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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 224324 matches for " Douglas C. Weiser "
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Alternative Splicing of sept9a and sept9b in Zebrafish Produces Multiple mRNA Transcripts Expressed Throughout Development
Megan L. Landsverk,Douglas C. Weiser,Mark C. Hannibal,David Kimelman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010712
Abstract: Septins are involved in a number of cellular processes including cytokinesis and organization of the cytoskeleton. Alterations in human septin-9 (SEPT9) levels have been linked to multiple cancers, whereas mutations in SEPT9 cause the episodic neuropathy, hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA). Despite its important function in human health, the in vivo role of SEPT9 is unknown.
Protein Phosphatase 1 β Paralogs Encode the Zebrafish Myosin Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit
Vaishali Jayashankar, Michael J. Nguyen, Brandon W. Carr, Dale C. Zheng, Joseph B. Rosales, Joshua B. Rosales, Douglas C. Weiser
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075766
Abstract: Background The myosin phosphatase is a highly conserved regulator of actomyosin contractility. Zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model system to study the in vivo role of myosin phosphatase in controlling cell contractility, cell movement and epithelial biology. Most work in zebrafish has focused on the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase called Mypt1. In this work, we examined the critical role of Protein Phosphatase 1, PP1, the catalytic subunit of the myosin phosphatase. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in zebrafish two paralogous genes encoding PP1β, called ppp1cba and ppp1cbb, are both broadly expressed during early development. Furthermore, we found that both gene products interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase complex. In addition, expression of this complex results in dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and large scale rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Morpholino knock-down of ppp1cba and ppp1cbb results in severe defects in morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation through loss of myosin phosphatase function. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that zebrafish have two genes encoding PP1β, both of which can interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase. In addition, both genes are required for convergence and extension during gastrulation and correct dosage of the protein products is required.
“I’ve Got the Pilot”: An Interpretation of Flight, a Film by John Gatins, Writer, and Robert Zemeckis, Director  [PDF]
Judith Ferster, Paul Weiser
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/als.2014.23013

Robert Zemeckis’s recent film Flight, about a talented but flawed commercial airline pilot (played by Denzel Washington) is discussed on both the realistic and allegorical levels, showing the relationship between the contemporary plot and the fifteenth-century morality play, The Summoning of Everyman. Evidence for and against the different kinds of interpretation is identified and discussed. The film forces the main character to make a series of progressively more difficult and significant ethical decisions about drugs, alcohol, friends (true and false), lovers, and personal atonement that challenge him. The audience must make an interpretive decision between the possible levels of meaning.

Anti- and Protumorigenic Effects of PPARγ in Lung Cancer Progression: A Double-Edged Sword
Howard Li,Mary C. M. Weiser-Evans,Raphael Nemenoff
PPAR Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/362085
Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that plays an important role in the control of gene expression linked to a variety of physiological processes, including cancer. Ligands for PPARγ include naturally occurring fatty acids and the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs. Activation of PPARγ in a variety of cancer cells leads to inhibition of growth, decreased invasiveness, reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines, and promotion of a more differentiated phenotype. However, systemic activation of PPARγ has been reported to be protumorigenic in some in vitro systems and in vivo models. Here, we review the available data that implicate PPARγ in lung carcinogenesis and highlight the challenges of targeting PPARγ in lung cancer treatments. 1. Introduction Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women worldwide and is responsible for 1.4 million deaths annually [1]. Each year, more people die of lung cancer than breast, colon, and prostate cancers combined. Despite improvements in surgical techniques and combined therapies, lung cancer remains a disease with a dismal prognosis. Although one-year all-stage survival increased from 32% in 1973 to 41% in 1994, overall five-year survival has remained unchanged at 14%. The five-year survival rate is 53% for cases detected when the disease is still localized, but only 15% of lung cancers are diagnosed at this early stage [2]. These data underscore the need to develop new therapeutic approaches to target lung cancer progression and metastasis. During the past 25 years, cancer research has made great progress in defining pathways involved in the transformation of “normal” epithelial cells to cancer cells. These studies have largely focused on the identification of somatic mutations resulting in the activation of oncogenes and the inhibition of tumor suppressor pathways. However, the pathways mediating the conversion of a cancer cell to a metastatic cancer cell remain poorly understood. In addition, it has become apparent during the last decade that progression of solid tumors to metastatic disease involves not just changes in the transformed epithelia itself, but also critical changes in the surrounding stroma, designated the tumor microenvironment (TME) [3]. Changes in the TME have been observed for a long time, in particular, an association between chronic inflammation and tumor development [4]. However, the mechanistic pathways whereby stromal cells contribute to
Is Food Insecurity Associated with HIV Risk? Cross-Sectional Evidence from Sexually Active Women in Brazil
Alexander C. Tsai ,Kristin J. Hung,Sheri D. Weiser
PLOS Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001203
Abstract: Background Understanding how food insecurity among women gives rise to differential patterning in HIV risks is critical for policy and programming in resource-limited settings. This is particularly the case in Brazil, which has undergone successive changes in the gender and socio-geographic composition of its complex epidemic over the past three decades. We used data from a national survey of Brazilian women to estimate the relationship between food insecurity and HIV risk. Methods and Findings We used data on 12,684 sexually active women from a national survey conducted in Brazil in 2006–2007. Self-reported outcomes were (a) consistent condom use, defined as using a condom at each occasion of sexual intercourse in the previous 12 mo; (b) recent condom use, less stringently defined as using a condom with the most recent sexual partner; and (c) itchy vaginal discharge in the previous 30 d, possibly indicating presence of a sexually transmitted infection. The primary explanatory variable of interest was food insecurity, measured using the culturally adapted and validated Escala Brasiliera de Seguran?a Alimentar. In multivariable logistic regression models, severe food insecurity with hunger was associated with a reduced odds of consistent condom use in the past 12 mo (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.92) and condom use at last sexual intercourse (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57–0.98). Self-reported itchy vaginal discharge was associated with all categories of food insecurity (with AORs ranging from 1.46 to 1.94). In absolute terms, the effect sizes were large in magnitude across all outcomes. Underweight and/or lack of control in sexual relations did not appear to mediate the observed associations. Conclusions Severe food insecurity with hunger was associated with reduced odds of condom use and increased odds of itchy vaginal discharge, which is potentially indicative of sexually transmitted infection, among sexually active women in Brazil. Interventions targeting food insecurity may have beneficial implications for HIV prevention in resource-limited settings. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Task Scheduling Based On Thread Essence and Resource Limitations
Tomer Y. Morad,Avinoam Kolodny,Uri C. Weiser
Journal of Computers , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jcp.7.1.53-64
Abstract: Scheduling of threads based on the concept of thread essence is proposed in this paper. Multithreaded applications contain serial phases (single thread) and parallel phases (many threads). We propose a thread assignment mechanism that takes into account the essence of the threads in simultaneously-running applications that grants higher priority to applications during their critical-serial phases, for environments where there are more threads than cores. Furthermore, our proposed scheduler considers the limited resources of the system by reducing the number of context switches when there are more ready threads than cores. Analytic and experimental evaluation of the proposed thread assignment mechanism on both symmetric and emulated asymmetric multiprocessors show throughput improvements by as much as 16%, improved fairness by as much as 26% and reduced jitter by as much as 88%.
Harnessing Poverty Alleviation to Reduce the Stigma of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa
Alexander C. Tsai ,David R. Bangsberg,Sheri D. Weiser
PLOS Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001557
Top Physics at the LHC
Christian Weiser
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Top quark physics will be a prominent topic in Standard Model physics at the LHC. The enormous amount of top quarks expected to be produced will allow to perform a wide range of precision measurements. An overview of the planned top physics programme of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC is given.
Networks Unplugged: Towards A Model of Compatibility Regulation Between Information Platforms
Phil Weiser
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: Networks Unplugged: Towards A Model of Compatibility Regulation Between Information Platforms This Article outlines a basic model for regulating interoperability between rival information platforms. In so doing, it insists that antitrust, intellectual property, and telecommunications regulation all must follow the same set of principles to facilitate competition between rival standards where possible, mandating or allowing cooperation only where necessary to facilitate competition within a standard when network-level competition is infeasible. To date, the antitrust regime best approximates the type of model I have in mind, but sound competition policy requires that telecommunications regulation and intellectual property law follow its basic principles as well.
Crises in Education: Online Learning as a Solution  [PDF]
Hershey H Friedman, Linda Weiser Friedman
Creative Education (CE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2011.23022
Abstract: There are three serious problems facing education today. These include working with draconian budgets that mean reduced spending for education, making education interesting and relevant for students, and raising standards. Several issues that the legislators are especially concerned about are the low retention rates at the college level, the high dropout rates in the high schools, and the long time it takes undergraduate students to graduate college. The authors show how online learning may be an important tool for solving these problems.
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