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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167537 matches for " E. Augendre "
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S + V + O : Ordres marqués et non marqués en italien
Sandra Augendre
Discours : Revue de Linguistique, Psycholinguistique et Informatique , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/discours.4653
Abstract: L’article a pour but de discuter les notions d’ordres marqués et non marqués telles qu’elles sont utilisées dans les ouvrages décrivant la norme et le fonctionnement des langues et tout particulièrement dans les grammaires. Nous nous focaliserons sur le cas de l’italien, langue où la construction des énoncés est relativement libre, afin de montrer que postuler une structure canonique ou de base (SVO pour l’italien) à des fins descriptives ne permet pas de rendre compte de l’usage effectif qui est fait de la langue. En effet, l’opposition entre une forme de base, non marquée et ses différentes variantes, dites marquées, ne nous semble en rien adaptée à une analyse plus approfondie des usages linguistiques. Nous prendrons ici en considération différents types de structures (thématique, syntaxique et prosodique) et décrirons les raisons pour lesquelles sont postulées, pour chacune d’entre elles, une forme de base. Dans un second temps, il s’agira de montrer que ces analyses ne valent que d’un point de vue descriptif, au niveau de la phrase, mais que les notions de marqué / non marqué ne peuvent rester pertinentes au niveau de l’énoncé que si une nouvelle acception leur est attribuée. A ce niveau d’analyse, comme nous essaierons de le montrer, le concept de marquage ne peut être utile que pour décrire la distribution et l’adaptation au contexte des énoncés. The article aims to discuss the notions of marked and unmarked orders, as they are used in the works describing the norms and properties of languages, particularly their grammars. We will focus on the case of Italian, where the construction of the sentence is relatively free, in order to show that claiming there is a canonical or basic structure (SVO for Italian) for descriptive purposes does not reflect the real use which is made of this language. Indeed, the opposition between a basic or unmarked form and its so-called ‘marked’ variants does not seem to fit in a more detailed analysis of linguistic use. We will consider here various types of structures (thematic, syntactic and prosodic) and describe the reasons why, for each of them, one basic form is postulated. We will then try to show that these analyses are valid only for descriptive purposes, and at the sentence level, but that the notions of marked vs unmarked order are no longer relevant at the utterance level, unless a new meaning is attributed to them. As we will show, the concept of marking can be adapted and useful only in relation to the distribution of the utterances and their link with the context.
Comment l’information à transmettre influence-t-elle les constructions référentielle et syntaxique du commentaire sportif en direct?
Augendre Sandra,Mathon Catherine
SHS Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/shsconf/20120100274
Abstract: Nous nous intéressons ici à décrire la structure référentielle des périodes descriptives dans le commentaire sportif en direct. Ce discours est produit de manière simultanée à l’action qui se déroule sur le terrain, sous les yeux du locuteur. Outre le caractère motivé de la parole, le discours descriptif s’adapte dans sa structure à cette situation d’énonciation particulière. En effet, la description simultanée de l’action sur le terrain amène le locuteur à fournir une information qui se résumerait ainsi : un joueur et une action. Cette succession chronologique de désignations des joueurs et des actions forme la matière constitutive du discours descriptif dans le commentaire sportif, mais ce caractère successif pourrait donner l’impression d’une simple énumération d’éléments. Or, ce discours est per u comme cohérent même sans le support visuel. C’est donc que la construction des référents va renforcer cette cohérence. Nous commen ons par présenter nos hypothèses quant aux relations entretenues entre la transmission de l’information portée par le discours descriptif, la référence et la réalisation des expressions linguistiques référentielles. Dans un deuxième temps, nous introduisons les données relatives au corpus et aux annotations et analyses réalisées. Nous passons ensuite à l’analyse des résultats obtenus pour les différents paramètres considérés et terminons par une illustration sur les séquences Prénom + Nom du corpus.
Advanced CMOS device technologies for 45 nm node and below
A. Veloso, T. Hoffmann, A. Lauwers, H. Yu, S. Severi, E. Augendre, S. Kubicek, P. Verheyen, N. Collaert, P. Absil, M. Jurczak and S. Biesemans
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials , 2007,
Abstract: We review and discuss the latest developments and technology options for 45 nm node and below, with scaled planar bulk MOSFETs and MuGFETs as emerging devices. One of the main metal gate (MG) candidates for scaled CMOS technologies are fully silicided (FUSI) gates. In this work, by means of a selective and controlled poly etch-back integration process, dual work-function Ni-based FUSI/HfSiON CMOS circuits with record ring oscillator performance (high-VT) are reported (17 ps at VDD=1.1 V and 20 pA/μm Ioff), meeting the ITRS 45 nm node requirement for low-power (LP) CMOS. Compatibility of FUSI and other MG with known stress boosters like stressed CESL (contact-etch-stop-layer with high intrinsic stress) or embedded SiGe in the pMOS S/D regions is validated. To obtain MuGFET devices that are competitive, as compared to conventional planar bulk devices, and that meet the stringent drive and leakage current requirements for the 32 nm node and beyond, higher channel mobilities are required. Results obtained by several strain engineering methods are presented here.
Electrical spin injection and detection in Germanium using three terminal geometry
A. Jain,L. Louahadj,J. Peiro,J. C. Le Breton,C. Vergnaud,A. Barski,C. Beigné,L. Notin,A. Marty,V. Baltz,S. Auffret,E. Augendre,H. Jaffrès,J. M. George,M. Jamet
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3652757
Abstract: In this letter, we report on successful electrical spin injection and detection in \textit{n}-type germanium-on-insulator (GOI) using a Co/Py/Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$ spin injector and 3-terminal non-local measurements. We observe an enhanced spin accumulation signal of the order of 1 meV consistent with the sequential tunneling process via interface states in the vicinity of the Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$/Ge interface. This spin signal is further observable up to 220 K. Moreover, the presence of a strong \textit{inverted} Hanle effect points at the influence of random fields arising from interface roughness on the injected spins.
Spin Pumping and Inverse Spin Hall Effect in Germanium
J. -C. Rojas-Sánchez,M. Cubukcu,A. Jain,C. Vergnaud,C. Portemont,C. Ducruet,A. Barski,A. Marty,L. Vila,J. -P. Attané,E. Augendre,G. Desfonds,S. Gambarelli,H. Jaffrès,J. -M. George,M. Jamet
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.064403
Abstract: We have measured the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in \textit{n}-Ge at room temperature. The spin current in germanium was generated by spin pumping from a CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction in order to prevent the impedance mismatch issue. A clear electromotive force was measured in Ge at the ferromagnetic resonance of CoFeB. The same study was then carried out on several test samples, in particular we have investigated the influence of the MgO tunnel barrier and sample annealing on the ISHE signal. First, the reference CoFeB/MgO bilayer grown on SiO$_{2}$ exhibits a clear electromotive force due to anisotropic magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect which is dominated by an asymmetric contribution with respect to the resonance field. We also found that the MgO tunnel barrier is essential to observe ISHE in Ge and that sample annealing systematically lead to an increase of the signal. We propose a theoretical model based on the presence of localized states at the interface between the MgO tunnel barrier and Ge to account for these observations. Finally, all of our results are fully consistent with the observation of ISHE in heavily doped $n$-Ge and we could estimate the spin Hall angle at room temperature to be $\approx$0.001.
Electrical and thermal spin accumulation in germanium
A. Jain,C. Vergnaud,J. Peiro,J. C. Le Breton,E. Prestat,L. Louahadj,C. Portemont,C. Ducruet,V. Baltz,A. Marty,A. Barski,P. Bayle-Guillemaud,L. Vila,J. -P. Attané,E. Augendre,H. Jaffrès,J. -M. George,M. Jamet
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1063/1.4733620
Abstract: In this letter, we first show electrical spin injection in the germanium conduction band at room temperature and modulate the spin signal by applying a gate voltage to the channel. The corresponding signal modulation agrees well with the predictions of spin diffusion models. Then by setting a temperature gradient between germanium and the ferromagnet, we create a thermal spin accumulation in germanium without any tunnel charge current. We show that temperature gradients yield larger spin accumulations than pure electrical spin injection but, due to competing microscopic effects, the thermal spin accumulation in germanium remains surprisingly almost unchanged under the application of a gate voltage to the channel.
Crossover from spin accumulation into interface states to spin injection in the germanium conduction band
A. Jain,J. -C. Rojas-Sanchez,M. Cubukcu,J. Peiro,J. C. Le Breton,E. Prestat,C. Vergnaud,L. Louahadj,C. Portemont,C. Ducruet,V. Baltz,A. Barski,P. Bayle-Guillemaud,L. Vila,J. -P. Attané,E. Augendre,G. Desfonds,S. Gambarelli,H. Jaffrès,J. -M. George,M. Jamet
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.106603
Abstract: Electrical spin injection into semiconductors paves the way for exploring new phenomena in the area of spin physics and new generations of spintronic devices. However the exact role of interface states in spin injection mechanism from a magnetic tunnel junction into a semiconductor is still under debate. In this letter, we demonstrate a clear transition from spin accumulation into interface states to spin injection in the conduction band of $n$-Ge. We observe spin signal amplification at low temperature due to spin accumulation into interface states followed by a clear transition towards spin injection in the conduction band from 200 K up to room temperature. In this regime, the spin signal is reduced down to a value compatible with spin diffusion model. More interestingly, we demonstrate in this regime a significant modulation of the spin signal by spin pumping generated by ferromagnetic resonance and also by applying a back-gate voltage which are clear manifestations of spin current and accumulation in the germanium conduction band.
Cluster Model of Formation of Subnuclear and Subatomic Objects  [PDF]
E. E. Lin
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.53018
Abstract:

The paper describes the development results on one-dimensional (1D) asymptotic model of the formation kinetics for the objects (clusters) of subnuclear (quark) and subatomic (nuclear) matters. A concept of the objects distribution density wave φ(a, t) in space of sizes a lies in the basis for analytical description of the processes under consideration. The proposed formalism makes it possible to describe in an adequate way the final outcomes of the well-known catastrophic phenomena in the world of elementary particles. Mass characteristics of different processes of approach to equilibrium in nuclear reactions are calculated.

The Gene as Natural Nanomaterial for Treatment of Diseases  [PDF]
E. E. Escultura
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2017.71003
Abstract: As an application of the grand unified theory (GUT) to medicine, this paper introduces two natural nanomaterials—the gene and electromagnetic wave. They are involved in the proposed treatment of genetic and infectious diseases. It introduces the superstring as the fundamental building block of matter and the basic constituent of dark matter, one of the two fundamental states of matter. It also introduces the primum, unit of visible or ordinary matter, the other fundamental state of matter. They are convertible to each other by the action of basic cosmic or electromagnetic waves. Eleven biological laws define biology as a biological and physical theory. The gene is the primitive ingredient of living things and, therefore, the beginning of biological life and the virus the simplest living thing. Treatment ranges from genetic modification and alteration to remove undesirable symptom through genetic sterilization to stop the spread of the disease and outright destruction of the disease. Genetic sterilization and outright destruction apply also to infectious diseases. The paper concludes with a blueprint for research and development of appropriate technologies for the treatment.
Extensions of the Constructivist Real Number System  [PDF]
E. E. Escultura
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2018.88044
Abstract: The paper reviews the most consequential defects and rectification of traditional mathematics and its foundations. While this work is only the tip of the iceberg, so to speak, it gives us a totally different picture of mathematics from what we have known for a long time. This journey started with two teasers posted in SciMath in 1997: 1) The equation 1 = 0.99… does not make sense. 2) The concept \"\"?does not exist. The first statement sparked a debate that raged over a decade. Both statements generated a series of publications that continues to grow to this day. Among the new findings are: 3) There does not exist nondenumerable set. 4) There does not exist non-measurable set. 5) Cantor’s diagonal method is flawed. 6) The real numbers are discrete and countable. 7) Formal logic does not apply to mathematics. The unfinished debate between logicism, intuitionism-constructivism and formalism is resolved. The resolution is the constructivist foundations of mathematics with a summary of all the rectification undertaken in 2015, 2016 and in this paper. The extensions of the constructivist real number system include the complex vector plane and transcendental functions. Two important results in the 2015 are noted: The solution and resolution of Hilbert’s 23 problems that includes the resolution of Fermat’s last theorem and proof Goldbach’s conjecture.
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