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Wood polymer composites (WPCs) were made with pine and polypropylene matrix (PP). The composites were produced by melt blending in a Brabender at 180°C. Characterization of the samples, with the aid of scanning electron microscopy supplemented by microscope photography, showed an improved dispersion of wood in the polymeric material in presence of polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride (MAPP) or nanoclay. The use of the MAPP instead of clay seems to have enhanced the level of crystallinity in the composites for the same levels of wood loading and also accelerates the crystallization. Melt rheological measurements of neat PP and PP-wood composites were carried out at 180°C with an ARES Rheometer scientific mechanical spectrometer in oscillatory frequency. All the composites materials exhibit viscoelastic values greater than those for neat PP. The samples containing MAPP as comptabilizer show the higher Newtonian viscosity, however, the addition of a small concentration of nanoparticles like nanoclays does not improve the resulting melt viscoelastic behavior of the composite.
The installation of a purification unit since 2008 in the village of Thiakhar has improved the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the water supply. However about 55% of the raw water comes out of the unit as discharges (approximately 14 m3 per day) highly concentrated in fluoride and chloride ions. Based on historical samples, we find that the volumes of water consumed together with the volumes of water discharged are increasingly significant from year to year. The storage of waste water is carried out in a septic tank connected to a leaking cesspool sink. Significant excesses of these discharges are visible on the site and a flow of concentrate is observed creating a puddle of water that attracts birds and straying cattle. The study describes the following substantial impacts on the natural and human environment: 1) contamination of groundwater, 2) soil salinization 3), impact on flora and fauna, 4) impact on health. The study concludes by identifying measures to mitigate the negative impacts related to the discharges and by proposing alternative solution.