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Genetic variations of nucleoprotein gene of influenza A viruses isolated from swine in Thailand
Nattakarn Thippamom, Donreuthai Sreta, Pravina Kitikoon, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Yong Poovorawan, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Kamol Suwannakarn, Sujira Parchariyanon, Sudarat Damrongwatanapokin, Alongkorn Amonsin
Virology Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-7-185
Abstract: Twelve influenza A virus specimens were isolated from Thai swine. All samples were subjected to nucleotide sequencing of the complete NP gene. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted by comparing the NP gene of swine influenza viruses with that of seasonal and pandemic human viruses and highly pathogenic avian viruses from Thailand (n = 77). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the NP gene from different host species clustered in distinct host specific lineages. The NP gene of swine influenza viruses clustered in either Eurasian swine or Classical swine lineages. Genetic analysis of the NP gene suggested that swine influenza viruses circulating in Thailand display 4 amino acids unique to Eurasian and Classical swine lineages. In addition, the result showed 1 and 5 amino acids unique to avian and human lineages, respectively. Furthermore, nucleotide substitution rates showed that the NP gene is highly conserved especially in avian influenza viruses.The NP gene sequence of influenza A in Thailand is highly conserved within host-specific lineages and shows amino acids potentially unique to distinct NP lineages. This information can be used to investigate potential interspecies transmission of influenza A viruses. In addition, the genetic variations of the NP gene will be useful for monitoring the viruses and preparing effective prevention and control strategies for potentially pandemic influenza outbreaks.Influenza A virus poses a serious threat to public health worldwide, particularly the virus circulating in humans and animal species such as birds, pigs and horses. Influenza A subtypes H1-3 and N1-2 have been circulating in the human population, while Influenza A subtypes H1 and 3 and N1-2 have been reported in swine. On the other hand, all H1-16 and N1-9 can be found in avian species [1,2]. The virus genome contains 8 segments of single-stranded RNA that encode 10-11 proteins. Among those genes, the NP gene plays a major role with regard to host range or host species barri
Pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (Thai isolates) in weanling pigs: an experimental trial
Donruethai Sreta, Roongtham Kedkovid, Sophon Tuamsang, Pravina Kitikoon, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-34
Abstract: The study found that all pigs in the infected groups developed typical signs of flu-like symptoms on 1–4 days post- infection (dpi). The H1N1-infected pigs had greater lung lesion scores than those of the H3N2-infected pigs. Histopathological lesions related to swine influenza-induced lesions consisting of epithelial cells damage, airway plugging and peribronchial and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration were present in both infected groups. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using nucleoprotein specific monoclonal antibodies revealed positive staining cells in lung sections of both infected groups at 2 and 4 dpi. Virus shedding was detected at 2 dpi from both infected groups as demonstrated by RT-PCR and virus isolation.The results demonstrated that both SIV subtypes were able to induce flu-like symptoms and lung lesions in weanling pigs. However the severity of the diseases with regards to lung lesions both gross and microscopic lesions was greater in the H1N1-infected pigs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, haemagglutinin gene of subtype H1N1 from Thailand clustered with the classical H1 SIV sequences and neuraminidase gene clustered with virus of avian origin, whereas, both genes of H3N2 subtype clustered with H3N2 human-like SIV from the 1970s.Swine influenza is an acute, highly contagious, respiratory disease caused by type A influenza virus infection. Currently, 16 haemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes are identified. Three main subtypes currently circulating in the pig population are classical swine influenza virus (SIV) and reassortant viruses of H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 [1]. However, pigs can also be infected with other subtypes of influenza A viruses. Pig plays a substantially important role in the ecology of influenza A virus [2] since they can act as a 'mixing vessel'. When co-infections among human, avian or swine influenza viruses occur within a specific host, any new subtype can be produced by antigenic reassortment [
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