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Renal cell carcinoma can metastasize to virtually any organ, yet
synchronous metastasis to the bladder is extremely rare. A 77-year-old woman
presented with gross hematuria. Abdominal and chest computed tomography showed
a bilateral renal masses, bladder dome mass, and multiple lung metastasis.
Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor and sonography guided renal biopsy were performed. Both
pathology diagnoses were clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Targeted therapy using
pazopanib was administered to the patient without surgical resection of
primary tumors and metastatic lung lesions. Herein, we report the synchronous metastasis
of renal cell carcinoma to the bladder and lung.
The mathematical modeling for the preparation of C/C composites
from propane by F-CVI (Forced-flow Chemical Vapor Infiltration) was studied. The
modeling for the actual processes including overturning the preform in the middle
of the deposition process was carried out. Effects of the interval and the number
of overturning processes on the time changes of porosity distribution were observed.
The actual deposition process could be continued longer by overturning the preform.
Furthermore, the total amount of deposition increased twice when several times of
overturning were applied. It was confirmed that a low concentration and a slow reaction
rate are necessary for a uniform infiltration even when the preform is overturned
in the middle of the process.
Many studies on
fiber reinforced polymer composite bars, as a substitute for reinforcing bars,
have been conducted to solve corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete
structures since 1960s’. However, FRP Bars have a lower elastic modulus than
steel rebar as a structural component of concrete structures. Material
properties with brittleness fracture and low elastic modulus can be improved by
combining cheaper steel than carbon or aramid fibers. In this study, prototypes
of FRP Bars with inserted steel wires (i.e.,
“FRP Hybrid Bars”) were developed and their tensile performance was compared
depending on the proportion and diameter of steel. The FRP Hybrid Bars were
made by dividing them into D13 and D16 according to the diameter and proportion
of inserted wires: GFRPs were combined with wires having different diameters of
0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 2.0 mm in the proportion of 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70%,
respectively. As a result of tensile tests, the elastic modulus of FRP Hybrid Bars
were improved as 20% - 190% in comparison with the fully GFRP Bars.