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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1937 matches for " Dwij Raj Bhatta "
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Evaluation of Nitrate Reductase Assay for Rapid Detection of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis  [PDF]
Ranjit Kumar Sah, Dwij Raj Bhatta, Gokarna Raj Ghimire, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.24021
Abstract: Emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) urgently demands for simple, rapid and inexpensive methods of its detection for the effective treatment of drug resistant tuberculosis, particularly in low-income countries. A total of 113 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested for four first line antitubercular drugs by nitrate reductase assay (NRA) and were compared with standard proportion method to evaluate NRA efficacy. Results were available in 7 - 14 days by NRA as compared to proportion method which generally takes 4 - 6 weeks. The sensitivity and specificity of NRA were 98.1% and 100% for isoniazid, 95.1% and 98.6% for rifampicin, 91.4% and 94.9% for streptomycin, and 78.6% and 97.9% for ethambutol, respectively. Agreement between NRA and proportion method were 99.1%, 97.3%, 93.8%, 95.6% for isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol, respectively. NRA is easier, inexpensive and reliable method for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterum tuberculosis for isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most im- portant drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. The reduction in susceptibility testing time, and higher sensitivity and specificity of NRA method is of fundamental importance in detecting MDR-TB.
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli Isolated from Uninary Tract Infected Patients Attending Bir Hospital
Amit Raj Sharma,Dwij Raj Bhatta,Jyotsna Shrestha,Megha Raj Banjara
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v14i1.8938
Abstract: Correction: on 23/08/2014, the spelling of 'Uninary' in the title was changed to 'Urinary'. Antibiotic resistance among uropathogens is emerging public health problem. This study was done for assessing antibiotic and multidrug resistance (MDR) patterns of Escherichia coli at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, among suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) patients from January to March, 2011. Altogether, 739 urine samples were analysed by semi-quantitative culture method and uropathogens were identified by conventional methods. E. coli was tested (109 samples) for antimicrobial susceptibility by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method as per Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Out of 739 samples, 27.3% gave significant growth of E. coli while 3.1% and 29.2% samples gave mixed and non-significant growth respectively. E. coli was found to be most predominant isolate (54.0%) followed by coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) (21.3%) and Enterococcus spp. (7.3%). Nitrofurantoin was found to be the most effective antibiotic followed by ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin while cephalexin was least effective. Out of 109 E. coli isolates, 90.8% were MDR strains and most of the isolates had a very high multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index, suggesting the origin of the isolates to be of high antibiotic usage. E. coli showed higher rate of resistance towards commonly used oral antibiotics. However, nitrofurantoin is still active against organisms. Thus, nitrofurantoin could be the choice for empirical therapy of UTI. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 14, No. 1 (2013) 177-184 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njst.v14i1.8938
β-Lactamase-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Pathogens from Tracheal Aspirates of Intensive Care Unit Patients at National Institute of Neurological and Allied Sciences, Nepal
Santosh Khanal,Dev Raj Joshi,Dwij Raj Bhatta,Upendra Devkota,Bharat Mani Pokhrel
ISRN Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/847569
Abstract: The widespread use of tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation to support the critically ill patients increases the risk of development of tracheobronchitis and bronchopneumonia. This cross-sectional study was conducted with an aim to isolate and identify bacterial pathogens from tracheal aspirates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) from August 2011 to April 2012 at National Institute of Neurological and Allied Sciences (NINAS), Kathmandu, Nepal. ESBL was detected by combined disk assay using cefotaxime and cefotaxime with clavulanate, AmpC β-lactamase by inhibitor-based method using cefoxitin and phenylboronic acid, and MBL by Imipenem-EDTA combined disk method. 167 bacterial strains were isolated from 187 samples and majority of them were Acinetobacter spp. followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae with 32.9% and 25.1%, respectively. 68.8% of isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) and Acinetobacter spp. constituted 85.4%. ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase, and MBL were detected in 35 (25%), 51 (37.2%), and 11 (36.7%) isolates, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. (42.8%) were the predominant ESBL producer while Acinetobacter spp. were the major AmpC β-lactamase producer (43.1%) and MBL producer (54.5%). 1. Introduction Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an opening directly into the trachea to ventilate and aspirate the patient in critical care setting [1]. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) ranges from 10 to 25% of all intensive care unit (ICU) patients resulting in high mortality rate of 22–71%, which is 6–21 times higher in intubated patients [2]. The tracheostomized patients are colonized or infected with bacteria either endogenously or exogenously. Exogenous bacteria include Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and members of Enterobacteriaceae and endogenous bacteria include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. These bacteria are usually resistant to multiple antibiotics and cause either tracheobronchitis or bronchopneumonia [3]. Risk factors for colonization or infection with multidrug-resistant bacterial species include prolonged length of hospital stay, exposure to an ICU, receipt of mechanical ventilation, colonization pressure, exposure to broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, recent surgery, invasive procedures, and underlying severity of illness [4, 5]. β-Lactamases are the commonest cause of bacterial resistance to β-lactam antimicrobial agents, which are used in the
Low-dimensional Nilpotent Lie Groups G4
Chet Raj Bhatta
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2951
Abstract: An uncertainty principle due to Hardy for Fourier transform pairs on R says that if the function f is "very rapidly decreasing" then the Fourier transform cannot also be "very rapidly decreasing unless f is indentically zero." In this paper we study the relevant data for G 4 and state and prove an analogue of Hardy theorem for low-dimensional nilpotent Lie groups G 4 . Key words: Fourier transform; Uncertainity principle; Nilpotent Lie groups DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2951 Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 10, 2009 Page: 155-159 ?
Stability of Money Demand Function in Nepal
Siddha Raj Bhatta
Banking Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/bj.v3i1.7508
Abstract: This paper examines the long-run stability issue of money demand function in Nepal using the annual data set of 1975-2009 by using the recently developed ARDL modelling to cointegration popularized by Pesaran and Shin (1999). The bounds test shows that there exists the long-run cointegrating relationship among demand for real money balances, real GDP, and interest rate in case of both narrow and broad monetary aggregates. Further, the CUSUM and CUSUMSQ test reveal that both the long-run narrow and broad money demand functions are stable. The results show that demand for money balance in Nepal is a stable and predictable function of a few variables and the central bank can rely on the monetary aggregates as intermediate targets for achieving the broad economic objectives.
Multi-Drug and Pan-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Challenge in Post- Antibiotic Era
Shiva Bhandari,Megha R Banjara,Binod Lekhak,Dwij R Bhatta,Shyam R Regmi
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v13i2.7736
Abstract: Clinicians still lack an appreciation of the potential importance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in the hospitals. So this study was done in order to isolate and assess the prevalence of multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRPA) and pan-drug resistant P. aeruginosa (PDRPA) from the intensive care units (ICUs). A cross-sectional study was conducted for six months at the ICUs of Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Kathmandu. A total of 1,060 samples were processed out of which 700 were clinical samples directly taken from the admitted patients while 360 were the surface swab samples. The isolates were identified using routine conventional methods based upon microscopic findings, colony morphology and biochemical properties. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 66 (9.43%) clinical samples while 60 (16.67%) were surface swab samples. Among clinical isolates, 56 (84.8%) were sensitive to cefoparazone+sublactam (CSL) followed by 42 (63.6%) to polymixin-B and 36 (54.5%) to piperacillin-tazobactam (PT), while among surface swab sample isolates more than 90% were sensitive to most of the common antibiotics used. About 59 (89.4%) MDRPA were isolated from clinical samples while it was only 7 (11.7%) from surface swab samples. Only isolates from clinical samples (6.1%) yielded PDRPA. Since P. aeruginosa has shown the reduced susceptibility towards single antibiotics such as carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and cephalosporins, combined antibiotics like CSL and PT remained choice of treatment. This can eliminate potential threat of MDRPA and PDRPA in the ICUs. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 13, No. 2 (2012) 197-202 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/njst.v13i2.7736
Bacteriological profile of blood stream infections among febrile patients attending a tertiary care centre of Western Nepal
Dharm Raj Bhatta, Abhishek Gaur, HS Supram
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v4i3.8165
Abstract: Background Blood stream infections (BSI) are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. This study was conducted to determine the common bacterial agents associated with BSI with their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in a tertiary care centre in the Western region of Nepal. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of two years from May 2010 to May 2012. All patients with fever (temperature ≥ 38°C) were included in the study. Results A total of 4,145 patients with febrile illness were included in this study, bacterial agents were isolated in 251 (6%) cases. Common bacterial isolates were Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas species , Acinetobacter species, Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative Staphylococci . Paratyphoid fever (Caused by S. Paratyphi A ) is more common than typhoid fever. The members of Enterobacteriaceae were found to be resistant to ampicillin and cefazolin. Majority of the nonfermenters were found to be sensitive to most antibiotics. Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin were sensitive to majority of gram positive bacteria. Conclusion Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant causes of BSIs. The occurrence of drug resistance among the isolated bacteria is of great concern. Imipenem showed 100% sensitivity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicating lack or low level of MBL activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v4i3.8165 Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 4(2013) 92-98
Effect of row spacing and direction of sowing on yield and yield attributing characters of wheat cultivated in Western Chitwan, Nepal  [PDF]
Bisheshwor Prasad Pandey, Komal Bahadur Basnet, Madan Raj Bhatta, Shrawan Kumar Sah, Resham Bahadur Thapa, Tanka Prasad Kandel
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.47044

A field experiment was conducted to study the growth and productivity of wheat as affected by row spacing and direction of sowing at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during the 2007-2008 wheat growing season. The experiment was carried out in 3-factors factorial randomized complete block design comprising two varieties (Gautam and BL-2800), three row spacings (15, 20 and25 cm) and two row directions of sowing (east-west and north-south). The effects of variety and row direction of sowing on grain yield were significant (p < 0.05), but the grain yield was not affected by the row spacing treatment. BL-2800 variety produced higher grain yield (3.53 t·ha-1) as compared to Gautam (3.11 t·ha-1). Both wheat varieties yielded about 11% higher (p < 0.05) grain in the north-south sowing as compared to the eastwest sowing.

Impact of Climate, Climate Change and Modern Technology on Wheat Production in Nepal: A Case Study at Bhairahawa
Janak Lal Nayava,Rabi Singh,Madan Raj Bhatta
Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/jhm.v6i1.5479
Abstract: The relation between climate and wheat production in Nepal was studied for the period 1970/71-2007/08. Due to the topographical differences within short north-south span of the country, Nepal has wide variety of climatic condition. About 70 to 90% of the rainfall occurs during the summer monsoon months (June to September) in Nepal and the rest of the months are almost dry. Wheat is cultivated during the dry winter period and therefore, the supplementary irrigation plays a vital role in its cultivation. Varieties of wheat have been developed to suit the local climatic conditions. Due to the availability of improved seeds, modern cultivation practice and a supplementary irrigation; the wheat cultivation has increased substantially throughout Nepal. The national area and production of wheat has remarkably increased from 228,000 ha to 706,481 ha and 193360 mt to 1,572,065 mt during 1970/71 to 2007/2008 respectively. Future planning to increase the wheat production in Nepal should give due consideration to the effect of global warming also. The present rate of annual increase of temperature was 0.06°C in Nepal. Trends of temperature rise were not uniform in Nepal. An increase of annual temperature at Bhairahawa during 1970-2008 was only 0.018°C. However, the wheat growing seasons at Bhairahawa, the trend of annual maximum temperature during November to April was -0.0068°C during the study period. Though modern facilities such as irrigation, improved seeds and fertilizers are available to some extent, weather and climate still plays an important role in the increase of area and production of wheat in Nepal
Genetic Parameters of Common Wheat in Nepal
Bal Krishna Joshi, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa and Madan Raj Bhatta
Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.104806781
Abstract: Knowledge on variation within traits and their genetics are prerequisites in crop improvement program. Thus, in present paper we aimed to estimate genetic and environmental indices of common wheat genotypes. For the purpose, eight quantitative traits were measured from 30 wheat genotypes, which were in randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Components of variance and covariance were estimated along with heritability, genetic gain, realized heritability, coheritability and correlated response. Differences between phenotypic and genotypic variances in heading days, maturity days and plant height were not large. Grain yield and plant height showed the highest phenotypic (18.189%) and genotypic (12.06%) coefficient of variances, respectively. Phenotypic covariance was higher than genotypic and environmental covariance in most of the traits. The highest heritability and realized heritability were of heading days followed by maturity days. Genetic gain for plant height was the highest. Co-heritability of 1000-grain weight with tillers number was the highest. The highest correlated response was expressed by grain yield with tillers number. This study indicates the possibility of improving wheat genotypes through selection utilizing existing variation in these traits.
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