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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6686 matches for " Diane Wallace Taylor "
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Dysregulation of Angiopoietins Is Associated with Placental Malaria and Low Birth Weight
Karlee L. Silver,Kathleen Zhong,Rose G. F. Leke,Diane Wallace Taylor,Kevin C. Kain
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009481
Abstract: Placental malaria (PM) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including low birth weight (LBW). However, the precise mechanisms by which PM induces LBW are poorly defined. Based on the essential role of angiopoietin (ANG)-1 and -2 in normal placental vascular development, we hypothesized that PM may result in the dysregulation of angiopoietins and thereby contribute to LBW outcomes.
Community informatics - a challenge for university scholarship
Wallace Taylor
South African Journal of Information Management , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/sajim.v7i4.280
Abstract:
Circulating Soluble Endoglin Levels in Pregnant Women in Cameroon and Malawi—Associations with Placental Malaria and Fetal Growth Restriction
Karlee L. Silver, Andrea L. Conroy, Rose G. F. Leke, Robert J. I. Leke, Philomina Gwanmesia, Malcolm E. Molyneux, Diane Taylor Wallace, Stephen J. Rogerson, Kevin C. Kain
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024985
Abstract: Placental infections with Plasmodium falciparum are associated with fetal growth restriction resulting in low birth weight (LBW). The mechanisms that mediate these effects have yet to be completely described; however, they are likely to involve inflammatory processes and dysregulation of angiogenesis. Soluble endoglin (sEng), a soluble receptor of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β previously associated with preeclampsia in pregnant women and with severe malaria in children, regulates the immune system and influences angiogenesis. We hypothesized that sEng may play a role in development of LBW associated with placental malaria (PM). Plasma levels of sEng were measured in women (i) followed prospectively throughout pregnancy in Cameroon (n = 52), and (ii) in a case-control study at delivery in Malawi (n = 479). The relationships between sEng levels and gravidity, peripheral and placental parasitemia, gestational age, and adverse outcomes of PM including maternal anemia and LBW were determined. In the longitudinal cohort from Cameroon, 28 of 52 women (54%) experienced at least one malaria infection during pregnancy. In Malawi we enrolled two aparasitemic gravidity-matched controls for every case with PM. sEng levels varied over the course of gestation and were significantly higher in early and late gestation as compared to delivery (P<0.006 and P<0.0001, respectively). Circulating sEng levels were higher in primigravidae than multigravidae from both Cameroon and Malawi, irrespective of malarial infection status (p<0.046 and p<0.001, respectively). Peripheral parasitemia in Cameroonian women and PM in Malawian women were each associated with elevated sEng levels following correction for gestational age and gravidity (p = 0.006 and p = 0.033, respectively). Increased sEng was also associated with the delivery of LBW infants in primigravid Malawian women (p = 0.017); the association was with fetal growth restriction (p = 0.003) but not pre-term delivery (p = 0.286). Increased circulating maternal sEng levels are associated with P. falciparum infection in pregnancy and with fetal growth restriction in primigravidae with PM.
High Avidity Antibodies to Full-Length VAR2CSA Correlate with Absence of Placental Malaria
Yeung Lo Tutterrow, Ali Salanti, Marion Avril, Joseph D. Smith, Ian S. Pagano, Simon Ako, Josephine Fogako, Rose G. F. Leke, Diane Wallace Taylor
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040049
Abstract: VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH4SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM+) and those without (PM?) at delivery. Results showed that PM? women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047) and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009) than PM+ women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI) and those with ≥35% high avidity Ab at 5–6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0–4.9) and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2–50.0) reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria.
The Antibody Response of Pregnant Cameroonian Women to VAR2CSA ID1-ID2a, a Small Recombinant Protein Containing the CSA-Binding Site
Anna Babakhanyan, Rose G. F. Leke, Ali Salanti, Naveen Bobbili, Philomina Gwanmesia, Robert J. I. Leke, Isabella A. Quakyi, John J. Chen, Diane Wallace Taylor
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088173
Abstract: In pregnant women, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes expressing the VAR2CSA antigen bind to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta causing placental malaria. The binding site of VAR2CSA is present in the ID1-ID2a region. This study sought to determine if pregnant Cameroonian women naturally acquire antibodies to ID1-ID2a and if antibodies to ID1-ID2a correlate with absence of placental malaria at delivery. Antibody levels to full-length VAR2CSA and ID1-ID2a were measured in plasma samples from 745 pregnant Cameroonian women, 144 Cameroonian men, and 66 US subjects. IgM levels and IgG avidity to ID1-ID2a were also determined. As expected, antibodies to ID1-ID2a were absent in US controls. Although pregnant Cameroonian women developed increasing levels of antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA during pregnancy, no increase in either IgM or IgG to ID1-ID2a was observed. Surprisingly, no differences in antibody levels to ID1-ID2a were detected between Cameroonian men and pregnant women. For example, in rural settings only 8–9% of males had antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA, but 90–96% had antibodies to ID1-ID2a. In addition, no significant difference in the avidity of IgG to ID1-ID2a was found between pregnant women and Cameroonian men, and no correlation between antibody levels at delivery and absence of placental malaria was found. Thus, the response to ID1-ID2a was not pregnancy specific, but predominantly against cross-reactivity epitopes, which may have been induced by other PfEMP1 antigens, malarial antigens, or microbes. Currently, ID1-ID2a is a leading vaccine candidate, since it binds to the CSA with the same affinity as the full-length molecule and elicits binding-inhibitory antibodies in animals. Further studies are needed to determine if the presence of naturally acquired cross-reactive antibodies in women living in malaria endemic countries will alter the response to ID1-ID2a following vaccination with ID1-ID2a.
Elementary Principal/Superintendent Relationship as Perceived by Teachers
Catherine H. Glascock,Diane Taylor
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2001,
Abstract: Despite more than a decade of research on bottom-up school change, the principal/ superintendent relationship continues to be studied primarily as a traditional flow of power from the top down. There is little research that considers the proposition that power vested in principals can be exercised upwardly within the school district hierarchy in the form of independence from and influence on the superintendent. Given the lack of research on these phenomena, it is not surprising that we could find no studies that explore the effects of hierarchical independence and influence on school climate. The present study investigates both. Two schools form the basis of this comparative case study. The schools were chosen based on scores obtained through the OCDQ and TAI instruments. The first school is selected for its high scores on both instruments and the second school is selected based on average scores on the OCDQ and the TAI. Both schools are in the same school district and a brief description of that district begins the discussion. Individual case study findings as well as a comparison of the two case studies follow.
G55.0+0.3: A Highly Evolved Supernova Remnant
B. C. Matthews,B. J. Wallace,A. R. Taylor
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/305112
Abstract: Multi-frequency analysis has revealed the presence of a new supernova remnant, G55.0+0.3, in the Galactic plane. A kinematic distance of 14 kpc has been measured from HI spectral line data. The faint, clumpy half-shell is non-thermal and has a physical radius of 70 pc. Using an evolutionary model, the age of the remnant is estimated to be on the order of one million years, which exceeds conventional limits by a factor of five. The remnant may be associated with the nearby pulsar J1932+2020, which has a spin-down age of 1.1 million years. This work implies that the radiative lifetimes of remnants could be much longer than previously suggested.
The Interstellar Environment of Filled-Center Supernova Remnants: II. G63.7+1.1
B. J. Wallace,T. L. Landecker,A. R. Taylor
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/118627
Abstract: A multi-wavelength investigation of the candidate supernova remnant G63.7+1.1 and its surrounding interstellar medium is presented. On the basis of radio continuum data we conclude that the object is a filled-center supernova remnant, perhaps in the course of becoming a composite remnant. The morphology of the remnant, along with HI, 12CO and high resolution IRAS data, suggest that G63.7+1.1 is interacting directly with the ISM, and does not lie in a low density region of the ISM. This in turn strongly suggests that the detected nebula is not surrounded by an invisible halo of supernova ejecta. The association between the SNR and HI and CO features near the tangent point implies a kinematic distance for G63.7+1.1 of 3.8 +/- 1.5 kpc.
Influence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum
Clinton K Pong, Audrey Thévenon, James Zhou, Diane Taylor
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-101
Abstract: The NF54-3D7, FVO and 7G8 strains of P. falciparum were cultured in vitro with various physiological concentrations of hCG purchased from three sources. Infected erythrocytes were also co-cultured with a human cell line that naturally secretes hCG.Results from 14 experiments using different combinations of parasite strains and concentrations of hCG from different sources, as well as the co-culture studies, failed to provide convincing evidence that hCG enhances parasite growth in vitro.Based on these data, it seems unlikely that hCG has a direct effect on the rate of parasite growth early in pregnancy.Women, especially primigravidae, are more susceptible to the harmful effects of Plasmodium falciparum infections during pregnancy than non-pregnant women [1,2]. They are more likely to be slide-positive for malaria, have a higher parasitaemia, and develop anaemia. As a result, pregnant women are at an increased risk of clinical illness and poor pregnancy outcomes. A combination of factors contributes to higher parasitaemia and severity of disease. Physiological and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy alter immune responses that aid in parasite killing [3-5] and infected erythrocytes (IE) reach high numbers in the intervillous space (IVS) of the placenta due to sequestration [6]. A third possible reason for high parasitaemia was suggested by Rohrig et al, who found that the pregnancy-associated hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) increased the growth rate of P. falciparum in vitro [7]. This finding has lead to the speculation that P. falciparum parasites may grow at a faster rate in vivo during the early part of pregnancy. A large number of studies have confirmed the importance of the first two mechanisms, but studies confirming the influence of hCG have not been reported.A role for hCG in enhancing parasitaemia during pregnancy seems plausible. It is produced by syncytiotrophoblasts, the cell type that lines the IVS where high parasitaemias are fo
Introduction to Forensic Dentistry Continuing Education Course  [PDF]
Diane Osborne
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2013,
Abstract: This course is an introduction to the basics of forensic dentistry beginning with its historical origins to modern advancements. After an introduction to basic principles, application of this information will be demonstrated in current cases, training in mass fatalities and participation in a mass fatality workshop scenario using dry skull remains. Time permitting, a tour of the Las Vegas Coroner’s Office will be available.
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