Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
under-sampled middle and western branches of Shade River Watershed (SRW) in SE
Ohio were investigated as part of the
Ohio University—U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) STAR grant. This
project was for monitoring the quality of watersheds in Ohio and classifying them according to their
physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Water samples, as well as field
parameters, were taken at twenty-two sites for chemical analyses. The ions analyzed
included Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Al, NO3, SO4, HCO3, and total
PO4, while the
field parameters measured included pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved
solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), and alkalinity. To assess the water
quality within the SRW, the analyzed ions and field parameters were compared to
the USEPA criteria for the survival of aquatic life. Analytical results showed
that the watershed is dominated by Ca-HCO3waters with
DO, Fe, Mn, and PO4being the
main causes of impairment within the streams. The relatively elevated
concentrations of manganese and less extent iron may be associated with the
local geology and the acidic nature of the soils. The high alkalinity and calcium
concentrations are due to the limestone geology. The elevated phosphate concentration may be due
to anthropogenic sources, fertilizers, or contributions from phosphorus-rich bedrock that differs
geochemically from other areas.
Introduction: The occupational toxic risks from agricultural activities in El Salvador affect human and environmental health. The objective of this paper is to describe the management of pesticide by farmers confirmed with a chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) not associated to diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Methods: The study involved 42 male patients older than 18 years old with confirmed CKDu that have participated in different stages of pesticides management. This is a cross-sectional study; it was conducted from January to June 2011, in three communities of Bajo Lempa region, El Salvador. An interview was especially designed to investigate which pesticides were used and the farmer practices at different stages of pesticide use. Statistical descriptive analysis was carried out for the several studied variables. Results: All interviewed people had a direct relationship with agricultural activities. The majority of patients had poor education, 19% were illiterate and 55% only have primary education. Most farmers with CKDu had been exposed more than 10 years to hazardous pesticides. The most used pesticide was Hedonal/2, 4 D (100%). 95% interviewed patients mixed different pesticides and 63% dumped empty pesticide containers in the fields. Interviewees did not use appropriate personal protective equipment (100%). Conclusions: There is high use of hazardous pesticides by patients and some of these are banned and some are legal in El Salvador, but prohibited by other countries. Interviewed CKDu patients had high exposure to toxic pesticides due to the misuse in almost all stages. There is inadequate legislation and a poor law enforcement to prevent the misuse of pesticides in El Salvador.
We make a numerical study of decoherence on the teleportation algorithm implemented in a linear chain of three nuclear spins system. We study different types of environments, and we determine the associated decoherence time as a function of the dissipative parameter. We found that the dissipation parameter to get a well defined quantum gates (without significant decoherence) must be within the range of γ≤4×10-4 for not thermalized case, which was determined by using the purity parameter calculated at the end of the algorithm. For the thermalized case the decoherence is stablished for very small dissipation parameter, making almost not possible to implement this algorithm for not zero temperature.