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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 263168 matches for " E. O. Ndibuagu "
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Cigarette Smoking and Attitudes Concerning Its Control among Healthcare Workers in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria  [PDF]
I. B. Omotowo, E. O. Ndibuagu, U. Ezeoke
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.811108
Abstract: Introduction: Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for many diseases, and according to World Health Organization, health care workers can influence positively or negatively the smoking habits of the community. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking and attitudes regarding its control among healthcare workers in Enugu, South-East Nigeria. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 369 healthcare providers randomly selected in primary, secondary and tertiary health facilities. Data were collected using a self reported questionnaire on cigarette smoking, and were analysed using SPSS Version 21, and statistical significance of association between variables was assessed using chi-square test at p < 0.05. Ethical clearance from University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu and informed written consent was obtained from the participants. Results: Overall, 369 respondents returned the completed questionnaires. 54.2% were males, 75.9% were aged between 20 to 40 years, while their mean age was 27.5 ± 6.2 years. Overall life time prevalence of smoking among healthcare workers was 21.1% with (95% confidence interval 17.3 - 25.6), currently smoking was 6.5% with (95% confidence interval 5.8 - 7.4), while life time prevalence among physicians was 31.7% with (95% ci 28.8 - 33.6). The highest smoking rate was among the internists 72.7% in the physicians group. More smokers significantly agreed that the followings should be banned: cigarette sales (X2 = 22.134, df = 6, P = 0.003), advertising cigarettes (X2 = 42.532, df = 28, P = 0.040), cigarettes smoking in restaurants (X2 = 42.560, df = 20, P = 0.001), and smoking in all enclosed places (X2 = 33.257, df = 20, P = 0.025), but not statistically significant for health professionals to serve as role models (X2 = 24.420, df = 8, P = 0.086). Conclusion: Our results showed high percentage of cigarette smoking among healthcare providers. Smoking cessation programs should be introduced among healthcare providers.
Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests among Medical Doctors in a Tertiary Hospital, South East Nigeria  [PDF]
Edmund O. Ndibuagu
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.107072
Abstract: Malaria is a major health problem in Nigeria that has as high as 25% of all global cases, and 30% of deaths attributable to malaria. In 2010, World Health Organization (WHO) recommended universal confirmation of diagnosis of malaria through blood parasitological test, prior to initiation of treatment. In addition to Microscopy, Malaria Rapid diagnostic Tests (mRDTs) are blood tests for malaria. Early diagnosis of malaria ensures that the correct treatment is commenced in good time, and this subsequently improves the prognosis. The objective of this study is to assess the use of mRDTs among medical doctors working in a tertiary hospital, Southeast Nigeria. This study was conducted in Enugu State Teaching hospital, Southeast Nigeria. The study was of cross-sectional design, and conducted in October 2016 among medical doctors working in the General Outpatient, Internal Medicine, and Paediatrics departments of the Teaching hospital. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used for data analysis. A total of 86 medical doctors, out of the eligible 91 in the three departments participated in the study, and were distributed as follows; 24 (27.9%) in the General Outpatient, 30 (34.9%) in the Internal Medicine, and 32 (37.2%) in the Paediatrics departments. More medical doctors in the Paediatrics department (31.3%) used mRDTs in making diagnosis of malaria, followed by Internal medicine (13.3%), then General Outpatient Department (8.3%). Malaria rapid diagnostic tests are cost-effective, and useful tools in malaria control and elimination programmes. If tangible progress on the implementation of the WHO guidelines on confirming diagnosis of malaria before treatment; and the T3: Test, Treat, Track initiative is to be made; then the government and the Management of hospitals ought to take more determined efforts aimed at educating and informing health workers, especially medical doctors on the benefits of mRDTs.
Formal Education Related Pattern of Awareness and Basic Knowledge on Zika Virus Disease, among Women Visiting Children Immunization Unit in a Tertiary Hospital, Southeast Nigeria  [PDF]
Edmund O. Ndibuagu
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.1011119
Abstract: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of infected Aedesa egypti, or Aedes albopictus mosquito, and re-emerged as a disease of global public health importance in March/April 2015 in Brazil. The objective of this study is to assess the formal education related pattern of awareness, and basic knowledge on Zika virus disease, among women visiting children immunization unit in a tertiary hospital, in Nigeria. Study was conducted in 2016/2017 with 256 randomly selected respondents. Semi-structured questionnaire was used in the cross-sectional study. Findings including 77.8% of respondents with postgraduate educational qualification were aware that there is a disease known as Zika Virus Disease (ZVD), 62.0% for tertiary education qualification, 53.8% for secondary education level, 20.0% for primary education level, while none of the three respondents that had no formal education were aware of ZVD. The level of awareness increased with increasing educational qualification. These findings were analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio which was calculated to be 28.329, with P-value of <0.001. Television was the commonest source of first ZVD information. Overall mean percentage knowledge level of the different educational groups revealed as followed; no formal education 22.2%, primary level 12.0%, secondary level 46.1%, tertiary level 54.4%, and postgraduate level was 51.5%. The mean for the stated scores was 37.2%. Students’ T-Test at 95.0% confidence interval was 0.012, showing that the difference in the mean percentage scores between the groups was significant. Respondents with tertiary and postgraduate education qualifications recorded overall mean score above 50.0% each, while secondary, primary, and no formal education groups recorded overall mean percentage scores below 50.0%. Stepping up ZVD health education and awareness activities, especially among women with educational qualification below tertiary level will greatly improve the awareness and knowledge on ZVD among this study population.
Assessment of Key HIV Misconceptions among Inhabitants of a Rural Community in Enugu State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Edmund O. Ndibuagu, Innocent I. Okafor, Babatunde I. Omotowo
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.59007
Abstract: In 2015, about 35 million people died of HIV infection globally, with about 36.7 million infected. Most of the infection occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS exist mostly in developing countries. The research was a cross-sectional study, conducted in Enugu state, Nigeria. Objective was to assess key HIV misconceptions among rural community dwellers. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used, and information was collected from 296 respondents, most of whom were above 50 years of age, married, had no formal education, and were farmers. Correct responses to the misconceptions investigated were: HIV infection found only among sinners (29.7%); HIV can be transmitted by eating from the same plate with an infected person (24.7%); HIV can be transmitted through handshake (29.7%); HIV can be transmitted by touching the urine or faeces of an infected person (24.0%); HIV can be transmitted by hugging or touching an infected person (28.0%); HIV can be cured (19.9%); Praying daily can prevent HIV infection (20.3%); and Worshipping our ancestors can prevent HIV infection (27.0%). Inhabitants of rural communities are more likely to hold misconceptions about HIV. It is recommended that relevant governments in developing countries design interventions aimed at addressing misconceptions about HIV/AIDS.
Knowledge and Perception of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test among Medical Doctors in a South Eastern Nigeria Tertiary Hospital  [PDF]
Edmund O. Ndibuagu, Ogechukwu F. Amadi, Ejiofor T. Ugwu
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.510001
Abstract: Malaria commonly causes fever in tropical Africa. In 2010, World Health Organization recommended parasitological diagnosis of malaria before treatment. Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) aims at making malaria diagnosis more accessible. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, and perception of malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT), among doctors in a tertiary health facility. A descriptive, cross sectional study, conducted in October 2016, in a state University Teaching hospital, Enugu state, Nigeria. 86 doctors in the General Outpatient, Internal Medicine, and Paediatrics departments participated. 90.7% of respondents knew parasitological examination of blood is the certain method of making malaria diagnosis, 89.5% knew microscopy and RDT are methods for parasitological diagnosis, 91.9% knew mRDT is quick blood test for malaria, 54.7% knew mRDT is usually specific for one or more species of malaria, 46.5% knew mRDT detects circulating malaria parasite antigen, 29.1% knew mRDT is read 15 to 20 minutes after the test, 70.9% knew mRDT is not superior to microscopy, 79.1% knew mRDT is not 100% specific, 80.2% knew mRDT ought not be done always by Laboratory Scientists, and 66.3% knew more than one type of mRDT kit is available. On perception, 64.0% thought it was important to confirm diagnosis before commencing treatment, 90.7% perceived mRDT as being very useful, 96.5% did not perceive mRDT as endangering patients, 70.9% opinioned that presumptive diagnosis of malaria is not a better way of making diagnosis, 76.7% did not believe malaria diagnosis is always clear on listening to the patient, 90.7% did not perceive mRDT as being hazardous, 83.7% believe using mRDT can reduce the quantity of anti-malaria drugs consumed, and 94.2% opinioned that mRDT should be encouraged and promoted. Training and re-training of health workers shall greatly enhance mRDT use in implementing the WHO T3 Initiative, and ultimately eliminating malaria.
Durational Therapeutic Dose of Fansidar: A Functional Index in Its Antidiabetic Properties  [PDF]
E. O. Jimmy
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2019.71003
Abstract: Effects of fansidar in alloxan-induced diabetes were investigated in thirty (30) male and female albino rats for 28 days. The results showed a steady weekly decrease in blood glucose concentration in induced diabetic rats after fansidar treatment. In week 1, i.e. 7 days, there was significant difference in the blood glucose levels between the control and diabetic rats (P < 0.05) i.e. high glucose concentration, same in week II i.e. 14 days. However, in day 21 i.e. week III there was a significant reduction in the blood glucose concentration compared with control P < 0.05. The same results were obtained in week IV i.e. in 28 days treatment. The result has shown that fansidar has antidiabetic potentials on long term durational administration.
The Influence of Atmospheric Parameters on Production and Distribution of Air Pollutants in Bayelsa: A State in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  [PDF]
E. I. Njoku, O. E. Ogunsola, E. O. Oladiran
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2019.91011
Abstract: Air pollution is a primary environmental problem in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria due to oil spills including the gas emissions associated with industrial effluents. However, a good understanding and quantification of atmospheric parameters (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and cloud cover) that influence air pollution (CH4, NO2 and O3) concentrations in this region could assist in the mitigation and distribution of these pollutants. This work examines the influence of atmospheric parameters on the production and distribution of air pollutants in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria for the development of control strategies that will enhance the mitigation and amelioration of the significant impacts that these atmospheric pollutants could have on the populace in this part of the country. The CH4 and NO2 data utilized in this study were sourced from the European Space Agency (ESA), while that of tropospheric ozone (O3) was obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the atmospheric parameters data were provided by the Nigeria Meteorological Agencies (NIMET), Lagos. The analysis of the daily pollutants (CH4, NO2 and O3) including the atmospheric parameters in this region of the Niger Delta for the period 2003 to 2010 was carried out using standard statistical approach including the graphical method, stepwise regression model, least-square method, and correlation analysis. The Mann-Kendal rank statistics was also utilized in identifying the meaningful long-term trends, validation and testing of the homogeneity of the concentrations of the pollutants. The results of the correlations of CH4, NO2 and O3 concentrations with their previous day’s concentrations showed a strong significance in regression analysis for both CH4 and O3. The coefficient of determination of CH4 and O3 was obtained as 0.654 and 0.810 respectively, while a very weak correlation was obtained for NO2. However, despite that a very strong negative correlation of -0.809 and -0.900 was obtained between wind speed and both the CH4 and O3 pollutants respectively, a moderate correlation was obtained between the wind speed and NO2. This implies that amongst the atmospheric parameters considered in this study for the region of the Niger Delta in Nigeria, wind speed has much influence on the
Tibialization of Fibula in Treatment of Major Bone Gap Defect of the Tibia: A Case Report  [PDF]
O. C. Nwokike, E. E. Esezobor, D. O. Olomu, E. O. Edomwonyi, J. E. Onuminya
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2015.58032
Abstract: Gap bone defect is a major challenge. Its treatment has evolved over the years from amputation to limb reconstruction through vascularised graft, distraction osteogenesis and use of customised implants. Availability and affordability of these innovative techniques have always been an additional challenge in the developing resource poor countries. We report the use of Tibialization of Ipsilateral fibula first suggested by Hahns in 1884 to bridge a gap of 12 cm in an 8 year old male, with segmental tibia loss from chronic osteomyelitis. We did an end to end transposition of the ipsilateral fibular into the tibia gap defect in a one stage procedure. This was after eradication of the infective process of osteomyelitis. He commenced partial weight bearing ambulation in cast at 3 months and out of cast ambulation at 18 months post surgery. The transposed fibula was 75% tibialized at 18 months post surgery. Conclusion: Fibular is a useful armamentarium in filling segmental bone defect.
Rural Livelihoods Vulnerabilities and Commercial Bushmeat Hunting Challenges in Cross River National Park, Nigeria  [PDF]
Oliver O. O. Enuoh, Francis E. Bisong
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.513071
Abstract: Biodiversity conservation in parks and protected areas in Africa in general and especially in Nigeria is seriously threatened by the explosion of commercial bushmeat hunting activities in buffer zone communities. Several fauna species are becoming endangered and the list of extinct species is increasing due to commercial bushmeat hunting activities. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative research techniques, this paper assesses the livelihoods vulnerability underpinnings of commercial bushmeat hunting activities in Cross River National Park (CRNP). Results reveal that commercial bushmeat hunting activities are shaped by a vulnerability context that hinges on different elements of environmental shocks, seasonal challenges and surrounding societal trends. The paper highlights the conservation and global sustainable development implications of uncontrolled commercial bushmeat hunting practices and concludes with options on policy recommendations and future research trajectories.
Colonial Forest Policies and Tropical Deforestation: The Case of Cross River State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Oliver O. O. Enuoh, Francis E. Bisong
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.51008
Abstract: Nigeria has lost over 90% of her forest resources due to the hydra-headed and enduring problem of deforestation, hinging on timber logging, establishment of agricultural plantations in hitherto intact forest reserves, construction of highways, mining of solid minerals, approval of taungya farming activities in forest reserves, extraction of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), and dereservation of large areas of certain forest reserves for other economic and development activities. Though colonialism was dismantled in the first half of the twentieth century, its policies on forest nationalization remain unchanged across many independent states in the tropics including Nigeria. The paper assesses the colonial forest policy underpinnings of tropical deforestation in Cross River State of Nigeria. It highlights the weaknesses of forest reservation laws and its impacts on tropical deforestation. The paper concludes by advocating a shift in forest policies in favour of property rights recognition and devolution of forest management responsibilities to forest communities.
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