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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 190771 matches for " Donna G Rhodes "
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Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure
David R Paul, Matthew Kramer, Donna G Rhodes, William V Rumpler
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5751-4-2
Abstract: Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin.Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions.Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is thought to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balance due to its effects on the stimulation of food intake [1,2] and weight gain [1-3] in rodents. It has been suggested that ghrelin may also play a role in meal initiation in humans, since the concentration of ghrelin increases immediately prior to a meal [4] and decreases after eating [4-6]. Furthermore, ghrelin infusions are associated with feelings of hunger and increased energy intake during a buffet-style lunch [7].Despite the evidence indicating a role in acute food intake, little is known about the factors regulating ghrelin and its effects on long-term energy balance in humans. One hypothesis is that ghrelin secretion is up-regulated in periods of negative energy balance and down-regulated in periods of positive energy balance [8]. Since energy balance is a function of both energy intake and expenditure, ghrelin concentrations should increase or decrease with fluctuations in food intake (macronutrient composition and/or energy intake) and/or energy expenditure. In turn, increased ghrelin concentrations should be associated with higher food intake. However, the effects of daily fluctuations in food intake and energy expenditure on ghrelin have not been investigated in humans.The purpose of the present study was to determine how changes in macronutrient composition, energy intake, and energy expenditure affect preprandial ghrelin concentrations, and ghrelin's subsequent
Clinical supervision for novice millennial nurses in the perinatal setting: The need for generational sensitivity  [PDF]
Jo Watson, G. J. Macdonald, Donna Brown
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.35050
Abstract:

This paper reports on a qualitative research study that examined the experience of expert and novice nurses participating in a new, reflective program of “clinical supervision”, intending to facilitate the transition of new graduate nurses into the workforce. Three patterns emerged during the constructivist inquiry: readiness to reflect, valuing of clinical supervision, and sustainability of the clinical supervision model. The researchers suggest generational sensitivity as a key perspective to consider when developing engaging workplace strategies for millennial nurses. The article offers recommendations for the implementation of clinical supervision and would be of interest to nurse leaders in a clinical setting.

High Resolution Spectroscopy and Spectropolarimetry of some late F-/early G-type sun-like stars as targets for Zeeman Doppler imaging
Ian Waite,Stephen Marsden,Brad Carter,Evelyne Alecian,Carolyn Brown,Donna Burton,Rhodes Hart
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1071/AS11025
Abstract: High resolution spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry have been undertaken at the Anglo-Australian Telescope in order to identify suitable targets for magnetic studies of young sun-like stars, for the proxy study of early solar evolution. This study involved the investigation of some variable late F-/early G-type sun-like stars originally identified by the Hipparcos mission. Of the 38 stars observed for this study, HIP 31021, HIP 64732, HIP 73780 were found to be spectroscopic binary stars while HIP 19072, HIP 67651 and HIP 75636 are also likely to be binaries while HIP 33111 could even be a triple system. Magnetic fields were detected on a number of the survey stars: HIP 21632, HIP 43720, HIP 48770, HIP 62517, HIP 71933, HIP 77144, HIP 89829, HIP 90899 and HIP 105388, making these stars good candidates for follow-up Zeeman Doppler imaging studies.
Developing the practice context to enable more effective pain management with older people: an action research approach
Donna Brown, Brendan G McCormack
Implementation Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-6-9
Abstract: An EAR approach was utilised. The project was undertaken in a surgical unit that conducted complex abdominal surgery. Eighty-five percent (n = 48) of nursing staff participated in the two-year project (05/NIR02/107). Data were obtained through the use of facilitated critical reflection with nursing staff.Three key themes (psychological safety, leadership, oppression) and four subthemes (power, horizontal violence, distorted perceptions, autonomy) were found to influence the way in which effective nursing practice was realised. Within the theme of 'context,' effective leadership and the creation of a psychologically safe environment were key elements in the enhancement of all aspects of nursing practice.Whilst other research has identified the importance of 'practice context' and models and frameworks are emerging to address this issue, the theme of 'psychological safety' has been given little attention in the knowledge translation/implementation literature. Within the principles of EAR, facilitated reflective sessions were found to create 'psychologically safe spaces' that supported practitioners to develop effective person-centred nursing practices in complex clinical environments.Pain is one of the trigger reasons for people to seek healthcare assistance. However, evidence indicates that frequently the management of acute and chronic pain is inadequate [1,2]. Inadequate relief of acute pain increases the incidence and severity of postoperative complications and adverse outcomes, consequently increasing the cost of healthcare [1,3]. In a climate of cost-driven health services, many hospitals have in recent years achieved important improvements in postoperative pain management [4].Older people offer distinct challenges, because pain not only lowers the individual's quality of life [5] but also predisposes them to a number of medical conditions, including; depression, sleep disturbances, anxiety, and occasionally aggressive behaviour [6,7]. Older people can be especi
Modelling Football Penalty Kicks
Jeffrey K. Leela,Donna M. G. Comissiong
Latin-American Journal of Physics Education , 2009,
Abstract: In modern football the penalty kick is considered a golden opportunity for the kicker to register a goal. The kicker isvirtually unchallenged by any opposing player except the goalkeeper who stands on the goal-line 12 yards away.Therefore, the kicker has an overwhelming advantage. Maximising on this advantage is of paramount importancesince penalties in many instances, determine the outcome of games. This paper analyses the variables involved in apenalty kick and attempts to devise the best method to kick a penalty to ensure a very high success rate. The twofundamental components of a penalty shot are the angle at which the shot is kicked and the velocity of the shot. Afeasible range of angles is established using right angled triangles and trigonometric ratios. Also, the sides of thesetriangles are calculated using Pythagoras theorem. Velocities are calculated using simple projectiles motion equations.Numerical methods are employed to find the range of velocities for the respective angles. The penalty kicks modelledin this thesis are high velocity shots placed in areas of the goal that are difficult for goal-keepers to reach. Theseresults inform coaches about the techniques used to kick a penalty with the required trajectory. Players can practisethese techniques to develop mastery. It is also important to mention the educational impact this project can have onthe teaching of calculus to undergraduates. Interest is generated with the use of real world examples that appeal tostudents who like sports and provides a foundation for research in Applied Mathematics. This can be described as asimple and stimulating introduction to the technique of Mathematical Modelling.
HIV/AIDS Risk Behavior of Mexican WomenWorking in a Maquiladora
Donna Casta?eda,Enrique Gómez Bastidas
Revista Interamericana de Psicología , 2005,
Abstract: El objetivo de este estudio era explorar el comportamiento de riesgo de VIH/SIDA en 101 mujeres trabajadoras en unamaquiladora en Mexicali, Baja California. Las participantes llenaron donde se les pregunto sobre el uso de drogas, agujas,y alcohol; comportamiento de riesgo sexual; y información demografica. El uso de drogas casi no se observó, pero estápresente el uso de alcohol. Se encontró que era mas probable que solteras y mujeres que habían participado en sex vaginalhubieran ingerido alcohol durante los seis meses anteriores. El uso más común de agujas era para inyectar vitaminas omedicamentos legales; ninguna participante compartió agujas o limpió una aguja para usarla otra vez. La actividad sexualmas frecuente fue el sexo vaginal, pero el uso de condones fue bajo. Se encontró que teniendo sexo con un hombre quetiene otras parejas femininas sexuales y teniendo sex con una pareja que estaba bajo la influencia de alcohol estabarelacionada significativamente con el uso de condones durante sexo vaginal. Mujeres que tenían sexo con ambos mujeresy hombres reportaban el numero mas alto de parejas masculinas
What Can Faculty Members and Programs Do to Improve Students' Learning?
Alice P. Gaudine,Donna G. Moralejo
ISRN Nursing , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/649431
Abstract: Purpose. To understand what faculty members can do to improve students' learning, we explored (1) program and course characteristics important to students, (2) choices within courses students feel are important, and (3) students' perceptions of learning online. Background. Web delivery alters interactions among students and faculty, thereby changing the learning environment. Methods. Master of Nursing students currently enrolled in one graduate program were invited to participate in a web-based survey. Findings. The students valued (1) frequent feedback and interaction with the instructor, (2) organized, structured, and current content, (3) flexibility in deadlines and participation, (4) seamless navigation and technical support, and (5) choices in assignments. Students perceived their learning in online courses as less than if they had taken the course on campus. Conclusions. Professors can address some of the items identified by students as important, such as being flexible with due dates and expectations for participation in online discussion. 1. Introduction Distance education has increased access to both undergraduate and graduate education for nurses. The characteristics of distance education that promote accessibility and independent study, such as interaction through web-based media, also change the learning environment. Student-student and student-professor interactions change, especially when much of the interaction is asynchronous and text based. While there is potential to get to know students individually, spontaneity of discussion can be inhibited. Depth of discussion may also be reduced as slow typists may find it frustrating to elaborate on ideas. Videoconferencing, to promote synchronous discussion, is not always an option, depending on the availability of technology and hampered by time zone differences. Numerous studies have identified issues that both threaten and facilitate learning by distance education [1]. From these, strategies have been recommended to promote learning. For example, technical difficulties or lack of computer skills lead to students’ frustration, anxiety, and confusion, which could both interfere with learning and lead to student dissatisfaction [1]. Designing course web sites that are easily navigated, providing orientation to the software, and providing accessible technical support for prolonged hours are examples of strategies that address this particular issue. Some issues are more complex, such as facilitating collaborative learning, and thus require multiple strategies [2]. As online teaching strategies
The Effects of a Community and School Sport-Based Program on Urban Indigenous Adolescents’ Life Skills and Physical Activity Levels: The SCP Case Study  [PDF]
Louisa R. Peralta, Donna O’Connor, Wayne G. Cotton, Andrew Bennie
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.618284
Abstract: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a community and school sport program (SCP) on Indigenous adolescents’ life skills and physical activity levels within program sessions. A secondary aim was to determine the acceptability of the SCP. Participants in the SCP (n = 34; 89%) participated in a 10-week case study (age = 13.7 ± 1.16; 58% girls). Systematic observations of SCP sessions were conducted to determine physical activity levels and a life skills questionnaire was implemented. Acceptability measures included retention, implementation, attendance rates, and interviews with participants [n = 18] and key stakeholders [n = 6]. Systematic observations indicated that Indigenous students were engaged in MVPA for 58% of lesson time. Participants’ life skills remained unchanged (p = 0.93). Interview data showed that Indigenous students and key stakeholders believed the SCP was acceptable. This study highlights the need for partnerships between Indigenous community organisations and schools to design sport-based programs to promote Indigenous adolescents’ MVPA.
Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Increases Cytotoxicity and Reduces Resistance to Hydroxyurea  [PDF]
Randall J. Ruch, Paul D. Boucher, Brian G. Gentry, Donna S. Shewach
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.513121
Abstract:

Background: Gap junctions enable small molecules to diffuse between adjacent cells and have been associated with greater cytotoxicity of radiation and anti-cancer drugs. We investigatedwhether this gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) affected the cytotoxicity of the classicribonucleotide reductase (RR) inhibitor and anti-cancer agent, hydroxyurea (HU). Materials and Methods: We used GJIC-proficient and deficient, connexin 43-expressing WB rat liver epithelial cell lines. We compared HU toxicity by crystal violet assay, effects of the drug on deoxynucleotide pools by HPLC, and ability of GJIC to increase toxicity of HU-resistant cells through a bystander effect in co-culture experiments. Results: GJIC-proficient cells were three- to five-fold more sensitive (IC500.1 mM) to HU than GJIC-deficient derivatives (IC500.3 - 0.5 mM). This sensitivity depended upon GJIC because treatment of GJIC-proficient cells with the GJIC blocker oleamide decreased HU toxicity by approximately 60% - 80% and restoration of GJIC in GJIC-deficient cells by stable transduction of connexin 32-encodingGjb1increased HU toxicity (IC50

The chitobiose transporter, chbC, is required for chitin utilization in Borrelia burgdorferi
Ryan G Rhodes, Janet A Atoyan, David R Nelson
BMC Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-21
Abstract: Using fluorescent chitinase substrates, we demonstrated an inherent chitinase activity in rabbit serum, a component of the B. burgdorferi growth medium (BSK-II). After inactivating this activity by boiling, we showed that wild-type cells can utilize chitotriose, chitohexose or coarse chitin flakes in the presence of boiled serum and in the absence of free GlcNAc. Further, we replaced the serum component of BSK-II with a lipid extract and still observed growth on chitin substrates without free GlcNAc. In an attempt to knockout B. burgdorferi chitinase activity, we generated mutations in two genes (bb0002 and bb0620) predicted to encode enzymes that could potentially cleave the β-(1,4)-glycosidic linkages found in chitin. While these mutations had no effect on the ability to utilize chitin, a mutation in the gene encoding the chitobiose transporter (bbb04, chbC) did block utilization of chitin substrates by B. burgdorferi. Finally, we provide evidence that chitin utilization in an rpoS mutant is delayed compared to wild-type cells, indicating that RpoS may be involved in the regulation of chitin degradation by this organism.The data collected in this study demonstrate that B. burgdorferi can utilize chitin as a source of GlcNAc in the absence of free GlcNAc, and suggest that chitin is cleaved into dimers before being imported across the cytoplasmic membrane via the chitobiose transporter. In addition, our data suggest that the enzyme(s) involved in chitin degradation are at least partially regulated by the alternative sigma factor RpoS.Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, with almost 250,000 cases reported between 1992 and 2006, and approximately 20,000 new cases reported each year [1]. The disease is contracted from a tick (Ixodes species) infected with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Ixodes ticks typically feed on small vertebrates such as the white-footed mouse, but humans are sometimes an accidental host. If an infected-f
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