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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5945 matches for " Diana Moss "
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Aromas of Salvia Species Enhance Everyday Prospective Memory Performance in Healthy Young Adults  [PDF]
Mark Moss, Michelle Rouse, Lucy Moss
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2014.43037

Research has previously demonstrated that aromas of both Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia are capable of modulating aspects of retrospective memory, attention and mood. This study is the first to report the potential for these aromas to enhance everyday prospective memory performance in healthy young adults. In an independent groups design, three conditions, Salvia officinalis aroma, Saliva lavandulaefolia aroma and no aroma were employed with 45 healthy volunteers in each condition. Prospective memory performance was assessed using the Prospective Remembering Video Procedure. Data analysis revealed that the Salvia officinalis aroma group performed significantly better than the control group on both event and action subscales of the prospective memory task. Saliva lavandulaefolia aroma only led to enhancement for the event measure when compared to controls. No differences were found between the aroma conditions. These findings offer support for those previously reported for the effects of the aromas of Salvia sp. on cognition and again demonstrate differential effects of the two aromas. The results are considered in terms of pharmacological mechanisms.

Assessing the Efficacy of Nano- and Micro-Sized Magnetic Particles as Contrast Agents for MRI Cell Tracking
Arthur Taylor, Anne Herrmann, Diana Moss, Violaine Sée, Karen Davies, Steve R. Williams, Patricia Murray
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100259
Abstract: Iron-oxide based contrast agents play an important role in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of labelled cells in vivo. Currently, a wide range of such contrast agents is available with sizes varying from several nanometers up to a few micrometers and consisting of single or multiple magnetic cores. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of these different particles for labelling and imaging stem cells, using a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line to investigate intracellular uptake, retention and processing of nano- and microsized contrast agents. The effect of intracellular confinement on transverse relaxivity was measured by MRI at 7 T and in compliance with the principles of the ‘3Rs’, the suitability of the contrast agents for MR-based cell tracking in vivo was tested using a chick embryo model. We show that for all particles tested, relaxivity was markedly reduced following cellular internalisation, indicating that contrast agent relaxivity in colloidal suspension does not accurately predict performance in MR-based cell tracking studies. Using a bimodal imaging approach comprising fluorescence and MRI, we demonstrate that labelled MSC remain viable following in vivo transplantation and can be tracked effectively using MRI. Importantly, our data suggest that larger particles might confer advantages for longer-term imaging.
The Smell of Success?—The Impact of Perfume-Gender Congruency on Ratings of Attraction and the Halo Effect  [PDF]
Radost Marinova, Mark Moss
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2014.44051

Research into the concept of attraction has indicated the existence of olfactory influences that go beyond pheromonal level. Synthetic fragrances have been found to affect not only perception of attraction, but also attribution of beauty-unrelated intrinsic characteristics. The present study aimed to examine the impact of perfume-gender congruency on ratings of attractiveness and any perfume-generated halo effect. Male faces categorized as low, medium and high attractiveness were rated by 36 heterosexual female students across six domains: attractive, reliable, outgoing, intelligent, wealthy and socially competent. Ratings were made in the presence of a female perfume (incongruent condition), male perfume (congruent condition) or a no perfume control condition, with participants randomly allocated to produce three groups of equal size. The results indicated that 1) attractiveness generated a significant halo effect; 2) the male perfume did not significantly enhance perception of attractiveness compared to the female perfume; and 3) the gender-congruent fragrance heightened attribution of “halo” characteristics. These results indicate that gender congruent perfume can impact positively on first impressions beyond attractiveness, and are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms and implications.

Any Sense in Classroom Scents? Aroma of Rosemary Essential Oil Significantly Improves Cognition in Young School Children  [PDF]
Mark Moss, Victoria Earl, Lucy Moss, Tom Heffernan
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2017.74032
The inhalation of the aroma of Rosemary essential oil has been shown to enhance cognition in healthy adults. In this independent groups design study we exposed forty schoolchildren aged nine to eleven years to either Rosemary aroma or no aroma in a classroom setting where they completed standardised tests of working memory in fifteen minute procedure. Analysis of the data revealed that performance on the Immediate serial recall, Sentence span, and Counting span tasks were significantly better in the Rosemary aroma condition and possessed medium to large effect sizes. This is the first study to demonstrate such effects in children and suggests that the potential for enhancement is greater than in adults. The findings are discussed in terms of the potential for improving academic attainment through natural interventions and the possible mechanisms behind such effects.
Valuing Carbon Recycling through Ethanol: Zero Prices for Environmental Goods  [PDF]
Charles B. Moss, Andrew Schmitz
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.43032

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 imposes a Renewable Fuel Standard met through a combination of corn and cellulosic ethanol. A variety of rationales support this policy including the recycling of atmospheric carbon. This study examines the economic dimensions of this problem focusing on the role of zero prices for environmental goods and the use of an environmental equivalent. When environmental goods are taken into account, the optimal price policy cannot be defined with certainty.

Environmental Flows from Alternate Land Uses in the Delta, Pacific, and the Southeastern States: 1947-2007  [PDF]
Charles B. Moss, Andrew Schmitz
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.516145
Abstract: Land use policy involves allocating land between production alternatives to meet society’s wants and desires. Increase in the affluence in the United States has increased the demand for environmental flows that could be met from public ownership or as joint products of private ownerships. The empirical results of this study indicated that land use patterns remained relatively unchanged between 1947 and 2007. The lack of change suggests that a large part of the demand for environmental services is being as byproducts of other commercial decisions.
The etiology and prevention of feeding intolerance paralytic ileus – revisiting an old concept
Gerald Moss
Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1164-3-3
Abstract: We postulate that when total fluid inflow of feedings, digestive secretions, and swallowed air outstrip peristaltic outflow from the feeding site, fluid accumulates. This localized stagnation triggers G-I vagal reflexes that further slow the already sluggish gut, leading to generalized abdominal distention. Similarly, vagal cardiovascular reflexes in susceptible subjects could account for the 1:1,000 incidence of unexplained bowel necrosis reported with enteral feeding.We re-evaluated our data, which supports this postulated mechanism for the induction of "feeding intolerance." We had focused our efforts on postoperative enteral nutrition, with the largest reported series of immediate feeding of at least 100 kcal/hour after major surgery. We found that this complication can be avoided consistently by monitoring inflow versus peristaltic outflow, immediately removing any potential excess from the feeding site.We fed intraduodenally immediately following "open" surgery for 31 colectomy and 160 consecutive cholecystectomy patients. The duodenum was aspirated simultaneously just proximal to the feeding site, efficiently removing all swallowed air and excess feedings. To salvage digestive secretions, the degassed aspirate was re-introduced manually (and later automatically) via a separate feeding channel.Hourly assays were performed for nitrogen balance, serum amino acids, and for the presence of removed feedings in the aspirate. The colectomy patients had X-ray motility studies initiated 5 – 17 hours after surgery.Clinically normal motility and absorption resumed within two hours. Fed BaSO4 traversed secure anastomoses, to exit in bowel movements within 24–48 hours of colectomy. All patients were in positive protein balance within 2 – 24 hours, with elevated serum amino acids levels and without adverse G-I effects.Limiting inflow to match peristaltic outflow from the feeding site consistently prevented "feeding intolerance." These patients received immediate full entera
Poxvirus Cell Entry: How Many Proteins Does it Take?
Bernard Moss
Viruses , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/v4050688
Abstract: For many viruses, one or two proteins enable cell binding, membrane fusion and entry. The large number of proteins employed by poxviruses is unprecedented and may be related to their ability to infect a wide range of cells. There are two main infectious forms of vaccinia virus, the prototype poxvirus: the mature virion (MV), which has a single membrane, and the extracellular enveloped virion (EV), which has an additional outer membrane that is disrupted prior to fusion. Four viral proteins associated with the MV membrane facilitate attachment by binding to glycosaminoglycans or laminin on the cell surface, whereas EV attachment proteins have not yet been identified. Entry can occur at the plasma membrane or in acidified endosomes following macropinocytosis and involves actin dynamics and cell signaling. Regardless of the pathway or whether the MV or EV mediates infection, fusion is dependent on 11 to 12 non-glycosylated, transmembrane proteins ranging in size from 4- to 43-kDa that are associated in a complex. These proteins are conserved in poxviruses making it likely that a common entry mechanism exists. Biochemical studies support a two-step process in which lipid mixing of viral and cellular membranes is followed by pore expansion and core penetration.
Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of breast cancer: Overdiagnosis in randomised controlled trials of breast cancer screening
Sue Moss
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1314
Abstract: Overdiagnosis in mammographic screening is taken here to mean the diagnosis of invasive or in situ breast cancer that, in the absence of screening, would not have presented clinically during the woman's lifetime.In studying overdiagnosis, randomised controlled trials have the advantage that data on the incidence of breast cancer in the intervention and control arms are usually available in detail at an individual level. Overdiagnosis of both ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive cancer may occur; however, it is not easy to determine to what extent an excess of DCIS is due to stage-shifting from invasive disease, although estimates can be made where sufficiently detailed information is available [1]. Most trials have provided relatively little information on the treatment of breast cancer cases, so that the extent of overtreatment is difficult to quantify.Overdiagnosis can be studied in randomised controlled trials by comparing the cumulative incidence of breast cancer in the intervention and control arms at different times from date of entry or randomisation. While screening is continuing in the intervention arm of a trial, incidence in that arm will be increased because of the advancement of diagnosis by the lead-time in screen-detected cancers, as well as by any overdiagnosis. This 'prevalence peak' will be followed by a corresponding decrease once screening ceases. Overdiagnosis can therefore be estimated only after a time equivalent to the lead-time has elapsed following the final screen. In several trials, women in the control arm have subsequently been offered screening. Once this has occurred, only overdiagnosis due to incident, not prevalent, screens would be observable, because women in both arms of the trial would be subject to any overdiagnosis occurring at prevalent screens.The extent of any overdiagnosis in trials of breast screening may be affected by the 'intensity' of screening (one or two views, modalities employed, screening frequency and re
Qual o futuro da rela??o entre educa??o infantil e ensino obrigatório?
Moss, Peter;
Cadernos de Pesquisa , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-15742011000100008
Abstract: the relationship between early childhood education and care (ecec) and compulsory schooling is the subject of increasing research and policy attention, as attendance at both grows globally, as the discourse of lifelong learning emphasises that learning begins at birth, and as investment in early childhood is increasingly advocated for the returns it brings in later education. having discussed the structural and cultural framework that contextualises the relationship, the article considers four possible types of relationship: preparing the child for school, stand off, making the school ready for children, and the vision of a meeting place. it concludes with a discussion of some critical questions and of how the relationship between early childhood and compulsory school should not be confined only to the first few school grades: full resolution requires inclusion of secondary education
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