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Epidemiology of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in Humans and Animals in the Gambia and Senegal
Dione, M.
Tropicultura , 2010,
Abstract: Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) species are important food-borne pathogens. Although acute gastroenteritis is the most common clinical symptom, complications can occur resulting in bacteraemia with or without focal infections. Food products, especially food of animal origin such as poultry are associated with the transmission to humans. In Africa, NTS are among the most common cause of bloodstream infections in children younger than 5 years. Epidemiological data on NTS are lacking in Africa both for human and animal infections. Therefore, a study providing a better understanding of the factors that lead to the emergence of NTS is a prerequisite for the design of improved intervention strategies to control these pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study the epidemiology of NTS pathogens in humans and animals in The Gambia and Senegal. Chapter 1 reviews the current status of knowledge on NTS infections in Africa with focus on The Gambia and Senegal. It also provides the background against which these studies were conducted. Chapter 2 describes the prevalence of NTS along the poultry production chain in Casamance, Senegal. Fifty seven randomly selected broiler farms, 42 street restaurants and 285 chicken carcasses were studied. The following farm prevalences were reported: 35.1, 38.6 and 29.8% in chicken faeces, on carcass skin, and in muscles, respectively. NTS were found in chicken meat servings of 14.3% of the 42 street restaurants and in 40.4% of the 285 chicken carcasses examined. The most prevalent serotypes among the eighteen identified were Salmonella Brancaster (57.9%), Salmonella Goelzau (10.7%), Salmonella Kentucky (8.4%), and Salmonella Hadar (7.3%). The following serotypes were for the first time identified in Senegal: Salmonella Bandia, Salmonella Bessi, Salmonella Brunei, Salmonella Hull, Salmonella Istanbul, Salmonella Javiana, Salmonella Magherafelt, Salmonella Molade, Salmonella oxford, Salmonella Poona, Salmonella Rubislaw, Salmonella Tamale, Salmonella Zanzibar and Salmonella Goelzau. The prevalence of NTS on skin and in muscle was significantly associated with the detection of Salmonella in feces (P≤ 0.001). The high levels of contamination of skin and muscle can be attributed to poor hygiene at the farm level and the non-hygienic handling of chicken carcass meat during and after slaughtering. This conclusion is supported by the fact that some serotypes are present both on the farm (as found in feces) and in carcasses (on skin and meat). Food can also become contaminated through environmental contact, because hygienic measures appli
Tratamiento para la infección latente por tuberculosis en ni os: recomendaciones internacionales y para Colombia Latent Tuberculosis Infection Treatment in Children: international recommendation and to Colombia
Dione Benjumea
Infectio , 2012,
Abstract: Mediante una revisión narrativa de la literatura, se pretende discutir las recomendaciones vigentes para Colombia con relación al tratamiento para infección latente por tuberculosis (LTBI: latent tuberculosis infection), según las guías y hallazgos internacionales. Los ni os menores de 5 a os en contacto con pacientes con tuberculosis (TB) pulmonar bacilífera tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar TB. El tratamiento con isoniazida ha demostrado disminuir este riesgo y está indicado durante al menos 6 meses. Las guías para el tratamiento de LTBI de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades indican tratamiento a menores de 5 a os en contacto con pacientes con TB pulmonar bacilífera, una vez se ha descartado TB activa, independientemente del estado de vacunación con bacilo de Calmette-Guérin. La norma colombiana considera, además de la vacuna bacilo de Calmette- Guérin, el resultado de la prueba de tuberculina. Existe el temor de la posible generación de cepas resistentes de Mycobacterium tuberculosis por el uso de monoterapia. Se recomienda el seguimiento estricto durante el tratamiento para mitigar la aparición de efectos adversos y de cepas resistentes. Los menores de 5 a os en contacto con pacientes con TB pulmonar bacilífera en Colombia deberían recibir tratamiento para LTBI con isoniazida, según los estándares internacionales de diagnóstico de la TB activa, y seguimiento del tratamiento para LTBI. By mean a narrative review of literature, it is pretended to discuss the actual Colombian recommendations in relation with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment, according to international guidelines and findings. Children under 5 years old in contact with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients have a greater risk to develop tuberculosis. Isoniazid treatment had demonstrated to diminish that risk, and it is indicated for at least 6 months. The WHO and CDC guidelines for LTBI treatment indicate treatment to under 5 years old children in contact with bacilliferous pulmonary TB patients, once has been discarded active TB, regardless the BCG vaccination state. The Colombian policy consider besides the vaccine BCG, the result of the tuberculin skin test. There is an pprehensiveness about the possibility of resistant strain generation of M. tuberculosis due to monotherapy use. During the treatment, it is recommended the strict follow-up, to mitigate the adverse effects and resistant strain appearance. Children under 5 years old in contact with bacilliferous pulmonary TB patients in Colombia should rece
Youth homicides and socio-spatial segregation in Londrina Homicídios de jovens e segrega o socioespacial em Londrina
Dione Lolis
Semina : Ciências Sociais e Humanas , 2010,
Abstract: O presente artigo analisa o quadro atual de violência homicida no País, bem como os fatores de risco e de vulnerabilidade de jovens residentes em Londrina (PR) a esse tipo de violência. Mostra também a incidência de mortes nos grupos jovens que residem em territórios de exclus o das capitais, das regi es metropolitanas e, num movimento mais recente, nas cidades do interior, como encontramos em Londrina. Além, disso, apresenta dados de pesquisa em que se avalia que a segrega o socioespacial e os tra os que assume na cidade s o os aspectos centrais de risco e de vulnerabilidade de jovens à violência homicida. E, nesse intrincado contexto social em que vivem os jovens que mais sofrem esse tipo de violência, os componentes simbólicos importam tanto quanto os aspectos objetivos para desvendar o lugar destinado ao jovem na agenda das políticas públicas. Esses aspectos podem contribuir para a formula o de propostas que visem à redu o dos níveis de morte violenta. This article examines the current state of murderous violence in the country, as well as risk factors and vulnerability of young people living in Londrina (PR) to this type of violence. The article also shows the incidence of deaths in younger age groups who live in areas of exclusion of the capitals, metropolitan areas and lately, in smaller cities, as found in Londrina. In addition, it presents research data showing that socio-spatial segregation and the features it introduces in the city are key aspects of risk and vulnerability of youth in homicidal violence. In this intricate social context in which young people who suffer the most with this type violence live, the symbolic components matter as much as the objective aspects to reveal the place destined for young people in the public policy agenda. These aspects may contribute to the formulation of proposals aimed at reducing levels of violent death.
Determination of an Equivalent Loading Circle Which May Represent the Loading of the Dual Wheels  [PDF]
Baye Birane Thiam, Fatou Samb, Adama Dione
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2018.82018
Abstract: This work aims to look for a simplifying surface that can represent the effect of the dual wheels on the variation of the stress and deformation state prevailing during the passage of traffic loads. This was facilitated by the results of Thiam (2016) [4] obtained on the distribution of the vertical contact stress in the space described by the dual wheels. The analysis of the results of this study, on all the loading circles considered, shows that the radius loading circle equal to 0.181 m makes it possible to most probably represent the effect of the dual wheels. With this new surface, the effect of the dual wheels can be determined in 2D. The choice of this load is confirmed by a study in case of overload. Thus, the single axle with dual wheels is represented by a simplified diagram equipped on each side by a disk of radius 0.181 m. These results are obtained using a numerical simulation under Cast3M with a gravelly lateritic pavement.
Taking into Account the Effect of Dual Wheels on the Behavior of Lateritic Gravelly Pavements  [PDF]
Baye Birane Thiam, Fatou Samb, Adama Dione
Geomaterials (GM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2018.83003
Abstract: The representation in the three-dimensional space of the physical model symbolized by the application of the pairing of the wheels described by 2 disks with a radius of 0.125 m and a 0.375 m spacing has the advantage of more accurately simulating the loading. In most cases, the assumption of a uniform distribution of loading on the circular surface is considered. In order to determine the effect of dual wheels, this research proposes a new approach to the distribution of vertical contact stress in three-dimensional space with loading on the circular surface. This allowed evaluating the maximum deformation on the space described by the dual wheels. The results showed that vertical deformation is maximum at the center of each circular surface. The distribution of the vertical contact stress is non-uniform on the circular footprint and has a significant influence on the deformation of the pavement at the level of the bituminous layer. The impact assessment of the twinning reveals that the dual wheels load causes less damage than that of a single wheel. These results are obtained by means of a numerical simulation under Cast3M with a gravitational lateritic pavement.
Gest o ambiental portuária: desafios e possibilidades Port environmental management: challenges and possibilities
Dione Kitzmann,Milton Asmus
Revista de Administra??o Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/s0034-76122006000600006
Abstract: Este artigo trata dos desafios trazidos pela implementa o de reformas portuárias a partir da Lei de Moderniza o dos Portos (Lei no 8.630/93). Entre eles, está o da gest o ambiental, ainda n o adequadamente incorporada ao sistema portuário brasileiro. As iniciativas de gest o ambiental n o fazem parte do setor de planejamento portuário, levando a a es desarticuladas e reativas, fruto da vis o que considera a regulamenta o ambiental um fator que amea a a competitividade das empresas. Para os autores, a adequa o às normas ambientais traz oportunidades de melhoria para o negócio portuário. O artigo apresenta panoramas da gest o ambiental portuária nacional e internacional, assim como exemplos de ecoinova es e de práticas de gest o ambiental em portos europeus e norte-americanos, ressaltando que a gest o ambiental deve ir além da microescala (a gest o dos problemas rotineiros), incorporando-se à macroescala (a gest o da zona costeira), para que o novo modelo portuário seja economicamente competitivo com benefícios socioambientais. This article discusses the challenges brought by the process of port reforms implemented by the Port Modernization Act (Act n. 8.630/93), among which environmental management, not yet adequately incorporated to the Brazilian port system. Initiatives of environmental management are not part of port planning, leading to disarticulated and reactive actions, which are a result of a point of view that considers environmental regulation a threat to business competitiveness. This article supports the idea that compliance to environmental standards brings opportunities of improvement for the port business. The article presents domestic and foreign environmental management scenarios, as well as examples of eco-innovations and good practices in European and North American ports. It points out that environmental management must go beyond the micro-scale (management of routine problems) and be part of the macro-scale (management of the coastal zone), so that the new port model can be economically competitive with social and environmental benefits.
Introduction to the dossier report
Dione Oliveira Moura
Brazilian Journalism Research , 2005,
Abstract:
Introduction to the dossier report: Journalism Research in Europe
Dione Oliveira Moura
Brazilian Journalism Research , 2006,
Abstract:
Introduction to the Dossier Report
Dione Oliveira Moura
Brazilian Journalism Research , 2011,
Abstract:
Estimation of Resilient Modulus of Unbound Granular Materials from Senegal (West Africa)  [PDF]
Adama Dione, Meissa Fall, Yves Berthaud, Makhaly Ba
Geomaterials (GM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2013.34022
Abstract:

The resilient modulus (Mr) is an important parameter which describes the mechanical behavior of unbound granular materials. However, this parameter can be determined from physical properties. This paper presents the relationship between resilient modulus and physical properties of Quartzite from Bakel (GB), Basalt from Diack and Bargny and Bandia limestones. Simple and multiple regression method by stepwise are used to establish linear and nonlinear relations to predict the resilient modulus. The results showed no significant correlation for Basalt, a weak estimation of the modulus for GB and good prediction of resilient modulus for limestone. These results also showed that the model of Uzan is more suitable to predict the resilient modulus than NCHRP model and the resilient modulus is better predicted in nonlinear relationship.

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