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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 168667 matches for " E. Diane Playford "
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Health Outcome after Major Trauma: What Are We Measuring?
Karen Hoffman, Elaine Cole, E. Diane Playford, Eva Grill, Helene L. Soberg, Karim Brohi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103082
Abstract: Importance Trauma is a global disease and is among the leading causes of disability in the world. The importance of outcome beyond trauma survival has been recognised over the last decade. Despite this there is no internationally agreed approach for assessment of health outcome and rehabilitation of trauma patients. Objective To systematically examine to what extent outcomes measures evaluate health outcomes in patients with major trauma. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (from 2006–2012) were searched for studies evaluating health outcome after traumatic injuries. Study selection and data extraction Studies of adult patients with injuries involving at least two body areas or organ systems were included. Information on study design, outcome measures used, sample size and outcomes were extracted. The World Health Organisation International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) were used to evaluate to what extent outcome measures captured health impacts. Results 34 studies from 755 studies were included in the review. 38 outcome measures were identified. 21 outcome measures were used only once and only five were used in three or more studies. Only 6% of all possible health impacts were captured. Concepts related to activity and participation were the most represented but still only captured 12% of all possible concepts in this domain. Measures performed very poorly in capturing concepts related to body function (5%), functional activities (11%) and environmental factors (2%). Conclusion Outcome measures used in major trauma capture only a small proportion of health impacts. There is no inclusive classification for measuring disability or health outcome following trauma. The ICF may provide a useful framework for the development of a comprehensive health outcome measure for trauma care.
Determinants of mortality in non-neutropenic ICU patients with candidaemia
Deborah JE Marriott, E Geoffrey Playford, Sharon Chen, Monica Slavin, Quoc Nguyen, David Ellis, Tania C Sorrell, the Australian Candidaemia Study
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7964
Abstract: A nationwide prospective clinical and microbiological cohort study of all episodes of ICU-acquired candidaemia occurring in non-neutropenic adults was undertaken in Australian ICUs between 2001 and 2004. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine independently significant variables associated with mortality.183 episodes of ICU-acquired candidaemia occurred in 183 patients during the study period. Of the 179 with microbiological data, Candida albicans accounted for 111 (62%) episodes and Candida glabrata, 32 (18%). Outcome data were available for 173: crude hospital mortality at 30 days was 56%. Host factors (older age, ICU admission diagnosis, mechanical ventilation and ICU admission diagnosis) and failure to receive systemic antifungal therapy were significantly associated with mortality on multivariate analysis. Among the subset who received initial fluconazole therapy (n = 93), the crude mortality was 52%. Host factors (increasing age and haemodialysis receipt), but not organism- (Candida species, fluconazole MIC), pharmacokinetic- (fluconazole dose, time to initiation), or pharmacodynamic-related parameters (fluconazole dose:MIC ratio) were associated with mortality. Process of care measures advocated in recent guidelines were implemented inconsistently: follow-up blood cultures were obtained in 68% of patients, central venous catheters removed within five days in 80% and ophthalmological examination performed in 36%.Crude mortality remains high in Australian ICU patients with candidaemia and is overwhelmingly related to host factors but not treatment variables (the time to initiation of antifungals or fluconazole pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors). The role and timing of early antifungal intervention in critically-ill ICU patients requires further investigation.Candidaemia is a relatively common healthcare-associated infection in critically-ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) [1-3] that is associated with poor clinical ou
Viral Encephalomyelitis
Diane E. Griffin
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002004
The Basics of Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment in the Emergency Department
Vaca, Federico E,Winn, Diane
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2007,
Abstract: Nearly eight million emergency department (ED) visits are attributed to alcohol every year in the United States. A substantial proportion is due to trauma. In 2005, 16,885 people were killed as a result of alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Patients with alcohol-use problems (AUPs) are not only more likely to drive after drinking but are also at greater risk for serious alcohol-related illness and injury. Emergency departments have an important and unique opportunity to identify these patients and intervene during the “teachable moment” of an ED visit. The American College of Emergency Physicians, Emergency Nurses Association, American College of Surgeons-Committee on Trauma, American Public Health Association, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, have identified Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) as a pivotal injury and illness-prevention strategy to improve the health and well-being of ED patients. We provide a general overview of the basis and need for integrating SBIRT into EDs. Models of SBIRT, as well as benefits and challenges to its implementation, are also discussed.
Obesity communication among patients by health professionals: Findings from the Weight Care Project  [PDF]
S. Anne Moorhead, Vivien E. Coates, Alison M. Gallagher, Geraldine Nolan, Kathy Murphy, Diane E. Hazlett
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58A3015
Abstract: Obesity is on the increase worldwide and is a major global public health problem. In an increasingly obesogenic environment, it’s important that health professionals are equipped to identify and address obesity issues within their clinical practice. As part of the Weight Care Project, the aim of this study was to explore the obesity-related communication issues for primary care and community-based health professionals. The study design was a quantitative survey, which was completed by 382 primary care and community-based health professionals across Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland working with adults and children. Key findings included that the majority of the health professionals (86%) recognized having a role in giving obesity advice, acknowledged that in clinical practice communication of obesity messages is both complex and challenging (81%), and reported difficulty in sensitively addressing obesity issues (27%). The health professionals surveyed stated that they communicate obesity messages to their patients using a range of different methods, mainly verbally to individuals, leaflets and factsheets. Numerous benefits of communicating obesity messages were reported; the main one was interacting with patients to build trust. Identified barriers to commu

Introduction to Forensic Dentistry Continuing Education Course  [PDF]
Diane Osborne
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2013,
Abstract: This course is an introduction to the basics of forensic dentistry beginning with its historical origins to modern advancements. After an introduction to basic principles, application of this information will be demonstrated in current cases, training in mass fatalities and participation in a mass fatality workshop scenario using dry skull remains. Time permitting, a tour of the Las Vegas Coroner’s Office will be available.
Changing Hostile Beliefs towards Women through Partner Abuse Intervention Programs  [PDF]
Diane Zosky
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.42014
Abstract: This research project examined hostile beliefs towards women held by men who completed a Duluth Model partner violence intervention program. Changes in beliefs are foundational to change in the cessation of violence within the Duluth model. Hostile beliefs towards women establish a context for objectification and suspicion of women, and justification for violence. Although there was not a significant reduction in hostility scores, there was a significant reduction in aggression scores. Hostility scores were significantly correlated with the aggression scores indicating encouraging results that partner abuse intervention programs may influence the reduction of hostile beliefs towards women and thus may impact perpetration of violence.
Children's Social Behavior in Relation to Participation in Mixed-Age or Same-Age Classrooms
Diane E. McClellan,Susan J. Kinsey
Early Childhood Research & Practice , 1999,
Abstract: Research on the social and cognitive effects of grouping children in mixed-age (where there is an age span of at least 2 years among children) versus same-age classrooms is gaining increasing interest among practitioners and researchers. The present investigation used a teacher rating scale, based on research into the correlates of children s social skillfulness and acceptance by other children, to assess children s social behavior in mixed- and same-age classrooms. Confounding variables such as the child s age and sex, the teacher s educational level, and classroom practices were statistically controlled. Further, a pretest of teacher ratings of kindergarten children who were later assigned to either a mixed- or same-age first-grade classroom showed no preexisting behavioral differences. Findings suggested a significant positive effect on children s prosocial behavior as a result of participation in a mixed-age classroom context. In addition, fewer children appeared to experience social isolation in mixed-age classrooms than in same-age classrooms. Aggressive behaviors were significantly less likely to be noted by teachers in mixed-age than in same-age classrooms. Follow-up ratings were taken of third-grade children, all of whom were by then enrolled in same-age classrooms. Children who had previously participated in mixed-age classrooms continued to be rated as significantly less aggressive and significantly more prosocial by their third-grade teachers. No differences were found in friendship patterns between children previously enrolled in same-age versus mixed-age classrooms.
Unilateral Subconjunctival and Retrobulbar Hemorrhage Secondary to Brodifacoum Toxicity in a Dog
Sonia E. Kuhn,Diane V. H. Hendrix
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/417808
International Society for Computational Biology Welcomes Its Newest Class of Fellows
Christiana N. Fogg,Diane E. Kovats
PLOS Computational Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003199
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