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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 172376 matches for " Douglas E Raines "
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Adrenocortical suppression and recovery after continuous hypnotic infusion: etomidate versus its soft analogue cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate
Rile Ge, Ervin Pejo, Joseph F Cotten, Douglas E Raines
Critical Care , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/cc12494
Abstract: Dexamethasone-suppressed rats were randomized into an etomidate group, CPMM group, or control group. Rats in the etomidate and CPMM groups received 120-minute continuous infusions of etomidate or CPMM, respectively. Rats in the control group received neither hypnotic. In the first study, adrenocortical function during hypnotic infusion was assessed by administering adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 90 minutes after the start of the hypnotic infusion and measuring plasma corticosterone concentrations at the end of the infusion 30 minutes later. In the second study, adrenocortical recovery following hypnotic infusion was assessed by administering ACTH every 30 minutes after infusion termination and measuring plasma corticosterone concentrations 30 minutes after each ACTH dose.During hypnotic infusion, ACTH-stimulated serum corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower in the CPMM and etomidate groups than in the control group (100 +/- 64 ng/ml and 33 +/- 32 ng/ml versus 615 +/- 265 ng/ml, respectively). After hypnotic infusion, ACTH-stimulated serum corticosterone concentrations recovered to control values within 30 minutes in the CPMM group but remained suppressed relative to those in the control group for more than 3 hours in the etomidate group.Both CPMM and etomidate suppress adrenocortical function during continuous infusion. However, recovery occurs significantly more rapidly following infusion of CPMM.
Problems of interaction of a supersonic gas mixture with a wall solved by the projection method applied to the full Boltzmann equation
Alla Raines
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Numerical solution of non-steady problems of supersonic inflow of a binary mixture of a rarefied gas on a normally posed wall with mirror and diffuse reflection laws is obtained on the basis of the kinetic Boltzmann equation for the model of hard sphere molecules. For calculation of collision integrals we apply the projection method, developed by Tcheremissine for a one-component gas and generalized by the author for a binary gas mixture in the case of cylindrical symmetry. We demonstrate a good qualitative agreement of our results with other authors for one-component gases.
Orbits of turning points for maps of finite graphs and inverse limit spaces
Brian Raines
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: In this paper we examine the topology of inverse limit spaces generated by maps of finite graphs. In particular we explore the way in which the structure of the orbits of the turning points affects the inverse limit. We show that if $f$ has finitely many turning points each on a finite orbit then the inverse limit of $f$ is determined by the number of elements in the $\omega$-limit set of each turning point. We go on to identify the local structure of the inverse limit space at the points that correspond to points in the $\omega$-limit set of $f$ when the turning points of $f$ are not necessarily on a finite orbit. This leads to a new result regarding inverse limits of maps of the interval.
The Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmology
S. N. Raines,S. S. Eikenberry,R. Guzmu00E1n,N. Gruel
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2007,
Abstract: We report on the design, manufacture, and scientific performance of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmol- ogy (FISICA), a fully cryogenic all-reective image slicing integral _eld unit (IFU) for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph (Elston et al. 2003). We find that FISICA is capable of delivering excellent scientific re- sults. It now operates as a turnkey instru- ment at the KPNO 4-m telescope via collab- oration with the instrument team, who can assist with the proposal preparation and ob- servations, as well as provide the data reduc- tion tools for integral field spectroscopy.
The CP12 protein family: a thioredoxin-mediated metabolic switch?
Patricia E. López-Calcagno,Thomas P. Howard,Christine A. Raines
Frontiers in Plant Science , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00009
Abstract: CP12 is a small, redox-sensitive protein, representatives of which are found in most photosynthetic organisms, including cyanobacteria, diatoms, red and green algae, and higher plants. The only clearly defined function for CP12 in any organism is in the thioredoxin-mediated regulation of the Calvin–Benson cycle. CP12 mediates the formation of a complex between glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) in response to changes in light intensity. Under low light, the formation of the GAPDH/PRK/CP12 complex results in a reduction in the activity of both PRK and GAPDH and, under high light conditions, thioredoxin mediates the disassociation of the complex resulting in an increase in both GAPDH and PRK activity. Although the role of CP12 in the redox-mediated formation of the GAPDH/PRK/CP12 multiprotein complex has been clearly demonstrated, a number of studies now provide evidence that the CP12 proteins may play a wider role. In Arabidopsis thaliana CP12 is expressed in a range of tissue including roots, flowers, and seeds and antisense suppression of tobacco CP12 disrupts metabolism and impacts on growth and development. Furthermore, in addition to the higher plant genomes which encode up to three forms of CP12, analysis of cyanobacterial genomes has revealed that, not only are there multiple forms of the CP12 protein, but that in these organisms CP12 is also found fused to cystathionine-β-synthase domain containing proteins. In this review we present the latest information on the CP12 protein family and explore the possibility that CP12 proteins form part of a redox-mediated metabolic switch, allowing organisms to respond to rapid changes in the external environment.
The Effect of Online Homework Due Dates on College Student Achievement in Elementary Algebra
Joan M. Raines
Journal of Studies in Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5296/jse.v2i3.1704
Abstract: This quasi-experimental study examined the use of online homework in a college elementary algebra course to determine if homework due dates made a difference in students’ mathematics achievement as measured by unit tests and an end of course final exam. The extent to which homework was completed and possible gender differences in performance were also investigated. Participants in this study were students (n = 58) enrolled in three sections of the course during fall 2010 and spring 2011 semesters. The control group consisted of students who had all unit homework due the night before the unit test, and the study group had homework due throughout the unit testing period. Results of a two-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences in test grades between the two groups and an unpaired t-test showed no significant differences in final exam grades. Additionally, gender appeared to have no significant effect on academic performance either.
Numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for the shock wave in a gas mixture
A. A. Raines
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: We study the structure of a shock wave for a two-, three- and four-component gas mixture on the basis of numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for the model of hard sphere molecules. For the evaluation of collision integrals we use the Conservative Projection Method developed by F.G. Tscheremissine which we extended to gas mixtures in cylindrical coordinates. The transition from the upstream to downstream uniform state is presented by macroscopic values and distribution functions. The obtained results were compared with numerical and experimental results of other authors.
The specification property on a set-valued map and its inverse limit
Brian Raines,Tim Tennant
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper we consider dynamical properties of set-valued mappings and their implications on the associated inverse limit space. Specifically, we define the specification property and topological entropy for set-valued functions and prove some elementary results of these properties. We end with a few results regarding invariant measures for set-valued functions and their associated inverse limits.
The omega-limit sets of quadratic Julia sets
Andrew Barwell,Brian Raines
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper we characterize $\w$-limit sets of dendritic Julia sets for quadratic maps. We use Baldwin's symbolic representation of these spaces as a non-Hausdorff itinerary space and prove that quadratic maps with dendritic Julia sets have shadowing, and also that for all such maps, a closed invariant set is an $\w$-limit set of a point if, and only if, it is internally chain transitive.
Nurr1 dependent regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in immortalised synovial fibroblasts
Mark R Davies, Christine J Harding, Stephanie Raines, Kurt Tolley, Andrew E Parker, Mark Downey-Jones, Maurice RC Needham
Journal of Inflammation , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-2-15
Abstract: We overexpressed the wild type and a dominant negative form of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1, in a model synoviocyte cell line. Using the Affymetrix HG-U133 Genechips we demonstrate the effects on the transcriptome by the receptor. Further evidence of gene expression change was demonstrated using quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA analysis.We show that Nurr1 regulates transcription of a small number of genes for pro-inflammatory modulators of which the most significant is interleukin-8 (IL-8). We also demonstrate increased synthesis and secretion of IL-8 further supporting a role for Nurr1 in inflammatory signalling pathways.Using microarray analysis we show that elevated levels of Nurr1 leads to increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory genes: IL-8, Amphiregulin and Kit ligand in a model cell line. This data provides further evidence for an additional role for Nurr1 in inflammation and may play a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.Nuclear receptors can generally be described as ligand activated transcription factors that form a large superfamily of proteins. In humans 48 such receptors have been identified [1] and are involved with an extensive number of cellular processes throughout development and adult physiology [2]. Nuclear receptors are activated through binding by a diverse range of natural and synthetically produced ligand molecules including hormones, fatty acids and antibiotics. In addition to the receptors known to bind ligand, a group of nuclear receptors exist for which a ligand has not been identified; these are termed the orphan nuclear receptors. Among this group of orphans is Nurr1 (NR4A2), a member of the NR4 group of orphan nuclear receptors together with Nur77 (NR4A1) and NOR-1 (NR4A3) [3]. This family can bind as monomers to DNA response elements in the promoters of genes and activate transcription in the absence of ligand [4]. Interestingly, this family of receptors are also capable of binding as a heterodimer with the 9-cis-r
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