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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167587 matches for " E Schutte "
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Maternal Environment Effects on Phenolic Defenses in Abutilon theophrasti Seeds  [PDF]
Brian J. Schutte, Sam E. Wortman, John L. Lindquist, Adam S. Davis
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45139

A class of phenolic compounds, ortho-dihydroxyphenols (hereafter “o-DHP”), has been implicated with seed survival. Based on expectations of the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, we predicted that seed o-DHP concentration exhibits a curvilinear response to increasing resource availability in the maternal environment, with maximum o-DHP occurring at moderate resource levels. To test this hypothesis, Abutilon theophrasti seeds were produced under field conditions at two locations. Each location included twelve maternal environments established through factorial combinations of soil compost (+/-), species assemblage (A. theophrasti with and without maize), and soil nitrogen fertilizer (0, 0.5× or 1× local recommendations for maize). Resource availability with respect to A. theophrasti growth was summarized by above-ground biomass at seed harvest (maternal biomass). Results indicated that seed o-DHP concentrations increased then decreased in response to increasing maternal biomass. This relationship was modeled with a unimodal function specific to location (Location 1, y = 1.18 + 0.03xe-0.02

The effects of fatigue and the post-concussion syndrome on executive functioning in traumatic brain injury and healthy comparisons
JD Fry, K Greenop, E Schutte
Health SA Gesondheid , 2010,
Abstract: In this study, behavioural manifestations of compromised executive control, including perseveration and reduced inductive reasoning, on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were investigated.Performance was affected by fatigue in both a head-injured and matched population, which has implications for health care professionals involved in rehabilitation and assessment. A fatigue condition was manipulated for 15 moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) individuals through the course of a three-hour neuropsychological testing session. A comparison sample of 15 participants in a group of ‘no history of TBI’ was fatigued through the same approach. All fatigued participants (with and without TBI) displayed trends towards increased levels of perseveration and reduced inductive reasoning on the WCST. Thus, the effects of fatigue on high-level functioning are pervasive even when not head-injured. This finding supports the sub-optimal performance in cognitive skills, specifically in executive control, that is often found in fatigued people. These findings are relevant for the manner in which rehabilitation interventions and medico-legal assessments are structured. Importantly, the order of tests, their interpretation and rest sessions should be clearly indicated and interpreted in assessment reports and rehabilitation sessions. Opsomming In hierdie studie is gedragsmanifestering in individue met gekompromitteerde uitvoerende funksionering, met inbegrip van perseverasie en verminderde induktiewe redenering, op die Wisconsin-kaartsorteringstoets (WCST), bestudeer. Die waarneming dat prestasie deur uitputting be nvloed word in sowel normale populasies as dié met kopbeserings het implikasies vir gesondheidsorgpersoneel wat by rehabilitasie en assessering betrokke is. ’n Uitputtingstoestand is gemanipuleer vir 15 matig ernstige individue met traumatiese kopbeserings (TKB) vir die duur van ’n drie uur lange toetssessie. ’n Vergelykingsmonster van 15 deelnemers met geen geskiedenis van kopbeserings is deur dieselfde metodologie uitgeput. Alle uitgeputte deelnemers (met en sonder TKB) het ’n neiging na verhoogde vlakke van perseverasie en verminderde induktiewe redenering op die WCST getoon. Die impak van uitputting op ho vlak-funksionering is dus verreikend, selfs in gevalle waar geen kopbesering opgedoen is nie. Die bevinding ondersteun suboptimale prestasie in kognitiewe vaardighede, en spesifiek in uitvoerende beheer, wat dikwels onder uitgeputte mense gevind word. Hierdie bevindinge is van belang vir die manier waarop rehabilitasie-intervensies en regsgeneeskundige assesserings gestruktureer word. Die volgorde van toetse, die interpretasie daarvan en die rusperiodes moet duidelik in assesseringsverslae en rehabilitasiesessies aangetoon en ge nterpreteer word.
The cognitive profile of children treated with radiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
S-J Whitaker, E Schutte
South African Journal of Child Health , 2012,
Abstract: Background. Cranial radiation is part of a treatment protocol for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in South Africa. Radiation is known to disrupt the myelination and integrity of white matter tracts in the brain. Associated cognitive impairment has been well documented in other countries, but not to the same extent in the multicultural and multilingual South African context. Objectives. The current study focused on the assessment of memory and learning, two imperative cognitive functions. A quantitative evaluation of verbal and visuospatial memory performance in a cohort of ALL patients was done in order to establish whether there was a difference in performance between verbal and visuospatial tasks. Methods. Eight patients with a low socio-economic background and being educated in their second language were included in the cognitive evaluation. All had received 18 Gy of radiation as part of their treatment protocol and were on maintenance treatment at the time of the study. Results. In all the patients, primary cognitive impairment was demonstrated in ostensibly right hemisphere visuospatial tasks in comparison with ostensibly left hemisphere verbal tasks. Because deficits in visuospatial attention and working memory were identified, qualitative analysis of the results suggested that the white matter tracts in the right frontoparietal region and prefrontal cortex may be particularly vulnerable to radiation injury. Conclusion. The study findings support vulnerability of the right hemisphere, particularly the right frontoparietal region and prefrontal cortex, to radiation injury. The decline in visuospatial cognitive abilities has major implications for second-language learners, as visuospatial learning is particularly important for them.
The prevalence of hypertension and the relationship with body composition in Grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa
Chanelle Kemp, Anita E Pienaar, Aletta E Schutte
South African Journal of Sports Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Objective. To determine the prevalence of hypertension in Grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa and to investigate the association between blood pressure (BP) and body composition of these children. Methods. Data were collected by means of a stratified random sampling procedure from 816 Grade 1 learners (419 boys, 397 girls) with a mean age of 6.78±0.49 years (mean±SD), in the NWCHILD-study. Height, weight, skinfolds (subscapular, triceps, calf) and waist circumference were measured. The international recommended cut-off values of Cole et al. (2000) for body mass index (BMI) were used. Hypertension, defined as the average of two separate BP (BP) readings, where the systolic BP and diastolic BP is >95th percentile for age, sex and height, was determined by means of an Omron 705CP-II. Results. The overall prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 8.5% and 24.9%, respectively. Both systolic and diastolic BP was positively associated with BMI, body fat percentage and waist circumference. Boys and girls showed a similar prevalence of hypertension. A higher percentage of black children were hypertensive compared with whites, although the difference in BP of the groups was not significant. A high percentage of children with normal weight also showed increased levels of BP. Conclusions. High prevalences of hypertension were found in Grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa. Small practical significant associations existed between BP and body composition. BP screening is therefore considered important in the paediatric population. Interventions which include physical activity are recommended to reduce potential cardiovascular complications and obesity among children. Other contributing factors to high BP amongst young children should also be investigated. SAJSM, vol 23 No. 4 2011
Leptin: A cardiovascular perspective
AE Schutte, R Schutte
Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa , 2012,
Abstract: The development of obesity, as well as resultant type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, is causing concern in South Africa. Following the discovery of leptin in 1994, hopes were raised that the manipulation of the leptin axis might yield successful therapy for obesity. Although hope still remains, the role of leptin is more complex than was first envisaged. Strong evidence indicates that there is an important role for leptin in obesityrelated hypertension, although the net effects of hyperleptinaemia on cardiovascular pathophysiology remain complex and are not clearly understood. Therefore, the cardiovascular side-effects of leptin as a possible antiobesity drug deserve greater attention.
NT-proBNP, C-Reactive Protein and Soluble uPAR in a Bi-Ethnic Male Population: The SAfrEIC Study
Ruan Kruger, Rudolph Schutte, Hugo W. Huisman, Peter Hindersson, Michael H. Olsen, Jesper Eugen-Olsen, Aletta E. Schutte
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058506
Abstract: Objective and design This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate associations between a marker of cardiac strain, the N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and inflammation as reflected by either a conventional or novel inflammatory marker in a bi-ethnic South African cohort. Methods and subjects We measured NT-proBNP, C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma-soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels along with conventional biomarkers in black (n = 117) and white (n = 116) men. Results NT-proBNP, CRP and suPAR levels were higher in black compared to white men. NT-proBNP was significantly associated with both CRP (r = 0.38; p = 0.001) and suPAR (r = 0.42; p<0.001) in black men only. After full adjustment in multiple regression analyses, the above associations of NT-proBNP with CRP (β = 0.199; p = 0.018) and suPAR (β = 0.257; p<0.01) were confirmed in black men. Conclusion These results suggest that a low-grade inflammatory state as reflected by both a conventional and novel marker of inflammation may contribute to higher cardiovascular risk as reflected by the associations obtained with a marker of cardiac strain in black South African men.
Post-modern spirituality: Experience, rather than explain
PJW Schutte
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Cassirer, Jung and Bultmann share at least one principle, namely their appreciation of the role played by myth in experiencing the language of faith. All three of the theorists advocate the reading of mythological texts against the backdrop of a mythological world view. By accentuating the existential and transformational value of myth, they underline the importance of myth for religion. However, they do not promote a positivistic interpretation of myth, which might lead to the rebirth of biblical fundamentalism. This article advanced the perspective that biblical texts, when read as myth, could open up spiritual experiences, even to post-modern readers.
Oordrag van eiendomsreg in die vulgêre reg in die wes-romeinse ryk
PJW Schutte
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2000,
Abstract: It is generally accepted that an abstract system is applied in South Africa with regard to the transfer of ownership. It is a characteristic of the abstract system that the different legal acts which form part of the process, namely the obligatory agreement, delivery of the thing concerned or registration, and the real agreement are separated from each other and that each has its own requirements. However, there is no certainty about the question as to whether or not this distinction stems from Roman law. The purpose of this article is to ascertain whether the distinction between the different legal acts existed in the vulgar law. It appears that the legal position in the vulgar law differs from South African law in that no distinction between the obligatory agreement and delivery of the thing existed. The conclusion of the sale, payment of the purchase price and the delivery of the merx took place simultaneously. It was considered to be one single act which also transferred ownership from one person to another. It furthermore appears that the intention of the parties to transfer ownership played a very important role. Yet, it was only the intention that existed at the time when the obligatory agreement was entered into, that mattered. Ownership did not pass by virtue of a separate meeting of the minds which could be abstracted from the obligatory agreement. Although certain formal requirements, the purpose of which were to enable the state to collect taxes, had been introduced in the vulgar law, writing and registration had not been regarded as formal requirements for the transfer of ownership in immovable property. Yet, the practice had been to draw written documents relating to the contract of sale, and to register them in municipal registers. This form of registration, however, is not tantamount to registration in the Deeds Registry. The conclusion is that an independent real agreement, which could be abstracted from the obligatory agreement was unknown to the vulgar law. There was no clear-cut distinction between the different legal acts such as that existing in South African law at present.
Behoort die saaklike ooreenkoms aan vormvereistes onderwerp te word?
PJW Schutte
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2008,
Does the corpus iuris civilis show characteristics of an abstract system of transfer of property?
PJW Schutte
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2007,
Abstract: It is generally accepted that an abstract system for the transfer of property is applied in South Africa. Characteristic of an abstract system is that the different legal acts which form part of the process, namely the obligatory agreement, delivery of the thing concerned or registration and the real agreement are separated from each other. The real agreement is an agreement between the transferor and the transferee based on a meeting of the minds; it is directed at the transfer of ownership by delivery and should be distinguished from the underlying causa (for example an obligatory agreement). The real agreement merely consists of the transferor’s intention to transfer property and the transferee’s intention to receive property. A second characteristic of the real agreement is that it should meet its own requirements. It is therefore not dependent on the validity of the preceding obligation or any other legal act. This means that ownership will pass from the transferor to the transferee even though the underlying obligatory agreement is invalid. The real agreement is an invention of the German jurist Friedrich Carl von Savigny. The purpose with this article is to ascertain whether or not Roman law at the time of Justinian reflects any of the characteristics of an abstract system and the real agreement (which is generally associated with an abstract system). Can it be said that Savigny based his theory on Roman law? It appears from this paper that a clear distinction was drawn in Roman law between the causa (obligatory agreement) and delivery (traditio). Ownership in movable and immovable property did not pass directly by virtue of the conclusion of the contract of sale or donation (causa) - the thing concerned had to be delivered to the transferee in a legally accepted way as well. Although there is no clarity regarding the question of whether or not a valid causa was a requirement for the transfer of ownership, it can be stated with a fair amount of certainty that the causa had to be valid in those cases where delivery was effected by virtue of sale and donation. If the causa was invalid, ownership did not pass, even though the parties had the intention to pass ownership. In this regard Roman law at the time of Justinian reflects the characteristics of a causal system. However, if the thing was delivered on account of a dos or solutio by virtue of a stipulatio (and maybe also mutuum), there was no prior obligatory agreement and traditio was not affected by the causa at all. Ownership had passed merely by virtue of the intention to transfer and to receive ownership. In other words, Roman law portrays characteristics of an abstract system in these situations. Regarding the question whether or not the reciprocal intention to transfer and to receive ownership had been construed as an independent agreement which should be distinguished from the obligatory agreement, it appears that that was not the case. Because of the dual nature of the contract of
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