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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 29842 matches for " Dong-Guk Shin "
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Diversity and Complexity in Chromatin Recognition by TFII-I Transcription Factors in Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells and Embryonic Tissues
Aleksandr V. Makeyev, Badam Enkhmandakh, Seung-Hyun Hong, Pujan Joshi, Dong-Guk Shin, Dashzeveg Bayarsaihan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044443
Abstract: GTF2I and GTF2IRD1 encode a family of closely related transcription factors TFII-I and BEN critical in embryonic development. Both genes are deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a complex genetic disorder associated with neurocognitive, craniofacial, dental and skeletal abnormalities. Although genome-wide promoter analysis has revealed the existence of multiple TFII-I binding sites in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), there was no correlation between TFII-I occupancy and gene expression. Surprisingly, TFII-I recognizes the promoter sequences enriched for H3K4me3/K27me3 bivalent domain, an epigenetic signature of developmentally important genes. Moreover, we discovered significant differences in the association between TFII-I and BEN with the cis-regulatory elements in ESCs and embryonic craniofacial tissues. Our data indicate that in embryonic tissues BEN, but not the highly homologous TFII-I, is primarily recruited to target gene promoters. We propose a “feed-forward model” of gene regulation to explain the specificity of promoter recognition by TFII-I factors in eukaryotic cells.
In-Depth Characterization of microRNA Transcriptome in Melanoma
James Kozubek, Zhihai Ma, Elizabeth Fleming, Tatiana Duggan, Rong Wu, Dong-Guk Shin, Soheil S. Dadras
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072699
Abstract: The full repertoire of human microRNAs (miRNAs) that could distinguish common (benign) nevi from cutaneous (malignant) melanomas remains to be established. In an effort to gain further insight into the role of miRNAs in melanoma, we applied Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform to carry out an in-depth analysis of miRNA transcriptome in biopsies of nevi, thick primary (>4.0 mm) and metastatic melanomas with matched normal skin in parallel to melanocytes and melanoma cell lines (both primary and metastatic) (n = 28). From this data representing 698 known miRNAs, we defined a set of top-40 list, which properly classified normal from cancer; also confirming 23 (58%) previously discovered miRNAs while introducing an additional 17 (42%) known and top-15 putative novel candidate miRNAs deregulated during melanoma progression. Surprisingly, the miRNA signature distinguishing specimens of melanoma from nevus was significantly different than that of melanoma cell lines from melanocytes. Among the top list, miR-203, miR-204-5p, miR-205-5p, miR-211-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-26a-5p and miR-26b-5p were decreased in melanomas vs. nevi. In a validation cohort (n = 101), we verified the NGS results by qRT-PCR and showed that receiver-operating characteristic curves for miR-211-5p expression accurately discriminated invasive melanoma (AUC = 0.933), melanoma in situ (AUC = 0.933) and dysplastic (atypical) nevi (AUC = 0.951) from common nevi. Target prediction analysis of co-transcribed miRNAs showed a cooperative regulation of key elements in the MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found extensive sequence variations (isomiRs) and other non-coding small RNAs revealing a complex melanoma transcriptome. Deep-sequencing small RNAs directly from clinically defined specimens provides a robust strategy to improve melanoma diagnostics.
Thermoelectric Signal Enhancement by Reconciling the Spin Seebeck and Anomalous Nernst Effects in Ferromagnet/Non-magnet Multilayers
Kyeong-Dong Lee,Dong-Jun Kim,Hae Yeon Lee,Seung-Hyun Kim,Jong-Hyun Lee,Kyung-Min Lee,Jong-Ryul Jeong,Ki-Suk Lee,Hyon-Seok Song,Jeong-Woo Sohn,Sung-Chul Shin,Byong-Guk Park
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The utilization of ferromagnetic (FM) materials in thermoelectric devices allows one to have a simpler structure and/or independent control of electric and thermal conductivities, which may further remove obstacles for this technology to be realized. The thermoelectricity in FM/non-magnet (NM) heterostructures using an optical heating source is studied as a function of NM materials and a number of multilayers. It is observed that the overall thermoelectric signal in those structures which is contributed by spin Seebeck effect and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) is enhanced by a proper selection of NM materials with a spin Hall angle that matches to the sign of the ANE. Moreover, by an increase of the number of multilayer, the thermoelectric voltage is enlarged further and the device resistance is reduced, simultaneously. The experimental observation of the improvement of thermoelectric properties may pave the way for the realization of magnetic-(or spin-) based thermoelectric devices.
Household Use of Composted Manure and Phosphorous-Free Fertilizers: Feeling Good versus Doing Good  [PDF]
Laura McCann, Dong Won Shin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.92011
Abstract: Increasing urbanization has led to increasing impermeable surfaces and use of lawn care products. Phosphorous (P) is a major pollutant in freshwater systems, leading to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms and hypoxia. An important source is runoff from urban areas so reducing use of P fertilizers by homeowners would be helpful. This study examines the use of two alternative fertilizer sources in an urbanizing watershed in the Midwest, organic fertilizer/composted manure and P-free fertilizer. A mail survey of households was conducted, resulting in a 44% effective response rate. The adoption rates were relatively high (31% and 23% respectively) compared to those found in previous work for rain gardens and rain barrels. Probit regression results found that adoption of both practices was higher among those who tested their soil, knew the watershed concept, and spent more than 10 hours per month gardening. Results for use of composted manure imply that adopters do not view this as fertilizer, which may result in buildup of P levels in the soil over time. Respondents who indicated that water quality was more important than economic development were more likely to use P-free fertilizers. Significant demographic factors for organic fertilizer were somewhat surprising; those with two years of college were more likely to adopt than those with a four-year degree and those with household income of $50,000 - 75,000 were more likely to adopt than those with an income of $75,000 - 100,000. No demographic factors were important for P-free fertilizers.
ESL STUDENTS' COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION PRACTICES: CONTEXT CONFIGURATION
Dong-Shin Shin
Language Learning and Technology , 2006,
Abstract: This paper examines how context is configured in ESL students’ language learning practices through computer-mediated communication (CMC). Specifically, I focus on how a group of ESL students jointly constructed the context of their CMC activities through interactional patterns and norms, and how configured affordances within the CMC environment mediated their learning experiences. After a brief review of relevant studies of CMC in the literature, I discuss ecological perspectives of language learning as a core construct of this study, to explain contextual fluidity in relation to learners’ agency in their learning. Next, I present an ethnographic study of how members of an ESL class constructed a community of social practices through synchronous CMC. The findings indicate that (a) the constructed interactional patterns and norms of the students’ CMC activities represented group dynamics among the participants, (b) the participants’ roles in joint construction of the activities reflected their language socialization experiences, and (c) the activities provided a way for spousal participants to assume academic identities, while becoming a social space for academic gatherings. This study highlights the fluidity of CMC language learning contexts; fluid contexts entail learners’ agency in dialogic engagements with the contextual elements of the learning environment as language socialization processes.
A determination of the mass gap in the O(n) sigma model
Dong-Shin Shin
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0550-3213(97)00197-1
Abstract: We calculate the finite volume mass gap $M(L)$ at 3-loop level in the non-linear O($n$) $\sigma$-model in two dimensions in small volumes. By applying the Monte Carlo measurements of the running coupling $\bar g^2(L)=2nM(L)L/(n-1)$ by L\"uscher, Weisz and Wolff measured in units of the physical mass gap $m$, the result is used to determine $m$ in units of the $\Lambda$-parameter in the O(3) and O(4) models. Our determinations show good agreement with those by Hasenfratz, Maggiore and Niedermayer in both models. We note that this manuscript has been revised in our paper hep-lat/9810025 by using the corrected four-loop $\beta$-function on the lattice.
Correction to four-loop RG functions in the two-dimensional lattice O(n) $σ$-model
Dong-Shin Shin
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0550-3213(99)00020-6
Abstract: We report the result of our evaluation of the Feynman diagrams appearing in the determination of the four-loop renormalization group functions in the two-dimensional lattice O($n$) $\sigma$-model by Caracciolo and Pelissetto. In the list of the integrals used for the determination of those functions, we find that three entries were not correctly evaluated. We give the values for them corrected by us including those for all other integrals which we computed with higher precision. These results are then applied to revise the determination of the second analytic correction to correlation length $\xi$ and spin susceptibility $\chi$ by Caracciolo et al. as well as our determination of the mass gap by means of a finite volume technique where we explicitly made use of the four-loop $\beta$-function. In both cases we find sizeable changes in predictions. In the meantime there appeared a paper by Alles et al. where they revised one finite integral in the list of our corrected integrals. After having taken the new revised value into consideration, we found that there are no noticeable changes in the perturbative predictions of the present paper including the final conclusions.
Application of a coordinate space method for the evaluation of lattice Feynman diagrams in two dimensions
Dong-Shin Shin
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0550-3213(98)00232-6
Abstract: We apply a new coordinate space method for the evaluation of lattice Feynman diagrams suggested by L\"uscher and Weisz to field theories in two dimensions. Our work is to be presented for the theories with massless propagators. The main idea is to deal with the integrals in position space by making use of the recursion relation for the free propagator $G(x)$ which allows to compute the propagator recursively by its values around origin. It turns out that the method is very efficient and gives very precise results. We illustrate the technique by evaluating a number of two- and three-loop diagrams explicitly.
Correlation between Coating Adhesion and Damage Threshold: Simple Method of Reliability Assessment for Optoelectronic Applications  [PDF]
Jongwoo Park, Dong-Soo Shin
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2015.54011
Abstract: It is demonstrated that inherent coating adhesion and damage threshold are correlated for Ta2O5 and HfO2 coatings widely used in optoelectronic devices. By utilizing a newly proposed 1-h boiling water test combined with the optical aging under high-power laser irradiation, we show that an optical coating that survives the 1-h boiling water test withstands the damage threshold, ensuring the field service life even in harsh environments. Besides the standard evaluation methods, which may have limitations for applications required in harsh environments, the 1-h boiling water test can serve as an alternative method of reliability assessment for optical coatings. A heuristics herein can be used as a gating item for qualification of optical coatings for various applications.
A social dynamics of the development of community network: problems raised by two cases of community network development
Dong Hee Shin
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction. This study investigates the processes involved in the development of a broadband community network in the Northeast USA. A community network project was studied by tracing the developmental processes from network design to the stabilization of information infrastructure. Method. A case study was conducted on the broadband community network. Qualitative data were collected primarily through in-depth interviews, drawing on the retrospective data of diverse stakeholders: strategic policy groups, user groups, technical groups and functional groups. Archival documents from various sources were also collected and analysed to triangulate research findings. Analysis. Qualitative analyses were carried out on the data, which related to ninty-six interviews, 279 archival documents, and twenty-nine survey responses. The data were analyzed with thematic analysis using the Atlas.ti program. Results. The political economy of the development process has biased the development toward private interests and away from the public benefit, and toward lucrative services and intra-organizational connectivity and away from community-oriented uses. Conclusion. This study provides a conceptual base for understanding contemporary and future community networks by illustrating the applicability of the Social Construction of Technology Theory. It suggests that Constructive Technology Assessment would be valuable to include technology users in the technology design process.
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