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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9527 matches for " Drug Residues "
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Residuos de fármacos en alimentos de origen animal: panorama actual en Colombia
Lozano A,María C; Arias M,Diana C;
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias , 2008,
Abstract: according to worldwide reference organizations, drugs residues in animal products are risk factors in public health and economic limit on any country. besides, quality requirements demanded in exported food are higher with development of more sensible analytical methods. promotion of native products to international markets is fundamental in colombian policies; in deed it has been necessary reforming procedures, generating new regulations, and renewing technological capacity to control drug residues in food of animal origin in order to fulfill requirements demanded from interested countries. this review exposes several aspects related to drug residues on animal tissues: national and international regulations, effects on human health, analytical methods for detect them, risk assessment, control and current research in colombia.
Malformaciones congénitas y exposición a pesticidas
Rojas R,Alejandra; Ojeda B,María Elena; Barraza O,Ximena;
Revista médica de Chile , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872000000400006
Abstract: background: chronic pesticide exposure is a recognized risk for human health. the frequency of congenital malformations in exposed people, can be used for epidemiological studies assessing reproductive risk secondary to toxic exposure. aim: to study the association between the incidence of congenital malformations and parent?s exposure to pesticides. material and methods: a prospective study of cases and controls. the exposure could be caused by occupational activities or residence around fumigated crops. the records of cases and controls from the surveillance carried out in the hospital regional de rancagua were analyzed. this hospital is active member of a collaborative study of congenital malformations in latin america. results: in two years there was a total of 453 newborns (18 stillborn) with congenital malformations, with an incidence of 41.24 ?. considering only children born alive, the paired analysis of cases and controls showed an association of congenital malformations with a history of maternal exposure, with an attributable fraction of 54.4%. conclusions: these results, showing an association between pesticide exposure and congenital malformations, should be analyzed in the future by a logistic regression test. (rev méd chile 2000; 128: 399-404)
Antimicrobial Drug Resistance AND#8211; A global concern
P.T.A. Usha,Sabitha Jose and A.R. Nisha
Veterinary World , 2010,
Abstract: Antimicrobial drug resistance is a natural phenomena. It is exacerbated by under use and over use of antimicrobials. Microorganisms develop resistance by various mechanisms and resistant genes are incorporated to the organism and genetic transfer of resistance occurs. Infection caused by resistant microbes fails to respond to treatment and selection of resistant strains occurs. Veterinary antimicrobials also contribute to development of resistance in human. Antimicrobial drug residues after treatment of infectious diseases and with the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in animal pose greater risk of development of antimicrobial drug resistance in human beings. In order to prevent development of drug resistance proper withdrawal time for the food of animal origin should be followed. Removal selection pressure can cause reversion of resistant strains to susceptible. Indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents should be avoided. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000): 138-139]
Rapid Methods for detection of Veterinary Drug residues in Meat
Shankar,B.P.,Manjunatha Prabhu,B.H.
Veterinary World , 2010,
Abstract: The use of substances having hormonal or thyreostatic action as well as b-agonists is banned in many countries. However, sometimes forbidden drugs may be added to feeds for illegal administration to farm animals for promoting increased muscle development or increased water retention and thus obtain an economical benefit. The result is a fraudulent overweight of meat but, what is worse, residues of these substances may remain in meat and may pose a real threat to the consumer either through exposure to the residues, transfer of antibiotic resistance or allergy risk. This has exerted a great concern among the meat consumers. The control of the absence of these forbidden substances in animal foods and feeds is regulated in the European Union by Directive 96/23/EC on measures to monitor certain substances and residues in live animals and animal products. Analytical methodology, including criteria for identification and confirmation, for the monitoring of compliance was also given in Decisions 93/256/EEC and 93/257/EEC. More recently, Decision 2002/657/EC provided rules for the analytical methods to be used in testing of official samples. New substances with anabolic properties are being detected year by year increasing the list of forbidden compounds to be tested. Furthermore, the extended practice consisting in the use of “cocktails” (mixtures of low amounts of several substances that exert a synergistic effect) to have a similar growth promotion, reduces the margin for an effective analytical detection. Thus, the evolution of the “black market” is making really difficult to have an effective analytical control of the residues of these substances in foods of animal origin. Control laboratories must face an increasing demand of analysis like the growing number of residues to be analysed in different types of samples, the strict guidelines for analytical methodologies according to the latest Directives, the increased costs of such new methodologies, the variety of residues to search per sample and the need to invest on powerful new instruments for identification and confirmatory purposes. Rapid and versatile screening methodologies make its control easier and reduce the number of non-compliant samples to be confirmed through tedious and costly confirmatory analytical methodologies. For instance, the multiresidue analysis can be performed better by using fast LC methods. Thus, the availability of new screening methodologies and the improvement of the existing ones will contribute to a better safety assurance of meat and other foods of animal origin. [Vet. Wor
Malformaciones congénitas y exposición a pesticidas Congenital malformations and pesticide exposure
Alejandra Rojas R,María Elena Ojeda B,Ximena Barraza O
Revista médica de Chile , 2000,
Abstract: Background: Chronic pesticide exposure is a recognized risk for human health. The frequency of congenital malformations in exposed people, can be used for epidemiological studies assessing reproductive risk secondary to toxic exposure. Aim: To study the association between the incidence of congenital malformations and parent’s exposure to pesticides. Material and methods: A prospective study of cases and controls. The exposure could be caused by occupational activities or residence around fumigated crops. The records of cases and controls from the surveillance carried out in the Hospital Regional de Rancagua were analyzed. This hospital is active member of a collaborative study of congenital malformations in Latin America. Results: In two years there was a total of 453 newborns (18 stillborn) with congenital malformations, with an incidence of 41.24 ‰. Considering only children born alive, the paired analysis of cases and controls showed an association of congenital malformations with a history of maternal exposure, with an attributable fraction of 54.4%. Conclusions: These results, showing an association between pesticide exposure and congenital malformations, should be analyzed in the future by a logistic regression test. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 399-404)
Medicamentos de consumo humano en el agua, propiedades físico-químicas
Ramos Alvari?o,Caridad;
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiolog?-a , 2009,
Abstract: in recent past years it is recognized that the active pharmaceutical compounds in aquatic environment are one the emerging events in environmental chemistry, originated by disposition of the municipal, sewage, from hospitals and for production waters treated or not. its presence originates an antibiotic resistance, affecting the treatment biological processes and exceeding the fitness for drinking, etc. the aim of present paper is to approach the features related to presence of wastes from human-consumption drugs present in water, its quantification and the physic-chemical characteristic, reported by many authors in past decade, it is a problem approaching the contamination provoking these compounds and the need of its study. physic-chemical characteristic of drugs group were obtained consulting different databases and from study of more than 100 scientific articles on this matter. its detection in water was demonstrated, concentration in water of the drugs selected and its physic-chemical characteristic was reported. it is recognized that these compounds potentially are carried in a majority was in aquiferous systems. we must to make a study in depth on this matter.
Another point of view on side effects of antifungal compounds used in veterinary medicine
Carmen Lidia Chitescu,,Anca Nicolau
Medicamentul Veterinar , 2011,
Abstract: The release of pharmaceuticals into environment has become an increasing concern in recent years. Fungi are part of the microbial flora of many animals, humans and foodstuffs, and some species can cause disease. An antimycotic or antifungal product is one that is used in the treatment of fungal infections. Even at low concentrations, antifungals exert an action against micro-organisms and exhibit selective toxicity towards them. The use of antimicrobials selects for resistant populations of micro-organisms. Development of resistance to antifungals is an increasing problem in veterinary and human medicine.
Concentrations of veterinary drug residues in milk from individual farms in Croatia
Nina Biland?i?,Bo?ica Solomun Kolanovi?,Ivana Varenina,Zorica Jurkovi?
Mljekarstvo , 2011,
Abstract: A total of 119 raw milk samples collected at individual small milk-producing facilities and collection tanks of milk routes from five counties of east and north continental Croatia were examined for chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, gentamicin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, flumequine and enrofloxacin from January to March of 2011. Immunoassay methods used for drug determination were validated according to the guidelines laid down by European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Data indicated that the methods are appropriate for the detection of antibiotics measured. Measured mean values (μg L-1) of antibiotics were: 0.005 for chloramphenicol, 3.67 for sulfonamides, 2.83 for tetracyclines, 1.10 for gentamicin, 2.64 for streptomycin, 7.67 for dihydrostreptomycin, 10.4 for flumequine and 4.11 for enrofloxacin. None of samples analyzed showed the presence of veterinary drug residues above the maximum residues levels (MRLs) established by European Union and Croatian legislation. The calculated estimated daily intakes (EDIs) for the average daily milk consumption of 300 mL for an adult in Croatia for examined antibiotics showed levels 20 to 1640 times lower than the values of acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) fixed by European Medicines Agency and World Health Organization. This suggested that toxicological risk associated with the consumption of analysed milk could not be considered a public health issue with regards to these veterinary drugs.
Safety, efficacy, and tissues residues of ivermectin in reindeer
Robert A. Dieterich,Arthur L. Craigmill
Rangifer , 1990,
Abstract: Safety, efficacy, and tissue residues of ivermectin, a broad spectrum parasiticide, were determined in Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Reindeer treated at 5 times and 10 times the standard dose of 200 mcg/kg had no detectable physical or behavioral reactions to ivermectin injected subcutaneously in the mid-cervical area. Ivermectin eliminated essentially 100% of reindeer warble larvae (Hypoderma (Oedemagena) tarandi). Tissue levels of ivermectin in back fat, injection site, muscle, liver, and kidney collected 3, 10, 17, and 24 days post injection were determined. All tissues levels rapidly declined and were approaching low unmea-surable amounts at the end of the 24 day test period. Ivermectin is a safe effective parasiticide that has been used successfully to threat thousands of reindeer in Alaska.
Screening of veterinary drug residues in milk from individual farms in Macedonia
Dimitrieska-Stojkovic Elizabeta,Hajrulai-Musliu Zehra,Stojanovska-Dimzoska Biljana,Sekulovski Pavle
Macedonian Veterinary Review , 2011,
Abstract: A total of 497 raw milk samples collected at individual farms and collection tanks for milk from eight regions from Macedonia were examined for chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, quinolones and tetracyclines from October 2008 until April 2011. Immunoassay methods were used for the determination of chloramphenicol, sulfonamides and quinolones, and high performance liquid chromatography with Diode Array detection was applied for screening of tetracyclines. The methods were validated according to the recommendations laid down by European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The obtained data confirmed that the methods were appropriate for detection of antibiotics determined, at the concentration level of interest. Measured range of concentrations (in μg/kg) was 13.5-147.9 for sulfonamides, 0.6-22.0 for quinolones and 17.4-149.1 for tetracyclines, with calculated mean values (in μg/kg) 24.7 for sulfonamides, 12.6 for qinolones and 41.9 for tetracyclines. None of the analyzed samples showed presence of chloramphenicol over the minimum required performance level value of the screening method. The calculated estimated daily intakes for the average daily consumption of 200 mL of milk for an adult in Macedonia, for the examined antimicrobials, obtained levels 2 to 100 times lower than the values of the acceptable daily intakes fixed by World Health Organization. This indicates that toxicological risk associated with the consumption of analyzed milk could not be considered as a public health issue with regards to these veterinary drugs.
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