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Ranking Malaria Risk Factors to Guide Malaria Control Efforts in African Highlands
Natacha Protopopoff,Wim Van Bortel,Niko Speybroeck,Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden,Dismas Baza,Umberto D'Alessandro,Marc Coosemans
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008022
Abstract: Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies.
Vector control in a malaria epidemic occurring within a complex emergency situation in Burundi: a case study
Natacha Protopopoff, Michel Van Herp, Peter Maes, Tony Reid, Dismas Baza, Umberto D'Alessandro, Wim Van Bortel, Marc Coosemans
Malaria Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-93
Abstract: Twenty nine hills (administrative areas) were selected in collaboration with the provincial health authorities for the vector control interventions combining indoor residual spraying with deltamethrin and insecticide-treated nets. Impact was evaluated by entomological and parasitological surveys. Almost all houses (99%) were sprayed and nets use varied between 48% and 63%. Anopheles indoor resting density was significantly lower in treated as compared to untreated hills, the latter taken as controls. Despite this impact on the vector, malaria prevalence was not significantly lower in treated hills except for people sleeping under a net.Indoor spraying was feasible and resulted in high coverage despite being a logistically complex intervention in the Burundian context (scattered houses and emergency situation). However, it had little impact on the prevalence of malaria infection, possibly because it was implemented after the epidemic's peak. Nevertheless, after this outbreak the Ministry of Health improved the surveillance system, changed its policy with introduction of effective drugs and implementation of vector control to prevent new malaria epidemics.In the absence of effective drugs and sufficient preparedness, present study failed to demonstrate any impact of vector control activities upon the course of a short-duration malaria epidemic. However, the experience gained lead to increased preparedness and demonstrated the feasibility of vector control measures in this specific context.Malaria epidemics are a growing problem in the African highlands with devastating effects on their immunologically naive population [1,2]. When occurring during complex emergency situations their control is even more difficult. According to WHO [3] "a complex emergency is a situation that affects large civilian populations with war or civil strife, food shortages and population displacement, resulting in excess mortality and morbidity". The approach to malaria control in the acute ph
Spatial targeted vector control in the highlands of Burundi and its impact on malaria transmission
Natacha Protopopoff, Wim Van Bortel, Tanguy Marcotty, Michel Van Herp, Peter Maes, Dismas Baza, Umberto D'Alessandro, Marc Coosemans
Malaria Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-158
Abstract: In Karuzi, in 2002–2005, vector control activities combining indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets were implemented. The interventions were done before the expected malaria transmission period and targeted the valleys between hills, with the expectation that this would also protect the populations living at higher altitudes. The impact on the Anopheles population and on malaria transmission was determined by nine cross-sectional surveys carried out at regular intervals throughout the study period.Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus represented 95% of the collected anopheline species. In the valleys, where the vector control activities were implemented, Anopheles density was reduced by 82% (95% CI: 69–90). Similarly, transmission was decreased by 90% (95% CI: 63%–97%, p = 0.001). In the sprayed valleys, Anopheles density was further reduced by 79.5% (95% CI: 51.7–91.3, p < 0.001) in the houses with nets as compared to houses without them. No significant impact on vector density and malaria transmission was observed in the hill tops. However, the intervention focused on the high risk areas near the valley floor, where 93% of the vectors are found and 90% of the transmission occurs.Spatial targeted vector control effectively reduced Anopheles density and transmission in this highland district. Bed nets have an additional effect on Anopheles density though this did not translate in an additional impact on transmission. Though no impact was observed in the hilltops, the programme successfully covered the areas most at risk. Such a targeted strategy could prevent the emergence and spread of an epidemic from these high risk foci.Malaria epidemics occur frequently in the African highlands [1-3]. Their control is a priority and a specific plan of action was adopted by the African leaders during the 2000 Abuja summit [4]. An early warning system to increase malaria epidemic preparedness and prevention has been promoted, based on climate data, p
Access to artesunate-amodiaquine, quinine and other anti-malarials: policy and markets in Burundi
John H Amuasi, Graciela Diap, Samuel Blay-Nguah, Isaac Boakye, Patrick E Karikari, Baza Dismas, Jeanne Karenzo, Lievin Nsabiyumva, Karly S Louie, Jean-René Kiechel
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-34
Abstract: Adapting a standardized methodology developed by Health Action International/World Health Organization (HAI/WHO), a cross-sectional survey of 70 (24 public, 36 private, and 10 NGO) medicine outlets was conducted in three regions of Burundi, representing different levels of transmission of malaria. The availability on day of the survey, the median prices, and affordability (in terms of number of days' wages to purchase treatment) of AS-AQ, quinine and other anti-malarials were calculated.Anti-malarials were stocked in all outlets surveyed. AS-AQ was available in 87.5%, 33.3%, and 90% of public, private, and NGO retail outlets, respectively. Quinine was the most common anti-malarial found in all outlet types. Non-policy recommended anti-malarials were mainly found in the private outlets (38.9%) compared to public (4.2%) and NGO (0%) outlets. The median price of a course of AS-AQ was US$0.16 (200 Burundi Francs, FBu) for the public and NGO markets, and 3.5-fold higher in the private sector (US$0.56 or 700 FBu). Quinine tablets were similarly priced in the public (US$1.53 or 1,892.50 FBu), private and NGO sectors (both US$1.61 or 2,000 FBu). Non-policy anti-malarials were priced 50-fold higher than the price of AS-AQ in the public sector. A course of AS-AQ was affordable at 0.4 of a day's wage in the public and NGO sectors, whereas, it was equivalent to 1.5 days worth of wages in the private sector.AS-AQ was widely available and affordable in the public and NGO markets of hard-to-reach post-conflict communities in Burundi. However greater accessibility and affordability of policy recommended anti-malarials in the private market sector is needed to improve country-wide policy uptake.The East African country of Burundi is one of the smallest countries on the continent, with a population of about 8 million in 2008. Burundi's health infrastructure collapsed during the 13-year civil war that ended in 2005. Presently in post-conflict transition, the country is focussing its e
Incorporation of New Information in an Approximate Hamiltonian
C P Viazminsky,S Baza
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Additional information about the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a physical system demands extension of the effective Hamiltonian in use. In this work we extend the effective Hamiltonian that describes partially a physical system so that the new Hamiltonian comprises, in addition to the information in the old Hamiltonian, new information, available by means of experiment or theory. A simple expression of the enlarged Hamiltonian, which does not involve matrix inversion, is obtained. It is also shown that the Lee-Suzuki transformation effectively put the initial Hamiltonian in a diagonal block form.
Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae) flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Mendon?a, Luciana Baza;Anjos, Luiz dos;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752006000100002
Abstract: nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (trochilidae) and two passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of erythrina speciosa andrews (fabaceae), a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of londrina state university, paraná state, brazil. nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers further declined, apparently following the pattern of nectar availability. the manner to which birds probed the flowers and, in consequence, their role on pollination were greatly determined by morphological traits and approaching behavior of birds. e. speciosa seemed best suited for pollination by long-billed hummingbirds but some short to medium-billed species may play some role on its pollination.
Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae) e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil
Mendon?a, Luciana Baza;Anjos, Luiz dos;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752005000100007
Abstract: the main purpose of this study was to identify the assemblage of flowers used by hummingbirds in an urban area of southern brazil, as well as describe the patterns of resource partitioning among the hummingbird species. twenty two plant species were recorded, which flowers are visited by ten hummingbird species. most of these plants are exotics and regarded as non-ornithophilous. the hummingbirds displayed different combinations of morphological features (mass, bill length, wing length and relation bill/wing), which were reflected in the sets of flowers visited and the community role played by each species. in general, hummingbirds with largest niche breadths were also the most frequent ones, indicating that urban areas could be more suitable for generalist species.
HIV serostatus and tumor differentiation among patients with cervical cancer at Bugando Medical Centre
Dismas Matovelo, Moke Magoma, Peter Rambau, Anthony Massinde, Nestory Masalu
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-406
Abstract: This was a descriptive analytical study involving suspected cervical cancer patients seen at the gynaecology outpatient clinic and in the gynaecological ward from November 2010 to March 2011.A total of 91 suspected cervical cancer patients were seen during the study period and 74 patients were histologically confirmed with cervical cancer. The mean age of those confirmed of cervical cancer was 50.5?±?12.5?years. Most patients (39 of the total 74–52.7%) were in early disease stages (stages IA-IIA). HIV infection was diagnosed in 22 (29.7%) patients. On average, HIV positive women with early cervical cancer disease had significantly more CD4+ cells than those with advanced disease (385.8?±?170.4 95% CI 354.8-516.7 and 266.2?±?87.5, 95% CI 213.3-319.0 respectively p?=?0.042). In a binary logistic regression model, factors associated with HIV seropositivity were ever use of hormonal contraception (OR 5.79 95% CI 1.99-16.83 p?=?0.001), aged over 50?years (OR 0.09 95% CI 0.02-0.36 p?=?0.001), previous history of STI (OR 3.43 95% CI 1.10-10.80 p?=?0.035) and multiple sexual partners OR 5.56 95% CI 1.18-26.25 p?=?0.030). Of these factors, only ever use of hormonal contraception was associated with tumor cell differentiation (OR 0.16 95% CI 0.06-0.49 p?=?0.001). HIV seropositivity was weakly associated with tumor cell differentiation in an unadjusted analysis (OR 0.21 95% CI 0.04-1.02 p?=?0.053), but strong evidence for the association was found after adjusting for ever use of hormonal contraception with approximately six times more likelihood of HIV infection among women with poorly differentiated tumor cells compared to those with moderately and well differentiated cells (OR 5.62 95% CI 1.76-17.94 p?=?0.004).Results from this study setting suggest that HIV is common among cervical cancer patients and that HIV seropositivity may be associated with poor tumour differentiation. Larger studies in this and similar settings with high HIV prevalence and high burden of cervical ca
Developing a Forest Management Plan (DFMP) for Gatsibo District in the Eastern Province of Rwanda  [PDF]
Felix Rurangwa, Mwangi James Kinyanjui, Frederick Bazimaziki, Jacques Peeters, Anicet Munyehirwe, Francis Musoke, Gaspard Nelson Habiyaremye, Dismas Bakundukize, Prime Ngabonziza, Jost Uwase
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.82017
Abstract: In support of conservation of its fragile land resource, the government of Rwanda has proposed the management of all forests in the country under a specific management plan. This assignment sought to develop a management plan for the public productive forests of Gatsibo District in Eastern province of Rwanda. Data was collected from 1468 plots, proportionally allocated by size to the 375 forest stands. Information about the forest (qualitative data) was recorded and then forest measurements (inventory) done in a concentric cycle of 9.77 m and 3.99 m radius and all data recorded in a digital format using the survey CTO platform. The data was summarized and analyzed in a harmonized forest management tool for Rwanda comprising of six interlinked excel files based on Rwanda’s silvicultural regimes and treatments. This analysis resulted to planning for silvicultural activities in each forest up to the year 2070. Results show that the public plantation forests of Gatsibo are poorly stocked mainly due to poor management and the best stocked forest had a basal area of only 13.3 m2/ha. This implied low forest volumes for each of the wood requirements; timber wood, service wood and energy wood. Eucalyptus forests are the most common but are poorly stocked compared to the Pinus patula forests which are even aged by plantation. A projection of stocks shows that the forests can be sustained with an average wood volume of 73 m3/ha, to provide harvests yearly and reduce the wood supply and demand gap in the district. A viability analysis indicates that some forests are viable for leasing with good profits in the short term (10 years) and full term planning (40 years). However, some forests may not be commercially viable due to their current stocks and agro bioclimatic conditions, and these would be rehabilitated for ecosystem services. This plan supports the restoration of the forests of Gatsibo district through provision of specific guidelines for the management of the forests.
Dislipemias en pacientes infectados por VIH
Baza,B.; Sánchez,J.; Carrió,D.; Corral,S. del; Quintana,A.; Neila,A.; García,S.; Romero,J. del;
Revista de Diagnóstico Biológico , 2001,
Abstract: objetive. to investigate serum lipid levels in patients infected by hiv. patients. 206 subjects, 96 hiv infected and 110 uninfected. patients were divided into groups according to their cd4 number, viral load and risk behaviour. results. total cholesterol and hdl were significatively lower in hiv (+). triglyceride and cardiovascular risk rates were significatively higher in this group. as cd4 decrease and viral load increase, albumina and cholesterol decrease in a linear and progresive way, showing very gradual changes that were only significative between each group and the healthy group. as immunological damage advances hdl shows the most significative changes. however ldl and triglyceride don′t show significative changes during the illness (previous to aids). conclusion. hdl cholesterol can be a useful parameter of illness progression. as it seems likely that the altered lipid values contribute to immune dysfunction, its correction could be of therapeutic value.
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