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Physical activity reduces risk for colon polyps in a multiethnic colorectal cancer screening population
Nelson F Sanchez, Bryan Stierman, Said Saab, Divya Mahajan, Howa Yeung, Fritz Francois
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-312
Abstract: We enrolled 982 patients: 558 Hispanic, 202 Asian,149 Black, and 69 White. Patients who reported exercising one or more hours weekly had a lower prevalence of any polyps (25.3% vs 33.2%, P?=?0.008) as well as adenomas (13.8 vs. 18.9%, P?=?0.03) compared to those who did not exercise. Black and Hispanic patients and those who were overweight or obese also had lower prevalence of polyps if they led an active lifestyle. Multivariate analysis revealed that age >55, male sex, and Black race/ethnicity were positively associated with the presence of adenomas, while a history of exercising one hour or more weekly was an independent negative predictor for the presence of adenomas anywhere in the colon (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.4 - 0.9, P?=?0.03).Exercising one hour per week was associated with a lower prevalence of polyps and adenomas when compared to those who exercised less or not at all. An active lifestyle provides benefits to groups who are at risk for colorectal cancer, such as Blacks. It also provides significant protection to overweight and obese individuals. Public health initiatives should promote physical activity as a cancer prevention tool in multiethnic populations.noneAs the second leading cause of overall cancer death in the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains an important preventable public health concern. In 2010 an estimated 142,570 new cases of CRC were diagnosed and there were 51,370 associated deaths [1]. There are notable racial/ethnic differences in the epidemiology of the disease. The National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Report determined a colorectal cancer incidence rate of 54.71/100,000 for Blacks versus 43.16 for Whites, 39.78 for Asians, and 35.84 for Hispanics [2]. Identifying modifiable factors that influence the epidemiology of colorectal cancer incidence among multiethnic groups might be informative for the development of public health strategies targeting the disease.Physical activity has bee
Role of Optimism Bias and Risk Attitude on Investment Behaviour  [PDF]
Divya Gakhar
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.94056

Purpose: The study undertakes to identify individual characteristics and their investment pattern. The individual characteristics include MBTI personality scores, risk taking behaviour, biases and investor demographics. Data and Methodology: A structured questionnaire was administered on 117 respondents in India. The questions were related to demographic variables, optimism bias, investment pattern and MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®) personality assessment. The results were analysed using chi-square and ANOVA. Findings: The results show that presence of optimism bias in investors is influenced by marital status, nature of employment and work experience of investors. The Indian investors are majorly balanced or conservative out of the total sample in terms of risk taking behaviour. Risk taking attitude is affected by personality of individuals. Investment in high risk instruments is different among males and females, various age groups, marital status, and work place activity. Investment in medium risk instruments significantly differ for work experience on gender basis. Investment in low risk instruments does not differ for demographic variables of investors as all investors invest equally in safe investment mode. MBTI personality type is a less significant variable which directly affects investment patterns of Indian investors. The study can be useful for portfolio managers, investment advisors who can use it for designing investment portfolios and products for their clients based on their demographic, and behavioural profiling. Originality: This study identifies relationship between investment pattern, behavioural biases and demographic characteristics of Indian investors. MBTI personality assessment is one new dimension which is less researched in studying investment behaviour in Indian context.

Hospital-Acquired Anaemia Secondary to Phlebotomy in Elderly Patients  [PDF]
Divya Tiwari, Caroline Rance
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2014.32012

Introduction: Anaemia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in hospitalised patients, yet unnecessary blood tests from inpatients may actually induce a “hospital acquired anaemia” (HAA). This study examines the incidence of phlebotomy-induced anaemia during a hospital admission. Methods: Patients admitted to the Royal Bournemouth Hospital between 2009 and 2011 for a period of more than two weeks were identified. Those with normal haemoglobins on admission (Hb > 130 g/dL in men; Hb > 120 g/dL in women) were selected to be included in the study. One hundred and sixty two patients were randomly selected from this group and their admission and discharge haemoglobin was recorded, and the change in Hb was calculated. The number of blood tests taken during admission was calculated from each patient from which volume of blood lost was determined. Age, sex and co-morbidities, bleeding complications and blood transfusions were noted. T-test for unequal variance was used for analysis. Results: Of the 162 patients, 69 (42.5%) developed a HAA (defined as haemoglobin drop from normal to <110 g/dL). The average number of blood tests taken in the anaemia group was 37, compared to only 23 in the “no-anaemia” group. i.e. 132 mls in the anaemia group vs. only 80.2 mls in no-anaemia group. Further analysis of the anaemia group revealed that 40 patients developed a “mild anaemia” (defined as drop in Hb from normal to <110 g/dL) and 29 developed a moderate/severe anaemia (drop from a normal Hb at admission to <100 g/dL). Significantly higher volume of blood was withdrawn from this moderate/severe anaemia group compared to those that developed a mild anaemia 177.9 mls vs. 121.34 mls (p-Value 0.007, F = 0.001) 95% CI 2.08 to 9.22. Conclusion: This study suggests that patients admitted for inpatient stays of more than two weeks may be at high risk of HAA as a consequence of diagnostic blood loss. This anaemia in turn may have detrimental consequences, especially in patients with pre-existing cardio-respiratory disease. There needs to be increased awareness of the risk posed to patients as a result of diagnostic phlebotomy and further studies are required to study its impact on LOS, morbidity and mortality outcomes.

Investigation of Tolerable Laser Linewidth for Different Modulation Formats in CO-OFDM Systems  [PDF]
Divya Dhawan, Neena Gupta
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2017.75009
Abstract: The ideal behavior of communication system requires a single frequency carrier. In optical communication system, light is used as a carrier. Practical laser source has a finite linewidth due to variations in the frequency of operation, hence, resulting in undesired phase perturbations in the signal whereas the ideal requirement is the delta function spectral shape at the carrier frequency. The spectral shape gets broadened due to phase noise and is modeled as lorentzian shape. Linewidth is a measure of stability of laser phase noise with time. Coherent Optical Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) along with the spectrally efficient Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) formats is emerging as one of the best solutions for future high speed fiber transmission systems. Though the coherent, receivers have advantages in terms of sensitivity and selectivity, laser phase noise is the main limitation of such systems as the laser phase noise further causes common phase rotation of all the subcarriers per symbol and also results in inter carrier interference. QAM formats are also susceptible to laser phase noise. Phase noise in coherent systems is governed by laser linewidth. Hence, it is very important to investigate the impact of laser linewidth in CO-OFDM systems. This paper investigates the tolerable laser linewidths for different QAM formats in a 40 Gbps COOFDM system.
Antibacterial Activity of 2-(2’,4’-Dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol from Dysidea granulosa
Divya M. P. Shridhar,Girish B. Mahajan,Vijayendra P. Kamat,Chandrakant G. Naik,Rajashri R. Parab,Nidhi R. Thakur,Prabhu D. Mishra
Marine Drugs , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/md7030464
Abstract: 2-(2’,4’-Dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea granulosa (Bergquist) collected off the coast of Lakshadweep islands, Indian Ocean, exhibited potent and broad spectrum in-vitro antibacterial activity, especially against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE), vancomycin sensitive Enterococci (VSE) and Bacillus spp. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated against 57 clinical and standard strains of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The observed MIC range was 0.117-2.5 μg/mL against all the Gram positive bacteria and 0.5-2 μg/mL against Gram negative bacteria. The in-vitro antibacterial activity observed was better than that of the standard antibiotic linezolid, a marketed anti-MRSA drug. The results establish 2-(2’,4’-dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol, as a potential lead molecule for anti-MRSA and anti-VRE drug development.
Energy Efficient Path Determination in Wireless Sensor Network Using BFS Approach  [PDF]
Shilpa Mahajan, Jyoteesh Malhotra
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2011.311040
Abstract: The wireless sensor networks (WSN) are formed by a large number of sensor nodes working together to provide a specific duty. However, the low energy capacity assigned to each node prompts users to look at an important design challenge such as lifetime maximization. Therefore, designing effective routing techniques that conserve scarce energy resources is a critical issue in WSN. Though, the chain-based routing is one of significant routing mechanisms but several common flaws, such as data propagation delay and redundant transmission, are associated with it. In this paper, we will be proposing an energy efficient technique based on graph theory that can be used to find out minimum path based on some defined conditions from a source node to the destination node. Initially, a sensor area is divided into number of levels by a base station based on signal strength. It is important to note that this technique will always found out minimum path and even alternate path are also saved in case of node failure.
Testability Models for Object-Oriented Frameworks  [PDF]
Divya Ranjan, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.36061
Abstract: Frameworks are time-tested highly reusable architectural skeleton structures. They are designed ‘abstract’ and ‘inco- mplete’ and are designed with predefined points of variability, known as hot spots, to be customized later at the time of framework reuse. Frameworks are reusable entities thus demand stricter and rigorous testing in comparison to one- time use application. The overall cost of framework development may be reduced by designing frameworks with high testability. This paper aims at discussing a few metric models for testability analysis of object-oriented frameworks in an attempt to having quantitative data on testability to be used to plan and monitor framework testing activities so that the framework testing effort and hence the overall framework development effort may be brought down.
Variability-Based Models for Testability Analysis of Frameworks  [PDF]
Divya Ranjan, Anil Kumar Tripathi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.35051
Abstract: Frameworks are developed to capture the recurring design practices in terms of skeletons of software subsystems/ systems. They are designed ‘abstract’ and ‘incomplete’ and are designed with predefined points of variability, known as hot spots, to be customized later at the time of framework reuse. Frameworks are reusable entities thus demand stricter and rigorous testing in comparison to one-time use application. It would be advisable to guaranty the production of high quality frameworks without incurring heavy costs for their rigorous testing. The overall cost of framework development may be reduced by designing frameworks with high testability. This paper aims at discussing various metric models for testability analysis of frameworks in an attempt to having quantitative data on testability to be used to plan and monitor framework testing activities so that the framework testing effort and hence the overall framework development effort may be brought down. The models considered herein particularly consider that frameworks are inherently abstract and variable in nature.
High frequency multiplication of shoots using axillary buds for production of elite lines of Stevia rebaudiana  [PDF]
Kavyashree Rangappa, Divya Shalini Aind
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.47102
Abstract: An efficient repeatable protocol has been developed for rapid clonal multiplication of an endemic, perennial herb Stevia rebaudiana using juvenile axillary buds from in vivo grown seedlings. MS basal medium supplemented with BAP (8.88 μM) and NAA (5.37 μM) was found to be the most suitable medium for initiation of shoots with 92% response. The repeated subculture resulted in high-frequency shoot multiplication (9.82 ± 1.93) at the average rate of 3-fold per subculture. The axenic multiple shoots were rooted ex-vitro on horticultural grate soilrite mix-peat:perlite:vermiculate (1:1:1 v/v) with half strength MS salts fortified with NAA (5.37 μM). The complete plantlets were successfully established in soil with 86% survival frequency. The statistical analysis of the data pertaining to multiple shoots and root formation revealed significant difference between and within the treatments.
Impact of Capital Structure on Firm Value: Evidence from Indian Hospitality Industry  [PDF]
Divya Aggarwal, Purna Chandra Padhan
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.74067
Abstract: This study examines the effect of capital structure and firm quality on firm value of selected BSE listed Indian hospitality firms over a time frame of 2001-15. Variables including firm quality measured through Altman Z score, leverage, size, profitability, tangibility, growth, liquidity along with macro variables of growth in gross domestic product and inflation are taken into consideration for examining their impact on firm value. An empirical study has been carried out through panel data techniques by applying pooled OLS, fixed effects and random effects models. The findings of the study reveal a significant relationship of firm value with firm quality, leverage, liquidity, size and economic growth. The study shows that Modigliani miller theorem of capital structure irrelevance does not hold for Indian hospitality sector. It is of practical significance for hotel owners to reassess their capital structure to improve firm quality and firm’s market performance.
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