version of Szemer\'edi's regularity lemma, due to Tao, which applies to a number of structures (including graphs, hypergraphs, hypercubes, graphons, and many more) and works for random variables in $L_p$ for any $p>1$. Our approach is based on martingale difference sequences.

Abstract:
A technique for discretizing efficiently the solution of a Linear descriptor (regular) differential input system with consistent initial conditions, and Time-Invariant coefficients (LTI) is introduced and fully discussed. Additionally, an upper bound for the error that derives from the procedure of discretization is also provided. Practically speaking, we are interested in such kind of systems, since they are inherent in many physical, economical and engineering phenomena. 1. Introduction: Preliminary Results During the discretization (or sampling) process, we should replace the original continuous-time systems with finite sequences of values at specified discrete-time points. This important process is commonly used whenever the differential systems involve digital inputs, and by having numerical data, the sampling operation and the quantization are necessary. Additionally, the discretization (or sampling) process is occurred whenever significant measurements for the system are obtained in an intermittent fashion. For instance, we can consider a radar tracking system, where there is information about the azimuth and the elevation, which is obtained as the antenna of the radar rotates. Consequently, the scanning operation of the radar produces many important sampled data. In our approach, we consider the LTI descriptor (or generalized) differential input systems of type where matrices (i.e., is the algebra of square matrices with elements in the field ) and are constants; the state has consistent initial conditions. We shall call ？？a consistent initial condition for (1.1) at if there is a solution for (1.1), which is defined on some interval , such that , the input , and the are related to the matrix pencil theory, since its algebraic, geometric, and dynamic properties stem from the structure of the associated pencil, that is, . Moreover, for the sake of simplicity, we set in the sequel and . Now, in what it follows, the pencil is regular, that is, . Practically speaking, descriptor (or generalized) regular (or singular) differential systems constitute a more general class than linear state space systems do. Considering applications, these kinds of systems appear in the modelling procedure of many physical, engineering, mechanical, actuarial, and financial problems. For instance, in engineering, in electrical networks, and in constrained mechanics, the reader may consult [1–6], and so forth. In Economics, the famous Leontief input-output singular dynamic model is well known; see for instance some of the numerous references [2, 3, 7–12], and so forth. In

Abstract:
In many applications, and generally speaking in many dynamical differential systems, the problem of transferring the initial state of the system to a desired state in (almost) zero-time time is desirable but difficult to achieve. Theoretically, this can be achieved by using a linear combination of Dirac -function and its derivatives. Obviously, such an input is physically unrealizable. However, we can think of it approximately as a combination of small pulses of very high magnitude and infinitely small duration. In this paper, the approximation process of the distributional behaviour of higher-order linear descriptor (regular) differential systems is presented. Thus, new analytical formulae based on linear algebra methods and generalized inverses theory are provided. Our approach is quite general and some significant conditions are derived. Finally, a numerical example is presented and discussed.

Abstract:
The spread of the Internet and the evolution of mobile communication, have created new possibilities for software applications such as ubiquitous computing, dynamic supply chains and medical home care. Such systems need to operate in dynamic, heterogeneous environments and face the challenge of handling frequently changing requirements; therefore they must be flexible, robust and capable of adapting to the circumstances. It is widely believed that multi-agent systems coordinated by selforganisation and emergence mechanisms are an effective way to design these systems. This paper aims to define the concepts of self-organisation and emergence and to provide a state of the art survey about the different classes of self-organisation mechanisms applied in the multi-agent systems domain. Furthermore, the strengths and limits of these approaches are examined and research issues are provided.

Abstract:
In this article, we study a class of linear rectangular matrix descriptor differential equations of higher-order whose coefficients are square constant matrices. Using the Weierstrass canonical form, the analytical formulas for the solution of this general class is analytically derived, for consistent and non-consistent initial conditions.