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Various studies of domestic work have identified close personal relationships between domestic workers and employers as a key instrument in the exploitation of domestic workers, allowing employers to solicit unpaid services as well as a sense of superiority (Rollins, 1985; Romero, 2002; Glenn, 1992; Hondagneu-Sotelo, 2001). Likewise, other scholars have pointed out that close employee-employer relationships may actually empower domestic workers, increasing job leverage (Thorton-Dill, 1994). Ultimately, these lines are blurry and ever changing as employers continuously redefine employee expectations. Drawing from a larger study involving thirty interviews with white upper middle class women who currently employ domestic workers (mostly housecleaners) this paper explores employers’ interactions with domestic workers. Through these interviews this research elaborates on how employers and employees interact, how employers feel about these interactions, and explores to what extent these interactions are informed by the widely reported maternalistic tendencies of the past, while also considering the consequences of this.
violence is a pattern of assault and behavior perpetrated by one partner
against the other. Historically most of those oppressed by domestic violence
have been women. The lifetime prevalence of domestic violence against women is
10% - 69%. Though this violence might have started or escalated during
pregnancy, pregnancy specific prevalence is between 1% - 20%. The objective was
to determine the prevalence and obstetric complications. Domestic violence is
against pregnant women in tertiary clinic of a developing nation. Methodology:
It was a hospital based cross-sectional case control study conducted within the
period of one year. Close ended questionnaires were administered. Result: Two
hundred and seventy patients were recruited. The lifetime prevalence of
physical violence against women was 28.5%. 12.5% (5/40) of victims smoke
cigarettes; the prevalence of alcohol intake by the victims was 45%. 72.5% of
partners of victims smoke as compared to 25.5% of partners of non victims.
Unemployed women were victims of domestic violence far more than the employed
women. Pregnant women who are victims of physical violence are more likely to suffer
adverse pregnancy outcome. Violence in pregnancy is quite commoner than most of
the conditions routinely screened for during antenatal care. The association of
such violence with significant maternal and fetal/neonatal morbidity and
mortality emphasizes the fact that domestic violence is not just a social
problem but a feto-maternal health hazard that requires the input of every
stakeholder to address.
Proximate nutrient composition (crude protein,
non-fiber carbohydrates, crude fiber, and ash), fiber fractions (neutral
detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin), and both macro (calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na), and
sulfur (S)) and trace (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo),
and zinc (Zn)) mineral profiles were quantified in mixed pasture samples
collected during the wet (n =
8) and dry (n = 15) seasons in north central Uganda. Metabolizable and Net
Energy values for dairy production were estimated based on standard
calculations, and samples were compared seasonally. Crude fat (p = 0.05) and
lignin (p = 0.01) values were lower in the dry compared with the wet season,
linked with reduced plant growth. Crude protein (13.0% of dry matter (DM)), fiber
fractions, and calculated energy content did not vary seasonally in this data
set, and reflected chemical components of a grass-dominated system that
appeared energetically limiting for production livestock. Mineral constituents
varied more dramatically by season, with Ca, Mg, Cu, and Mn lower (all < 0.05) and K higher in the
dry season. Sodium was deficient in these pastures, whereas Ca, P, Mg, S, Cu,
and Zn concentrations may have been only marginally sufficient, particularly to
meet needs for lactation, dependent on season. These limited data suggest that
a high-energy mineral supplement may prove beneficial in meeting nutritional
and production needs of multiple grazing ruminant species in this region,
particularly during dry seasons.
Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is one of the main causes of infertility in dairy cattle and has a high economic impact on farmers. COD is caused by an endocrine imbalance within the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis preventing the mature Graafian follicle from ovulating. The cause at the molecular level is not well understood. However, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and plasminogen activator/plasmin families of extracellular (ECM) matrix-degrading proteinases are involved in Graafian follicle breakdown and oocyte release in the ovulation process. Our research investigated the possibility of using plasma concentrations of MMP-2 and -9 and their natural tissue inhibitors (TIMP) -1 and -2 as prognostic indicators of COD. Plasma samples from cystic and non-cystic dairy cows were analyzed using ELISA. Although plasma concentrations of MMP-2 and -9 were greater and TIMP-2 was lower in non-cystic compared to cystic cows, no significant differences were observed in MMP-2 and -9 and TIMP-1 and -2 due to cyst status. However, the TIMP-1:MMP-9 and TIMP-2:MMP-2 molar ratios were greater, (P = 0.099) and (P = 0.038), respectively, in cystic compared to non-cystic cows, suggesting a proteolytic insufficiency in cows with COD that may be a contributing factor to the anovulatory pathology. These data may provide the groundwork for future research and development of tools for dairy farmers to selectively choose replacement heifers less likely to develop COD.
Theoretically, violence is a human rights issue, and human rights are fundamental to values of dignity, equality, non-discrimination and non-interference, and these cut across gender, social, cultural, political, class, religious and geographical issues. Human beings, properties and resources are in millions daily destroyed. Children are abused. Women remain injured and humiliated, so much so that men’s status seemed to be changing. Hence, this study embarked on examining Women in Domestic Violence inNigeriausing gender perspectives. Among the findings is that in many parts ofNigeria, women and girls are subjected to physical, sexual and psychological abuse that cuts across lines of income, class, religion and culture. Recommendations made include the following: adoption of concerted or integrated approach to decision making and implementation.