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Nutritional Correlates of Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2000-2010  [PDF]
Dotun Ogunyemi, Amy Whitten, Arnold M. Mahesan, Anthea B. M. Paul, Judy Boura
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.61008
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the associations of gestational diabetes (GDM) history with dietary intake, nutritional status, insulin resistance, demographic, and anthropometrical data. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2000-2010. Data analysis was based on 290 women who reported a history of GDM compared to 4239 women who denied a GDM history. Insulin resistance [HOMA_IR = (fasting insulin in mU/mL × fasting glucose in mmol/L)/405] was calculated. Pearson correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, Student’s t-tests, and chi-square analysis were used while linear regression assessed independent associations. Results: The median time-lapse from the diagnosis of GDM was 15 years. Women with a GDM history had significantly higher body mass index (BMI), other anthropometric measurements, diastolic blood pressures and insulin resistance. They were also more likely to be Hispanic, have delivered macrosomic infants, and delivered via cesarean. Previous GDM history compared to non-GDM subjects had significantly higher dietary intakes of energy calories, protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, mono-saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. Within the entire cohort, increasing insulin resistance was also associated with lower income, less college education, Hispanic or African American ethnicity, obesity, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and with higher dietary cholesterol but lower intake of dietary fiber and micronutrients. Regression analyses showed that GDM history, Hispanic ethnicity, BMI, dietary intake of cholesterol and decreasing income were independently predictive of insulin resistance. Conclusion: The data confirm that even many years after a pregnancy associated with GDM, women with a history of GDM still report significantly higher dietary intakes of energy calories, protein, and fat with no corresponding increase in consumption of dietary fiber or minerals and vitamins. Consequently, the increased calorie and food consumption of women with previous GDM are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and higher blood pressures. These observations may suggest the need to target high-risk groups who may need more resources and awareness of the benefits of quality nutrition.
Insulin Resistance in Pregnancy Is Correlated with Decreased Insulin Receptor Gene Expression in Omental Adipose: Insulin Sensitivity and Adipose Tissue Gene Expression in Normal Pregnancy  [PDF]
Arnold M. Mahesan, Dotun Ogunyemi, Eric Kim, Anthea B. M. Paul, Y.-D. Ida Chen
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.61011
Abstract: Aims: To determine correlations of insulin sensitivity to gene expression in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue of non-obese, non-diabetic pregnant women. Methods: Microarray gene profiling was performed on subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue from 14 patients and obtained while fasting during non-laboring Cesarean section, using Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 Expression BeadChips. Findings were validated by real-time PCR. Matusda-Insulin sensitivity index (IS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated from glucose and insulin levels obtained from a frequently sampled oral glucose tolerance test, and correlated with gene expression. Results: Of genes differentially expressed in omental vs. subcutaneous adipose, in omentum 12 genes were expressed toward insulin resistance, whereas only 5 genes were expressed toward insulin sensitivity. In particular, expression of the insulin receptor gene (INSR), which initiates the insulin signaling cascade, is strongly positively correlated with IS and negatively with HOMA-IR in omental tissue (r = 0.84). Conclusion: Differential gene expression in omentum relative to subcutaneous adipose showed a pro-insulin resistance profile in omentum. A clinical importance of omental adipose is observed here, as downregulation of insulin receptor in omentum is correlated with increased systemic insulin resistance.
Differentially expressed genes in adipocytokine signaling pathway of adipose tissue in pregnancy  [PDF]
Dotun Ogunyemi, Jun Xu, Arnold M. Mahesan, Steve Rad, Eric Kim, Jacqueline Yano, Carolyn Alexander, Jerome I. Rotter, Y.-D. Ida Chen
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.32013

Objective: To profile the differential gene expression of the KEGG Adipocytokine Signaling pathway in omental compared to subcutaneous tissue in normal pregnancy. Study Design: Subjects included 14 nonobese, normal glucose tolerant, healthy pregnant women. Matched omental and subcutaneous tissue were obtained at elective cesarean delivery. Gene expression was evaluated using microarray and validated by RT-PCR. Differential gene expression was defined as ≥1.5 fold increase at p < 0.05. Results: Six genes were significantly downregulated with two upregulated genes in omental tissue. Downregulation of Adiponectin and Insulin Receptor substrate, key genes mediating insulin sensitivity, were observed with borderline upregulation of GLUT-1. There were downregulations of CD36 and acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain Family Member 1which are genes involved in fatty acid uptake and activation. There was a novel expression of Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C. Conclusion: Differential gene expression of Adipocytokine Signaling Pathway in omental relative to subcutaneous adipose tissue in normal pregnancy suggests a pattern of insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and inflammation.

Laparoscopic Splenectomy for Hairy Cell Leukemia in Pregnancy
Beni Adegoke Adeniji,Moses Fallas,Marc Incerpi,Solomon Hamburg,Robert Katz,Dotun Ogunyemi
Case Reports in Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/136823
Abstract: Objective. We present a successful case of laparoscopic splenectomy for a massively enlarged spleen at 25 weeks of gestation for hairy cell leukemia in pregnancy in a woman with initial hemoglobin of 4.3 gm/dl and platelet count of 18,000/mm3. Study Design. Case report. Results. This report provides an approach to management that may be applicable in those cases where thrombocytopenia or other clinical imperatives preclude delaying treatment till after pregnancy. Conclusion. Hairy cell leukemia is a clonal B-Cell malignancy, for which there is very limited experience worldwide for its management when it occurs during pregnancy. Laparoscopic splenectomy should be considered as a therapeutic option, even with a significantly enlarged spleen, in order to avoid the risks of fetal exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. Unique considerations relating to pregnancy are highlighted.
An Evaluation of the Akure Yorùbá Traditional Belief in Reincarnation  [PDF]
?ládotun B. ?sanyìnbí, Kehinde Falana
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2016.61007
Abstract: Reincarnation is the belief that after someone dies; his immortal soul separates from the body and lives again in another physical body. The traditional Yorùbá culture holds the belief in reincarnation (atunwaye). Atunwaye is believed to be possible in three different forms which are: ipadawaye (ancestor’s rebirth), akudaaya (die and reappear) and abiku (born to die). Yorùbá people of Akure also hold on to the traditional belief in atunwaye. The article used the philosophical tools of analysis and evaluation to examine reincarnation beliefs among the Yorùbá people in general and Akure people in particular. Oral interviews were also conducted among indigenes of Akure, to understand their beliefs on reincarnation. Findings show that Yorùbá people of Akure also hold on to traditional belief in reincarnation (atunwaye) in its various forms. The research concludes that reincarnation is an established belief among the Yorùbá people in general and the Akure people in particular. It is also noted that this belief has survived despite the influence of Christianity and Islam on the culture of Akure people.
Knowledge and Perception of Child Sexual Abuse in Urban Nigeria: Some Evidence from a Community-Based Project
Biodun Ogunyemi
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2000,
Abstract: This study reports some baseline findings from a community-based project on the incidence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in two Nigerian urban centres. The study focused on low income, non-elite, occupational groups. Data were generated through in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs), and survey questionnaires (SQs) involving 958 respondents. About 38% and 28% of female and male respondents respectively reported being initiated to sex before the age of 18 years. Majority of the respondents condemned CSA acts like rape, date rape, child prostitution and incest. However, evidence of gender-role stereotyping, which puts girl-children at reproductive health risks of these and related acts, seems widespread. (Afr J Reprod Health 2000; 4[2]: 44–52) RéSUMé Connaissance et perception de l'abus sexuel de l'enfant dans les agglomerations urbaines au Nigéria: Quelques évidences d'une étude basée sur une communauté. L'étude fait un compte rendu des découvertes de ligne de base à partir d'une étude basée sur une communauté et qui porte sur l'incidence de l'abus sexuel de l'enfant (ASE) dans deux centres urbains nigérians. L'étude s'était concentrée sur des groupes professionnels non-élites qui ont des salaires peu élevés. Les données ont été recueillies à travers des interviews approfondies (IA), des discussions en groupes cibles (DGC) et des questionnaires de l'enquête (QE) auprès de 958 répondants. Environ 38% et 28% de repondantes et répondants respectivement ont signalé qu'ils ont été initiés à l'acte sexuel avant l'age de 18 ans. La majorité des répondants ont condamné les actes d'ASE comme le viol, la prostitution de l'enfant et l'inceste. Toutefois, il semble que le clichage selon les r les de sexes qui prédispose les filles aux dangers de la santé reproductive de ces actes et des actes connexes soit bien repandu. (Rev Afr Santé Reprod 2000; 4 [2]: 44–52). Key Words: Child sexual abuse, adolescent, intercourse, exploitation
Curriculum Politics in the Changing Fortunes of Nigerian Social Studies
Biodun Ogunyemi
International Journal of Education , 2010, DOI: 10.5296/ije.v2i2.500
Abstract: This paper reviews the impact of political decisions on the development of school social studies in Nigeria. From its shaky start in the 1960s, the school subject was eventually adopted for all primary as well as junior and senior secondary schools under the national policy on education by the 1990s but later restricted to the junior secondary in 2004. Through a conceptual analysis of its evolution, this paper argues that the initial intellectual and altruistic undercurrents that informed the adoption of an integrated social studies seemed to have been overridden by ‘curriculum politics’. Illustrations are drawn from the changing fortunes of the school subject and the current threats facing it within the school curriculum. It is suggested, among others, that educational policy makers should keep to the raison d’etre for the initial introduction of Social Studies as Nigeria strives to respond to the crisis of nation building and national development. Keywords: Curriculum, Politics, Changing Fortunes, Nigerian Social Studies
Stationarity Analysis of the Impact of Monetary Policy on the Economic Performance in Nigeria
Sola Olorunfemi,Faloye Olaleye Dotun
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The study looked at the impact of monetary policy on the economic performance in Nigeria. The study made use of unit root and cointegration test so as to correct the mistake of most previous studies that were based on spurious regression. The study found out that for the periods covered in the study. There was negative relationship between interest rate and GDP while there was positive relationship between inflation rate and interest rate. Effort should therefore be made by government to reduce the interest rate charge by bank, which will thereafter affect the level of overall growth of the economy.
Salient Themes as Voices in African Poetry
C.B. Ogunyemi
Venets : The Belogradchik Journal for Local History, Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies , 2011,
Abstract: The paper examines the various voices in African poetry. African poets use their themes as echoes to salvage various inherences found in the decaying political, economic and social landscape. The paper argues textually the cultural ethos and the contemporary post-independence disillusionment on the African psyche as a result of colonilization. Using the meta-critical approach combined with realism, within sociological approach, the research calls for a concerted effort to stimulate originality and harness the benefits of globalization for the development of humanity in Africa.
Effect of level and source of shade on the biomass of speargrass in Nigeria
UE Udensi, D Chikoye, S Ogunyemi
African Crop Science Journal , 2005,
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