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Research has previously demonstrated that
aromas of both Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia are capable of modulating aspects of retrospective
memory, attention and mood. This study is the first to report the potential for
these aromas to enhance everyday prospective memory performance in healthy
young adults. In an independent groups design, three conditions, Salvia officinalis aroma, Saliva lavandulaefolia aroma and no aroma were
employed with 45 healthy volunteers in each condition. Prospective memory
performance was assessed using the Prospective Remembering Video Procedure. Data
analysis revealed that the Salvia
officinalis aroma group performed significantly better than the control
group on both event and action subscales of the prospective memory task. Saliva lavandulaefolia aroma only led to enhancement for the event measure
when compared to controls. No differences were found between the aroma
conditions. These findings offer support for those previously reported for the
effects of the aromas of Salvia sp.
on cognition and again demonstrate differential effects of the two aromas. The
results are considered in terms of pharmacological mechanisms.
Research into the concept of attraction has indicated the existence of olfactory influences that go beyond pheromonal level. Synthetic fragrances have been found to affect not only perception of attraction, but also attribution of beauty-unrelated intrinsic characteristics. The present study aimed to examine the impact of perfume-gender congruency on ratings of attractiveness and any perfume-generated halo effect. Male faces categorized as low, medium and high attractiveness were rated by 36 heterosexual female students across six domains: attractive, reliable, outgoing, intelligent, wealthy and socially competent. Ratings were made in the presence of a female perfume (incongruent condition), male perfume (congruent condition) or a no perfume control condition, with participants randomly allocated to produce three groups of equal size. The results indicated that 1) attractiveness generated a significant halo effect; 2) the male perfume did not significantly enhance perception of attractiveness compared to the female perfume; and 3) the gender-congruent fragrance heightened attribution of “halo” characteristics. These results indicate that gender congruent perfume can impact positively on first impressions beyond attractiveness, and are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms and implications.
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 imposes a Renewable Fuel Standard met through a combination of corn and cellulosic ethanol. A variety of rationales support this policy including the recycling of atmospheric carbon. This study examines the economic dimensions of this problem focusing on the role of zero prices for environmental goods and the use of an environmental equivalent. When environmental goods are taken into account, the optimal price policy cannot be defined with certainty.