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Coagulation Changes in Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia during Painful Crises and Steady State at Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Mukhtar Babajide Adebola, Durotoye Michael Olanrewaju, Morufat Mojisola Ogundeyi, Khadijah Bolanle Shonde-Adebola
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105081
Abstract:
Background: The pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is multifactorial and hypercoagulability is believed to play a role. The association between hypercoagulabilty and vaso-occlusive disease has been extensively studied in adult SCA patients, there is however paucity of data on the subject regarding paediatric SCA. Objective: This study set out to determine the presence of hypercoagulable states specifically in paediatric SCA subjects through quantification of specific coagulation markers during painful crises and steady state. Methodology: The study was a hospital- based longitudinal study carried out between May and October 2015 at Federal Medical Center, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Fifty SCA subjects were consecutively recruited during painful crises and followed up into their respective steady states. Twenty-five subjects with HbAA phenotype served as controls. Assays of coagulation markers, D-dimer and prothrombin fragment (F1 2) were carried out by sandwich ELISA method using MyBiosource? D-dimer and F1 2 ELISA kits. Results: Mean D-dimer level was 7358 ± 4354.33 ng/ml in the SCA subjects during painful crises, 5509 ± 3506.2 ng/ml during steady state, and 800 ± 1874.14 ng/ml in HbAA controls. Mean (F1 2) level was 0.84 ± 0.43 nmol/l in the SCA subjects during painful crises, 0.64 ± 0.25 nmol/l during steady state, and 0.41 ± 0.28 nmol/l, in HbAA controls. The mean values of both coagulation markers assayed were significantly higher during painful crises than at steady state (P = 0.002), while steady state values were also significantly higher than that of haemoglobin AA individuals (P = 0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests the presence of hypercoagulable states in paediatric SCA during steady state which is exacerbated during painful crises. The clinical imports of this finding require further elucidation.
Point-of-admission hypothermia among high-risk Nigerian newborns
Tinuade A Ogunlesi, Olusoga B Ogunfowora, Folashade A Adekanmbi, Bolanle M Fetuga, Durotoye M Olanrewaju
BMC Pediatrics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-8-40
Abstract: To determine the incidence and outcome of point-of-admission hypothermia among hospitalized babies.The axillary temperatures of consecutive admissions into a Nigerian Newborn Unit were recorded. Temperature <36.5°C defined hypothermia. The biodata and outcome of these babies were studied.Of 150 babies aged 0 to 648 hours, 93 had hypothermia with an incidence of 62%. Mild and moderate hypothermia accounted for 47.3% and 52.7% respectively. The incidence of hypothermia was highest (72.4%) among babies aged less than 24 hours. It was also higher among out-born babies compared to in-born babies (64.4% vs 58.3%). Preterm babies had significantly higher incidence of hypothermia (82.5%) compared with 54.5% of term babies (RR = 1.51; CI = 1.21 – 1.89). The incidence of hypothermia was also highest (93.3%) among very-low-birth-weight babies.The Case-Fatality-Rate was significantly higher among hypothermic babies (37.6% vs 16.7%; RR = 2.26, CI = 1.14 – 4.48) and among out-born hypothermic babies (50% vs 17.1%; RR = 0.34, CI = 0.16 – 0.74). CFR was highest among hypothermic babies with severe respiratory distress, sepsis, preterm birth and asphyxia.The high incidence and poor outcome of hypothermia among high-risk babies is important. The use of the 'warm chain' and skin-to-skin contact between mother and her infant into routine delivery services in health facilities and at home may be useful.Neonatal hypothermia, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as axillary temperature less than 36.5°C, [1] is a major contributor to neonatal illnesses and deaths both in the developed and developing parts of the world. [2-5]The body temperature of a newborn infant tends to fall progressively after birth as part of the transition form the intra-uterine to extra-uterine environment [1] particularly among babies who are preterm, low birth weight or sick infants. [6] In most parts of the developing world, including Nigeria, where these groups of babies are commonly encountered in cli
The role of punch biopsy in the management of carcinoma of the cervix in a low resource centre  [PDF]
Adekunle Olanrewaju Oguntayo
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2013.34031
Abstract: Background: Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest malignant tumor of the female genital tract in Northern Nigeria and the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in developing countries. The predicament is further worsened by poor uptake of cytological screening programs, which are either not available or where available are underutilized due  to lack of widespread awareness and the cost as    an average Nigerian earns less than a dollar per day. In addition to the above constrains, majority of these patients also presents late to the hospital for intervention. Objective: To emphasize the significance of punch biopsy and clinical staging of advanced carcinoma of the cervix and see how we can shift from our traditional, Examination under Anesthesia (EUA) to Clinical staging and punch biopsy for advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Methodology: Review of existing literature and experience from our own center. Results: The punch biopsy has 88.8% positive predictive value in making a diagnosis of cancer of the cervix. Late presentation was as high as 81.7 percent for carcinoma of the cervix in our centre. The patients present late for care; majority actually presents in stages III & IV when little or nothing can be done for them. Conclusion: In view of these predicaments that face a gynecological oncologist practicing in low resources settings like ours, there is a need to consider the role of punch biopsy, clinical staging and radio-logical assessment for making a diagnosis, especially among those women who cannot afford EUA or are having renal complication that makes EUA unachievable.
Cellular Automata Simulation of Gap-Filler Dissolution during Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Single Crystal Materials  [PDF]
Adam Ghoneim, Olanrewaju Akanbi Ojo
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science (MNSMS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/mnsms.2012.22002
Abstract: A new numerical model is developed using a Cellular Automata (CA) method to study the liquid-phase dissolution behavior of gap-filler powder particles in interlayer powder mixture during transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding process. The model prediction of microstructural evolution in TLP joint between single crystal substrates show that formation of misoriented stray-grains results from incomplete liquation of the gap-filler powder particles. In contrast to what is generally assumed and reported, numerical calculations coupled with experimental verification show that under properly selected process parameters, complete melting of the gap-filler powder particles is possible. This is imperative to prevent the formation of misoriented stray-grains and maintain single crystallinity during TLP bonding of single crystal materials. The dependence of complete melting of the gap-filler particles on salient TLP bonding parameters are analyzed and discussed.
The Climate Effect of Urbanization in A City of Developing Country: The Case Study Of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
RM Olanrewaju
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2009,
Abstract: The impact of urbanization on climate with focus on minimum and maximum temperatures was examined for Ilorin city. The study period spanned through 1976-2005. Correlation and regression statistics were employed to investigate relationship and trend was also identified using ten years moving average. The result of the analyses show maximum temperature having a strong positive relationship significant at 0.01 confidence level while mild positive relationship occurred between minimum temperature and population growth. Population growth account for 67.5% and 74% variability observed in minimum and maximum temperature and the trends show a general rise in all the variables.
An Analytical Method for Failure Prediction of Composite Pinned Joints
Olanrewaju Aluko
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract:
The Determinants of Interest Rate Spreads in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation  [PDF]
Anthony E. Akinlo, Babatunde Olanrewaju Owoyemi
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.37107
Abstract: The paper examines the determinants of interest rate spreads in Nigeria using a panel of 12 commercial banks for the period 1986-2007. The results suggest that cash reserve requirements, average loans to average total deposits, remuneration to total assets and gross domestic product have positive effect on interest rate spreads. However, non-interest income to average total assets, treasury certificate and development stocks have negative relationship with interest rate spreads. In general, the findings that suggest a reduction in cash reserve ratio, high bank overhead costs amongst others will help to moderate the high interest rate spreads in Nigeria.
Optimization of Recuperative System in Rotary Furnace for Minimization of Elemental Loss during Melting  [PDF]
Sylvester Olanrewaju Omole, Raymond Taiwo Oluyori
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2014.26059
Abstract: Two rotary furnaces of different construction model were used for the research work. One has no recuperating system and the second one has recuperating system. 60 kg of grey cast iron scrap was charged into each of the furnaces at different time, after preheating the furnaces for 40 minutes. 0.5 kg graphite and 0.2 kg ferrosilicon were charged along with the scrap. The theoretical charge calculations have the composition of the melt as 4.0% carbon and 2.0% silicon. Charges in the furnaces were heated to obtain molten metal suitable for casting at 1350°C. The content of the furnaces was tapped three times after the attainment of 1350°C with 15 minutes interval between each tapping. Optical light emission spectrometer was used to analyze the resulting composition of the tapped samples. For type A furnace (without recuperation), sample A has its carbon and silicon contents reduced compared to expected value by 25.5% and 10.8%, sample B reduced by 29% and 13.4% and sample C reduced by 32% and 17.0% respectively. In Type B furnace (with recuperation), sample D has its carbon and silicon contents reduced by 12.2% and 7.3%, Sample E reduced by 13.0% and 8.0% and sample F reduced by 13.9% and 8.9% respectively.
Effect of Tillage Operations on Soil Moisture Contents in the Southern Guinea Savanna Ecological Zone of Nigeria  [PDF]
R. M. Olanrewaju, A. S. Abubakar
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.73015
Abstract: An experimental farm plot was set up at the National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM), kilometer 12 Ilorin-Idofian Road to investigate the effect of various agronomic operations (mound, ridge and plough tillage) on soil moisture content of varying depth intervals of 0 - 15 cm, 15 - 30 cm, 30 - 45 cm and 45 - 60 cm respectively. The experiment was conducted between year 2007 and 2009. Samples were taken on weekly basis from various depths using hand screw auger. The percentage moisture was determined by oven drying oil sample to a constant weight at the temperature of 105°C. The difference between the initial weight and weight after oven drying was calculated and the percentage determined. Weekly data generated were grouped on monthly basis and the means calculated. Seasonal values were also calculated. ANOVA and the Post Hoc multiple comparison were employed to investigate variations in soil moisture content between tillage systems and within the four soil depths. The result showed mound tillage to be the driest and ridge was then wettest of all the tillage system considered. The difference between varying intervals of seach tillage became more pronounced between depth intervals of 0 - 15 cm and 15 - 30 cm. Generally, the result of ANOVA indicates seasonal variation in soil moisture between the three tillage methods at all depths considered. Again the result of the Pos Hoc multiple comparison shows that variation in soil moisture content between the 3 tillage systems in wet and in dry season in not significant because the p value > 0.05. Suggestions were made on the way forward towards achieving a self sufficient food production status.
Utilization of sun-dried on-farm generated poultry litter as a feed resource for growing-finishing pigs
AOK Adesehinwa, OO Obi, BA Makanjuola, AO Adebayo, ES Durotoye
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Forty eight (48) growing-finishing pigs (36.11 ± 1.26 kg) were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of 0, 33.33 and 66.67% sun-dried on-farm generated poultry litter (SOPL) as a replacement for 30% maize in diets of growing-finishing pigs on weight basis to assess its implication on the chemical composition of the feed, growth performance and blood chemistry of the pigs. Each treatment was replicated four times with 4 pigs/replicate in a completely randomized design. The diets were formulated to contain 16 - 19% crude protein and the pigs housed in concrete floored pens containing feeding and watering troughs for the duration of the study. The results obtained in this study revealed some numerical differences in the crude protein and fibre contents of the SOPL diets over the control diet. Increases were also recorded in the acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) fractions of the diets as a result of the replacement levels of SOPL. Daily weight gains and the efficiency of feed utilization of the growing pigs were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by the graded levels of SOPL. Replacement of maize with 33 and 66% SOPL resulted in 10.4 -20.9% reduction in the cost of feed/kg. This in turn resulted in 15 - 25% reduction in the cost of feed required for an additional kg gain/pig when the graded levels of SOPL was fed to the pigs. An increased level of up to 66% SOPL resulted in a depression (P < 0.05) in the values of packed cell volume (PCV) and white blood cells (WBC) while the hemoglobin, serum glucose, urea, creatinine and glutamate pyruvate transaninase values of the pigs across the groups were unaffected (P > 0.05). However, variations recorded in the values of the red blood cells (RBC) and alkaline phosphatase did not follow any particular trend. The values of the serum total protein, albumin and cholesterol values increased significantly (P < 0.05).
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