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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 27957 matches for " Dong Hyun Sinn "
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Tenofovir rescue therapy for chronic hepatitis B patients after multiple treatment failures
Yu Jin Kim,Dong Hyun Sinn,Geum-Youn Gwak,Moon Seok Choi
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i47.6996
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients after multiple failures. METHODS: A total of 29 CHB patients who had a suboptimal response or developed resistance to two or more previous nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NA) treatments were included. Study subjects were treated with TDF alone (n = 13) or in combination with lamivudine (LAM, n = 12) or entecavir (ETV, n = 4) for ≥ 6 mo. Complete virologic response (CVR) was defined as an achievement of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level ≤ 60 IU/mL by real-time polymerase chain reaction method during treatment. Safety assessment was based on serum creatinine and phosphorus level. Eleven patients had histories of LAM and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) treatment and 18 patients were exposed to LAM, ADV, and ETV. Twenty-seven patients (93.1%) were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and the mean value of the baseline serum HBV DNA level was 5.5 log IU/mL ± 1.7 log IU/mL. The median treatment duration was 16 mo (range 7 to 29 mo). RESULTS: All the patients had been treated with LAM and developed genotypic and phenotypic resistance to it. Resistance to ADV was present in 7 patients and 10 subjects had a resistance to ETV. One patient had a resistance to both ADV and ETV. The cumulative probabilities of CVR at 12 and 24 mo of TDF containing treatment regimen calculated by the Kaplan Meier method were 86.2% and 96.6%, respectively. Although one patient failed to achieve CVR, serum HBV DNA level decreased by 3.9 log IU/mL from the baseline and the last serum HBV DNA level during treatment was 85 IU/mL, achieving near CVR. No patients in this study showed viral breakthrough or primary non-response during the follow-up period. The cumulative probability of HBeAg clearance in the 27 HBeAg positive patients was 7.4%, 12%, and 27% at 6, 12, and 18 mo of treatment, respectively. Treatment efficacy of TDF containing regimen was not statistically different according to the presence of specific HBV mutations. History of prior exposure to specific antiviral agents did not make a difference to treatment outcome. Treatment efficacy of TDF was not affected by combination therapy with LAM or ETV. No patient developed renal toxicity and no cases of hypophosphatemia associated with TDF therapy were observed. There were no other adverse events related to TDF therapy observed in the study subjects. CONCLUSION: TDF can be an effective and safe rescue therapy in CHB patients after multiple NA therapy failures.
Disease progression in chronic hepatitis C patients with normal alanine aminotransferase levels
Dong Hyun Sinn,Geum-Youn Gwak,Jae-uk Shin,Moon Seok Choi
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2013, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i14.2256
Abstract: AIM: To investigate whether the disease progression of chronic hepatitis C patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels differs by ALT levels. METHODS: A total of 232 chronic hepatitis C patients with normal ALT (< 40 IU/L) were analyzed. The patients were divided into “high-normal” and “low-normal”ALT groups after determining the best predictive cutoff level associated with disease progression for each gender. The incidence of disease progression, as defined by the occurrence of an increase of ≥ 2 points in the Child-Pugh score, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, bleeding gastric or esophageal varices, hepatic encephalopathy, the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, or death related to liver disease, were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Baseline serum ALT levels were associated with disease progression for both genders. The best predictive cutoff baseline serum ALT level for disease progression was 26 IU/L in males and 23 IU/L in females. The mean annual disease progression rate was 1.2% and 3.9% for male patients with baseline ALT levels ≤ 25 IU/L (low-normal) and > 26 IU/L (high-normal), respectively (P = 0.043), and it was 1.4% and 4.8% for female patients with baseline ALT levels ≤ 22 IU/L (low-normal) and > 23 IU/L (high-normal), respectively (P = 0.023). ALT levels fluctuated during the follow-up period. During the follow-up, more patients with “high-normal” ALT levels at baseline experienced ALT elevation (> 41 IU/L) than did patients with “low-normal” ALT levels at baseline (47.7% vs 27.9%, P = 0.002). The 5 year cumulative incidence of disease progression was significantly lower in patients with persistently “low-normal” ALT levels than “high-normal” ALT levels or those who exhibited an ALT elevation > 41 U/L during the follow-up period (0%, 8.3% and 34.3%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A “high normal” ALT level in chronic hepatitis C patients was associated with disease progression, suggesting that the currently accepted normal threshold of serum ALT should be lowered.
Virological response to adefovir monotherapy and the risk of adefovir resistance
Dong Hyun Sinn,Hyang Ie Lee,Geum-Youn Gwak,Moon Seok Choi
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i30.3526
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate virological response to adefovir (ADV) monotherapy and emergence of ADV-resistant mutations in lamivudine (LAM)-resistant chronic hepatitis B patients. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with documented LAM resistance who were treated with 10 mg/d ADV for > 96 wk were analyzed for ADV resistance. RESULTS: At week 48 and 96, eight (10%) and 14 (18%) of 77 LAM-resistant patients developed the ADV-resistant strain (rtA181V/T and/or rtN236T mutations), respectively. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels during therapy were significantly higher in patients who developed ADV resistance than in those who did not. Incidence of ADV resistance at week 96 was 11%, 8% and 6% among patients with complete virological response (HBV DNA level < 60 IU/mL); 0%, 5% and 19% among patients with partial virological response (HBV DNA level ≥ 60 to 2000 IU/mL); and 32%, 34% and 33% among patients with inadequate virological response (HBV DNA levels > 2000 IU/mL) at week 12, week 24 and week 48, respectively. HBV DNA levels > 2000 IU/mL at week 24 showed best performance characteristics in predicting ADV resistance. CONCLUSION: Development of ADV resistance mutations was associated with HBV DNA levels, which could identify patients with LAM resistance who are likely to respond to ADV monotherapy.
Blood lead is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: an analysis based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008
Sang Youl Rhee, You-Cheol Hwang, Jeong-taek Woo, Dong Hyun Sinn, Sang Ouk Chin, Suk Chon, Young Seol Kim
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-9
Abstract: We analyzed MS status and whole blood lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and creatinine-adjusted urine arsenic concentrations in 1,405 subjects, ? 20 years of age, who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008.Various demographic and biochemical parameters were associated with MS and blood heavy metal status. After adjusting for these variables, lead was the only heavy metal that was significantly associated with MS. Lead concentrations in subjects with MS were significantly higher than those in subjects without MS (p?=?0.015). The prevalence of MS and a moderate/high risk for cardiovascular disease, as determined by Framingham risk score, also increased significantly according to the logarithmic transformation of the lead quartile (p?
Continued Fraction Method for Approximation of Heat Conduction Dynamics in a Semi-Infinite Slab  [PDF]
Jietae Lee, Dong Hyun Kim
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.57100
Abstract:


Heat conduction dynamics are described by partial differential equations. Their approximations with a set of finite number of ordinary differential equations are often required for simpler computations and analyses. Rational approximations of the Laplace solutions such as the Pade approximation can be used for this purpose. For some heat conduction problems appearing in a semi-infinite slab, however, such rational approximations are not easy to obtain because the Laplace solutions are not analytic at the origin. In this article, a continued fraction method has been proposed to obtain rational approximations of such heat conduction dynamics in a semi-infinite slab.



Evaluation Formulas for Generalized Conditional Wiener Integrals with Drift on a Function Space
Dong Hyun Cho
Journal of Function Spaces , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/469840
Abstract: Let denote a generalized Wiener space, the space of real-valued continuous functions on the interval and define a stochastic process by for and , where with a.e. and is continuous on . Let random vectors and be given by and , where is a partition of . In this paper we derive a translation theorem for a generalized Wiener integral and then prove that is a generalized Brownian motion process with drift . Furthermore, we derive two simple formulas for generalized conditional Wiener integrals of functions on with the drift and the conditioning functions and . As applications of these simple formulas, we evaluate the generalized conditional Wiener integrals of various functions on . 1. Introduction Let denote the Wiener space, the space of real-valued continuous functions on with . On the space, Yeh [1] introduced an inversion formula that a conditional expectation can be found by a Fourier-transform. But Yeh’s inversion formula is very complicated in its application when the conditioning function is vector-valued. In [2], Park and Skoug derived a simple formula for conditional Wiener integrals on with a vector-valued conditioning function given by , where is a partition of the interval . In their simple formula, they expressed the conditional Wiener integral directly in terms of an ordinary Wiener integral. Using the simple formula in [2], Chang and Skoug [3] investigated the effect that drift has on the conditional Fourier-Feynman transform, the conditional convolution product, and various relationships that occur between them. On the other hand, let denote the space of real-valued continuous functions on the interval . Im and Ryu [4] introduced a probability measure on , where is a probability measure on the Borel class of . When , the Dirac measure concentrated at , is exactly the Wiener measure on . On the space , the author [5, 6] derived two simple formulas for the conditional Wiener -integral of functions on with the vector-valued conditioning functions and given by and which generalize the Park and Skoug’s formula in [2]. Using these formulas with the conditioning functions and , he evaluated the conditional Wiener -integral of function of the form for any positive integer . Let with a.e. on , and let be a continuous function on . Define a stochastic process by for and . Let and be given by In this paper, we derive a translation theorem for a generalized Wiener -integral, and then prove that is a generalized Brownian motion process with drift and variance for . Furthermore, we derive two simple formulas for generalized conditional Wiener integrals
Cascading Denoising Auto-Encoder as a Deep Directed Generative Model
Dong-Hyun Lee
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Recent work (Bengio et al., 2013) has shown howDenoising Auto-Encoders(DAE) become gener-ative models as a density estimator. However,in practice, the framework suffers from a mixingproblem in the MCMC sampling process and nodirect method to estimate the test log-likelihood.We consider a directed model with an stochas-tic identity mapping (simple corruption pro-cess) as an inference model and a DAE as agenerative model. By cascading these mod-els, we propose Cascading Denoising Auto-Encoders(CDAE) which can generate samples ofdata distribution from tractable prior distributionunder the assumption that probabilistic distribu-tion of corrupted data approaches tractable priordistribution as the level of corruption increases.This work tries to answer two questions. On theone hand, can deep directed models be success-fully trained without intractable posterior infer-ence and difficult optimization of very deep neu-ral networks in inference and generative mod-els? These are unavoidable when recent suc-cessful directed model like VAE (Kingma &Welling, 2014) is trained on complex dataset likereal images. On the other hand, can DAEs getclean samples of data distribution from heavilycorrupted samples which can be considered oftractable prior distribution far from data mani-fold? so-called global denoising scheme.Our results show positive responses of thesequestions and this work can provide fairly simpleframework for generative models of very com-plex dataset.
A Greener Approach for Synthesis of Functionalized Polyolefins by Introducing Reactive Functionality into Ethylene Copolymers  [PDF]
Wannida Apisuk, Ken Tsutsumi, Hyun Joon Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Kotohiro Nomura
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2014.43018
Abstract:
Recent successful examples for synthesis of new polyolefins containing (polar) functionalities by adopting the approaches by controlled incorporation of reactive functionalities (and the subsequent introduction of polar functionalities under mild conditions) by coordination polymerization in the presence of transition metal complex catalysts have been described. Related methods (such as direct copolymerization of olefin with polar monomer using living radical or coordination insertion methods) have also been demonstrated for comparison. Our recent efforts for precise synthesis of polyolefins containing polar functionalities by efficient incorporation of reactive functionality by copolymerization of ethylene with nonconjugateddiene (1,7-octadiene, vinylcyclohexene etc.) or divinyl-biphenyl using nonbridged half-titanocene [ex. Cp’TiCl2(O-2,6-iPr2C6H3), Cp’ = C5Me5, tBuC5H4 etc.] catalysts have been introduced.
The Current HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategies—Widely Outsmarted by Omitting Realities: A Socio-Critical Analysis in the Context of Powerless Law, Ethics and Asymmetric Interpretation of Human Rights  [PDF]
Reinhard H. Dennin, Arndt Sinn
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.53031
Abstract: The HIV pandemic seems to be fading to some degree—but there are regional exceptions. The current liberal prevention strategy with programs aimed at risk reduction interventions in particular for sexual behavior and injecting drug use has been expanded by antiretroviral treatment approaches. It was expected to keep the prevalence of infectious individuals below a certain threshold to curb self-sustaining chains of HIV infections. The introduction of biomedical approaches by ART/HAART with regard to practicing risk reduction behavior has been received as an exemption of responsibility by certain populations who are defined as “at-risk” population. Certain parts of the hard-to-reach, high-risk population have returned to unsafe sex practices leading to careless behavior which in turn has promoted the spread of HIV. This is supported by modern trends in risk societies where with regard to HIV basic principles of ethics and tenets of the Human Rights like “don’t harm other people” have lost any normative power. In addition, with the support of NGOs, legal norms such as protecting the “bodily integrity of individuals” have been ignored, allowing the “passing of HIV to partners” to become socially acceptable behavior. As a whole, in defiance of the endeavors of prevention applied so far, certain societies are exposed to an ongoing spread of HIV.
A Comparative Study on the Homo-, Co- and Ter-Polymerization Using Ethylene, 1-Decene and p-Methylstyrene
Dong Jin Yang,Hyun Jun Kim,Dong Hyun Kim
Catalysts , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/catal3010176
Abstract: We synthesized polyethylene (PE), poly(ethylene- co-1-decene), poly(ethylene- co- p-methylstyrene) and poly(ethylene- ter-1-decene- ter- p-methystyrene) using a rac-Et(Ind) 2ZrCl 2 metallocene catalyst and a methylaluminoxane cocatalyst system. The materials were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We compared and studied the kinetics, thermal properties and mechanical ones of these polymers. T g was related to the amorphous phase of the polymers, whereas the tensile strength and storage modulus (E’) were related to the crystalline phase. We also found that PE has the highest crystallinity through differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering analysis. The polymerization rates of poly(ethylene- co-1-decene) and poly(ethylene- ter-1-decene- ter- p-methystyrene) were always higher than that of polyethylene.
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