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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5767 matches for " Douglas Pachino "
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Harmonizing the agricultural biotechnology debate for the benefit of African farmers
Segenet Kelemu, George Mahuku, Martin Fregene, Douglas Pachino, Nancy Johnson, Lee Calvert, Idupulapati Rao, Robin Buruchara, Tilahun Amede, Paul Kimani, Roger Kirkby, Susan Kaaria, Kwasi Ampofo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2003,
Abstract: The intense debate over agricultural biotechnology is at once fascinating, confusing and disappointing. It is complicated by issues of ethical, moral, socio-economic, political, philosophical and scientific import. Its vocal champions exaggerate their claims of biotechnology as saviour of the poor and hungry, while, equally loudly, its opponents declare it as the doomsday devil of agriculture. Sandwiched between these two camps is the rest of the public, either absorbed or indifferent. Biotechnology issues specific to the African public must include crop and animal productivity, food security, alleviation of poverty and gender equity, and must exclude political considerations. Food and its availability are basic human rights issues—for people without food, everything else is insignificant. Although we should discuss and challenge new technologies and their products, bringing the agricultural biotechnology debate into food aid for Africa where millions are faced with life-or-death situations is irresponsible. Agricultural biotechnology promises the impoverished African a means to improve food security and reduce pressures on the environment, provided the perceived risks associated with the technology are addressed. This paper attempts to harmonize the debate, and to examine the potential benefits and risks that agricultural biotechnology brings to African farmers.
Democratic Centralism in Revolutionary China: Tensions within a People’s Democratic Dictatorship  [PDF]
Douglas Howland
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2017.74024
Abstract: Democratic centralism was a revolutionary strategy to reorganize society in China after 1949; it was the key governing aspect of Mao Zedong’s “people’s democratic dictatorship.” This essay explores the tensions between democracy and centralization in the practice of democratic centralism in 1950s Shanghai. Youth and workers groups reports reveal a high degree of commitment to open debate, elections, self-organization, and new forms of leadership. Other priorities, however—a strong central state regime—would come to dominate and, after 1957, centralism and unity cancelled democracy.
Carl Schmitt’s Turn to Sovereignty in Jurisprudence  [PDF]
Douglas Howland
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.92015
Abstract: Carl Schmitt’s early proposal to better unify the liberal state, by locating sovereignty in the executive, proved a disaster with the National Socialist regime. But sovereignty concerns a state’s internal as well as international relations, and Schmitt came to argue in the 1940s that an authoritative and sovereign form of international law might offer standards for unifying states within an international community, much as the Catholic Church once provided an intra-state source of law and authority. Unlike recent work that emphasizes Nomos, Großraum, or “institutional thinking,” this essay argues that Schmitt sought such a sovereign jurisprudence in the decisions of judges and justified it with the conservative claims of historical continuity.
Information Content Inclusion Relation and its Use in Database Queries  [PDF]
Junkang Feng, Douglas Salt
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.33031
Abstract: A database stores data in order to provide the user with information. However, how a database may achieve this is not always clear. The main reason for this seems that we, who are in the database community, have not fully understood and therefore clearly defined the notion of “the information that data in a database carry”, in other words, “the information content of data”. As a result, databases’ capability is limited in terms of answering queries, especially, when users explore information beyond the scope of data stored in a database, the database normally cannot provide it. The underlying reason of the problem is that queries are answered based on a direct match between a query and data (up to aggregations of the data). We observe that this is because the information that data carry is seen as exactly the data per se. To tackle this problem, we propose the notion of information content inclusion relation, and show that it formulates the intuitive notion of the “information content of data” and then show how this notion may be used for the derivation of information from data in a database.
Paradigm Consistency and the Depiction of Stiltedness: The Case of than I versus than me  [PDF]
Douglas J. Wulf
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2012.23014
Abstract: Close adherence to prescriptive rules of grammar can sometimes produce stilted language, which can impart to language a pompous or stuffy impression. It is ironic that an island of potential unacceptability can arise within what is regarded as Standard English. In instances where prescriptive grammaticality and sociolinguistic appropriateness are in opposition, disagreements over language use can occur. Despite its impact, stiltedness has received little scholarly attention, probably because it is an intangible, subjective phenomenon. This paper investigates an indirect way to depict stiltedness through a quantitative measure. The example selected to demonstrate this approach is the rule of bare pronouns in comparative sentences. With tangible quantitative measurements of paradigm consistency and inconsistency, stiltedness may perhaps be understood more effectively.
Assessing the Sensitivity of Climate Change Targets to Policies of Land Use, Energy Demand, Low Carbon Energy and Population Growth  [PDF]
Douglas Crawford-Brown
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.312178
Abstract: A reduced scale model of the coupled carbon cycle, population dynamics, energy system and land use characteristics is used to assess the sensitivity of atmospheric carbon to a variety of policies. Policies simulated include reduction of the rate of growth of the population; reduction of the rate of conversion of forested land to cropland; reduction in per capita energy demand in developed nations; reduction in per capita energy demand in developing nations; reduction in the carbon intensity of energy production in developed nations; and reduction in the carbon intensity of energy production in developing nations. For each policy, both the time to onset of the policy and the fractional annual rate of change in the associated model variable are established. Using as a measure of sensitivity the extension in years required for atmospheric carbon to reach the policy ceiling of 1160 BMT, achieved at a policy that introduces a rate of change in each affected model variable of 0.05 per year (a 5% change per year), then the policies in decreasing order of sensitivity are: Developing nations per capita growth (17 years), Developing nations carbon intensity (17 years), Population control (11 years), Developed nations carbon intensity (2.9 years), Developed nations per capita growth (2.8 years) and Land use (1.3 years). These values are all approximately doubled when population is stabilised first. An analysis of the model results also shows a convergence of the developed and developing nations per capita carbon emissions by 2100 when a portfolio of policies is selected to prevent a doubling of the pre-industrial revolution level of atmospheric carbon at any point in the future, consistent with a principle of “contract and converge”.
Does Aristotle Refute the Harmonia Theory of the Soul?  [PDF]
Douglas J. Young
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31008

In Aristotle’s On the Soul he considers and refutes two versions of the harmonia theory of the soul’s relation to the body. According to the harmonia theory, the soul is to the body what the tuning of a musical instrument is to its material parts. Though he believes himself to have entirely dismissed the view, he has not. I argue that Aristotle’s hylomorphic account is, in fact, an instance of the harmonia theory.

Perceptions of the Victimization of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities  [PDF]
Douglas N. Evans
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.32015
Abstract: Perceptions of the victimization of persons with intellectual disabilities were explored from the perspectives of adults with mild intellectual disabilities as well as service providers and supervisors who work with this population. Interviews were obtained for 10 adults with intellectual disabilities. Additionally, those who work with persons with intellectual disabilities were interviewed: 10 service providers and five supervisors (n = 25). Results indicate that perceptions of victimization were influenced by factors such as victimizer motivations, proximity to victimization, and situational pre-dictability. Offenses that cause harm are recognized as victimization by most, but non-harmful offenses are not always perceived as victimization, especially when respondents were involved in the offense. The implications of these findings related to recognition, reporting, and prevention of victimization are discussed.
Experiencing, Psychopathology, and the Tripartite Mind  [PDF]
Douglas Ozier, Chris Westbury
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.32026

The philosopher Eugene Gendlin argues that a distinctive mode of reasoning, called experiencing, is necessary for working through personally salient problems such as are encountered in psychotherapy. We review supporting empirical support. It is now possible to consider Gendlin’s ideas from a neurological perspective. Work directed at understanding the neurological underpinnings of consciousness and self-related processing, as well as comparative neuroanatomical work, are all consistent with and elucidated by Gendlin’s experiencing construct. We argue from this data that the human mind is composed of three interacting systems that are unique to or enhanced in humans compared to other primates. Two are dedicated to “hot and cold” cognition. The most important, least well-studied third system is dedicated to mediating between these forms of cognition. We outline how interactions between these systems define different forms of psychopathology and what they suggest about the structure of the human mind.

The Role of Advanced Biological Data in the Rationality of Risk-Based Regulatory Decisions  [PDF]
Douglas Crawford-Brown
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.43028

Advanced biological information such as computational biology, in vitro transformation assays, genome pathway analysis, genotoxicity assays, proteomics, gene expression, cell signaling disruption and hormone receptors offer the poten- tial for significant improvements in the ability of regulatory agencies to consider the risks of the thousands of compounds—and mixtures of compounds—currently unexamined. While the science for performing the assays underlying such information is developing rapidly, there is significantly less understanding of the rationality of using these data in specific decision problems. This paper explores these issues of rationality, identifying the issues of rationality that remain to be developed for applications in regulatory risk assessment, and providing a draft decision framework for these applications. The conclusion is that these rapid, high throughput methods hold the potential to significantly improve the protection of public health through better understanding of risks from compounds and mixtures, but incorporating them into existing risk assessment methodologies requires improvements in understanding the reliability and rates of Type I and Type II errors for specific applications.

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