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OALib Journal期刊

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Computed Tomography of the Petrous Bone: Particularities in Children  [PDF]
Dounia Basraoui, Kenza Elatiqi, Hicham Jalal
Advances in Molecular Imaging (AMI) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ami.2018.82002
Abstract: Like any organ in children, the ear has particular anatomical features that are well shown in imaging. The petrous bone computed tomography (CT) is a valuable tool for diagnosing ear pathologies and evaluating surgical possibilities. In children, the ear has the peculiarity of having the morphology and size of adults, and the only difference resides in the components of the middle and inner ear related to the growth of the temporal bone and the state of ossification which are progressive with age. Some aspects of growth can simulate pathology and must be known. The pneumatisation of the temporal bone occurs gradually after birth and in several outbreaks until adulthood. The external auditory canal, the internal auditory meatus and the petromastoid canal progressively reach the adult aspect because of the growth of the petrous bone. This work aims to highlight the particularities of the petrous bone CT in pediatrics, since it has become widely used in the exploration of malformations, trauma, infectious complications of the ear and in the assessment of deafness.
Desmoid Tumor of the Pelvis in Children: One Case Report  [PDF]
Hana El Mansouri, Amal Zourair, Hanane Hammaoui, Salma Amouzoune, Ibtissam Zouita, Dounia Basraoui, Hanane Rais, Hicham Jalal
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105122
Abstract:
Desmoid tumors are invasive and aggressive deep fibromatosis rare in children. They occur in muscles, their sheaths and fasciae. Medical imaging (CT and MRI) can suggest the diagnosis, guide the therapeutic management and the follow-up. We report a pediatric case of desmoid tumor of the pelvis through which we describe the clinical and radiological appearance of these tumors in children.
Adapting to the digital age: a narrative approach
Sarah Cousins,Dounia Bissar
Research in Learning Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v20i0.18976
Abstract: The article adopts a narrative inquiry approach to foreground informal learning and exposes a collection of stories from tutors about how they adapted comfortably to the digital age. We were concerned that despite substantial evidence that bringing about changes in pedagogic practices can be difficult, there is a gap in convincing approaches to help in this respect. In this context, this project takes a “bottom-up” approach and synthesises several life-stories into a single persuasive narrative to support the process of adapting to digital change. The project foregrounds the small, every-day motivating moments, cultural features and environmental factors in people's diverse lives which may have contributed to their positive dispositions towards change in relation to technology enhanced learning. We expect that such narrative approaches could serve to support colleagues in other institutions to warm up to ever-changing technological advances.
Constraining GRB progenitors environment with Swift XRT
Dounia Saez,Diego G?tz
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The characteristics of the Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) environment may reflect the differences in GRB progenitors: long GRBs are expected to be found in high-density star-forming regions of the GRB host galaxies, while short ones may be associated with an older stellar population that may have had the time to travel far from stellar forming regions in potentially lower density regions. The latter is related to the hypothesis that short GRBs are associated to the merging of compact objects (BH-NS or NS-NS). We used the Swift XRT GRB afterglow archive to compare the intrinsic neutral hydrogen column density values for long and short GRBs within the redshift range 0.1- 1.3, performing a coherent analysis, and excluding from our analysis observations with poor statistics, which reduced our sample to 15 short GRBs. While short GRBs effectively show a median absorption value smaller than long ones the result is not statistically significant. In order to increase our sample we added short GRBs without redshift measure, and we assigned them random redshifts in the same range achieving a marginal increase in the statistical difference between long and short GRBs.
POLLUTION BACTERIOLOGIQUE DE LA ZONE COTIERE SAIDIA/MOULOUYA (REGION ORIENTALE DU MAROC)
M. ZEGMOUT,Y. BASRAOUI,M. MEZIANE,, A. CHAHLAOUI
REMISE : Revue de Microbiologie Industrielle Sanitaire et Environnementale , 2011,
Abstract: L’étude a été réalisée au niveau de l’embouchure de la Moulouya (c te Méditerranéenne Nord-Est du Maroc oriental), dans le but de comparer la contamination de Chamelia gallina (bivalve), L’eau de mer et les sédiments d’un même site naturel par les bactéries entériques : coliformes Fécaux (CF) et streptocoques fécaux (SF). Le dénombrement de ces indicateurs a révélé un niveau de contamination variable suivant le lieu et la saison. Cette contamination est surtout importante pendant les périodes pluvieuses (crues) et les mois chauds. Sur le site, ce coquillage présente des contaminations en SF 4 fois supérieures à celles en CF. Les sédiments ont accumulés les deux types de germes avec une efficacité inférieure à celle des bivalves. La contamination de Chamelia gallina, du sédiment et de l’eau de mer a montré une corrélation significative (p < 0,01) entre les trois compartiments.
Detection of events of public health importance under the international health regulations: a toolkit to improve reporting of unusual events by frontline healthcare workers
Emily MacDonald, Preben Aavitsland, Dounia Bitar, Katrine Borgen
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-713
Abstract: We investigated obstacles and incentives to event reporting through a systematic literature review and expert consultations with national public health officials from various European countries. Multi-day expert meetings and qualitative interviews were used to gather experiences and examples of public health event reporting. Feedback on specific components of the toolkit was collected from healthcare workers and public health officials throughout the design process.Evidence from 79 scientific publications, two multi-day expert meetings and seven qualitative interviews stressed the need to clarify concepts and expectations around event reporting in European countries between the frontline and public health authorities. An analytical framework based on three priority areas for improved event reporting (professional engagement, communication and infrastructure) was developed and guided the development of the various tools. We developed a toolkit adaptable to country-specific needs that includes a guidance document for IHR National Focal Points and nine tool templates targeted at clinicians and laboratory staff: five awareness campaign tools, three education and training tools, and an implementation plan. The toolkit emphasizes what to report, the reporting process and the need for follow-up, supported by real examples.This toolkit addresses the importance of mutual exchange of information between frontline healthcare workers and public health authorities. It may potentially increase frontline healthcare workers' awareness of their role in the detection of events of public health concern, improve communication channels and contribute to creating an enabling environment for event reporting. However, the effectiveness of the toolkit will depend on the national body responsible for dissemination and training.By 15 June 2012, all WHO member states are expected to have implemented the surveillance and response capacities defined in Annex 1A of the International Health Regula
Checkpointing strategies with prediction windows
Guillaume Aupy,Yves Robert,Frédéric Vivien,Dounia Zaidouni
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: This paper deals with the impact of fault prediction techniques on checkpointing strategies. We suppose that the fault-prediction system provides prediction windows instead of exact predictions, which dramatically complicates the analysis of the checkpointing strategies. We propose a new approach based upon two periodic modes, a regular mode outside prediction windows, and a proactive mode inside prediction windows, whenever the size of these windows is large enough. We are able to compute the best period for any size of the prediction windows, thereby deriving the scheduling strategy that minimizes platform waste. In addition, the results of this analytical evaluation are nicely corroborated by a comprehensive set of simulations, which demonstrate the validity of the model and the accuracy of the approach.
Checkpointing algorithms and fault prediction
Guillaume Aupy,Yves Robert,Frédéric Vivien,Dounia Zaidouni
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpdc.2013.10.010
Abstract: This paper deals with the impact of fault prediction techniques on checkpointing strategies. We extend the classical first-order analysis of Young and Daly in the presence of a fault prediction system, characterized by its recall and its precision. In this framework, we provide an optimal algorithm to decide when to take predictions into account, and we derive the optimal value of the checkpointing period. These results allow to analytically assess the key parameters that impact the performance of fault predictors at very large scale.
Impact of fault prediction on checkpointing strategies
Guillaume Aupy,Yves Robert,Frédéric Vivien,Dounia Zaidouni
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This paper deals with the impact of fault prediction techniques on checkpointing strategies. We extend the classical analysis of Young and Daly in the presence of a fault prediction system, which is characterized by its recall and its precision, and which provides either exact or window-based time predictions. We succeed in deriving the optimal value of the checkpointing period (thereby minimizing the waste of resource usage due to checkpoint overhead) in all scenarios. These results allow to analytically assess the key parameters that impact the performance of fault predictors at very large scale. In addition, the results of this analytical evaluation are nicely corroborated by a comprehensive set of simulations, thereby demonstrating the validity of the model and the accuracy of the results.
Asexual reproduction induces a rapid and permanent loss of sexual reproduction capacity in the rice fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae: results of in vitro experimental evolution assays
Dounia Saleh, Jo?lle Milazzo, Henri Adreit, Didier Tharreau, Elisabeth Fournier
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-12-42
Abstract: All the strains became female-sterile after 10 to 19 rounds of selection under asexual conditions. As no single-spore isolation was carried out, the observed decrease in the production of perithecia reflected the emergence and the invasion of female-sterile mutants. The female-sterile phenotype segregated in the offspring of crosses between female-sterile evolved strains and female-fertile wild-type strains. This segregation was maintained in the second generation in backcrosses. Female-sterile evolved strains were subjected to several stresses, but none induced the restoration of female fertility. This loss of fertility was therefore probably due to genetic rather than epigenetic mechanisms. In competition experiments, female-sterile mutants produced similar numbers of viable conidia to wild-type strains, but released them more efficiently. This advantage may account for the invasion of our populations by female-sterile mutants.We show for the first time that, in the absence of sexual reproduction, female-sterile mutants of M. oryzae rice strains can arise and increase in abundance in asexual generations. This change in phenotype was frequent and probably caused by mutation. These results suggest that female fertility may have been lost rapidly during the dispersion of the fungus from Asia to the rest of the world.Sexual reproduction is a widespread mode of reproduction in eukaryotic microorganisms, only a small proportion of which reproduce exclusively asexually [1]. However, sexual and asexual modes of reproduction are not exclusive in some species. Episodes of sexual reproduction may occur, for example, in fungal species that mostly reproduce asexually [2,3]. Furthermore, it has recently been shown that many fungal species previously thought to be clonal may also reproduce sexually [4]. For example, Campbell and Carter [5] demonstrated the occurrence of recombination in Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. O'Gorman et al. [6] recently discovered a sexual cycle
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