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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19815 matches for " Development and VAR "
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Money Supply and Inflation in Nigeria: Implications for National Development  [PDF]
Olorunfemi Sola, Adeleke Peter
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.43018
Abstract:

The study examines money supply and inflation rate in Nigeria. Secondary data that ranged between 1970-2008 were sourced from the CBN Statistical Bulletin. The study used Vector Auto Regressive (VAR) model. The stationary properties of the model were also explored. The results revealed that money supply and exchange rate were stationary at the level while oil revenue and interest rate were stationary at the first difference. Results from the causality test indicate that there exists a unidirectional causality between money supply and inflation rate as well as interest rate and inflation rate. The causality test runs from money supply to inflation, from the interest rate to inflation and from interest rate to money supply. The paper concludes that government should use the level of inflation as an operational guide in measuring the effectiveness of its monetary policy.

FDI and Economic Development: Evidence from Mainland China  [PDF]
Liyan Liu
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2011.44047
Abstract: Endeavors have been made in this paper to discern the long-run relations between FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) and economic development in China in the comprehensive framework, which incorporates determinants as output, FDI, capital formation, employment, human capital and international openness. VAR (vector autoregressive models)Impulse Response, Variance Decomposition, Johansen Co-integration and VECM (vector error correction) have been estimated, focusing on the long-run structural relations; findings indicate that in the long run, FDI tends to decrease economic growth; economic development in China seems to be fueled by domestic capital accumulation and employment growth; FDI inflows do crowd out domestic capitals, and reduce employment growth.
The relationship between financial development indicators and human capital in Iran
Hamed Adeli Nik,Zahra Sattari Nasab,Yunes Salmani,Nima Shahriari
Management Science Letters , 2013,
Abstract: Human capital is considered as one of the major factors to promote economic stability, especially in developing countries. Furthermore, one of the most important factors in developing human capital is taking the advantage of facilities and economic capabilities in the Instruction Sector. Development of financial system provides such abilities for the prospective countries. This paper studies the influence of financial development on human capital in Iran over period 1977-2010 with the application of a VAR model. The results show that the cash flow in Iran has a negative effect on human capital, which could be because of the increase in inflation and ends increase in costs of long-term investment and human capital is taken into account as long term investment. However, the facilities provided by the banking system has negative effect on human capital due to the lack of the best financial resource allocation. However, since most of university graduate students in Iran practically have adequate skills and education, they do not have enough capital to start a business. Providing financial assistance for the private sector can lead to a business in which they can use their skills and education towards promoting production.
Study on Spatial Difference of the Relationship between Regional Tourism and Economic Growth
—Comparative Study of Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Zhuhai in Light of VAR Model
 [PDF]

Yu Huang, Mu Zhang
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2016.63020
Abstract: Based on the Eviews software and panel data of Guangzhou city, Shenzhen city and Zhuhai city, the study investigated the dynamic relationship between regional tourism and economic growth, using the methods including Cointegration Test, Granger Causality Test, VAR models and Variance Decomposition. The study result shows that there are long-term mutual effects between regional economic growth and regional tourism industry in each area. And in each area, the local GDP, Earning from International Tourism (EIT) and Earning from Domestic Tourism (EDT) have cointegration relationship. Moreover, in one certain area, the contribution rate of different factors to fluctuation of one variable changes over time.
Desenvolvimento e produ??o de genótipos de couve manteiga
Novo, Maria do Carmo de SS;Prela-Pantano, Angélica;Trani, Paulo E;Blat, Sally F;
Horticultura Brasileira , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-05362010000300014
Abstract: the experiment was carried out in a glasshouse in the centro de ecofisiologia e biofísica of the instituto agron?mico de campinas, s?o paulo state, brazil, between august and december 2008. the kale cultivars manteiga s?o josé, verde-escura, iac-campinas, orelha de elefante, and vale das gar?as were evaluated every 14 days until 126 days after planting. the kales were produced from plantlets. the experimental design was a randomized complete block with eight replications, in a split-plot design for time of evaluation. the plant height and stem diameter were measured and all commercial leaves were harvested and counted. leaf areas were measured and their fresh and dry weights were determined. the sprout number and all totally expanded but not yet commercial leaves were counted and the total number of leaves was calculated. vale das gar?as was the cultivar with highest vegetative development for all variables analyzed. although the sprout, commercial leaves and total number of leaves showed lower values in 'orelha de elefante', the final yield of fresh and dry leaves of this cultivar presented higher specific foliar area and its fresh and dry weight were similar to that of vale das gar?as. 'vale das gar?as' and 'orelha de elefante' presented themselves as a good alternative for kale production.
An Empirical Analysis of Relationship between Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Turkish Case
Burcu Ozcan,,Ayse Ari
Business and Economics Research Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Financial development, financial liberalization and financial deepness have been important research topics in recent years. Especially, the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed by many researchers. Different results have been obtained since the country sample and econometric methods used in the analysis are different. Thus, there isn’t any consensus about the presence and direction of this relationship. Some writers call this state “egg-chicken problem”. There are four situations about the direction of this relationship: from economic growth to financial development, from financial development to economic growth, bidirectional relationship or there may be no relationship between these variables. In this study the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been analyzed for Turkey by estimating a VAR Model over the 1998-2009 periods. According to Granger causality test, there is a uni-directional relationship between financial development and economic growth in Turkey. The direction of this relationship is from economic growth to financial development. Consequently, Robinson’s “demand-following hypothesis” is corroborated.
平安竹纤维形态变异特征及其成因分析
,,高志鹏,,,,,夏苏娟,丁雨龙
南京林业大学学报(自然科学版) , 2018, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2006.201712010
Abstract: 【目的】阐明矢竹矮秆稳定变异体――平安竹纤维形态学特征并初步阐释其变异机制。【方法】利用石蜡切片及数量统计学方法进行显微观测与数据分析; qRT-PCR分析基因相对表达量; UPLC/GC-MS法测定赤霉素含量。【结果】平安竹竹秆不同部位纤维长度、长宽比及壁腔比显著小于矢竹; 但其宽度与腔径值显著大于矢竹; 而其不同部位纤维壁厚值虽小于矢竹,但差异不显著。平安竹地下茎纤维在长度、长宽比、壁厚及壁腔比上显著小于矢竹,但其宽度与腔径值则显著大于矢竹。形态解剖学分析显示,平安竹地下茎纤维细胞形态变异出现于节间活跃生长阶段。赤霉素及细胞壁与细胞骨架相关基因表达量分析结果表明,赤霉素信号途径在平安竹节间生长起始阶段即受到抑制; 而其细胞壁与细胞骨架相关下游功能基因则在其伸长早期与活跃阶段显著低于矢竹; 赤霉素含量分析也证实各赤霉素含量早在平安竹节间伸长起始阶段就低于矢竹。【结论】赤霉素信号途径受抑导致其下游细胞壁与细胞骨架组织相关基因下调是最终导致平安竹纤维细胞生长异常的原因之一。
Abstract: 【Objective】The study aimed to elucidate the fiber morphological characteristics, as well as the underlying mechanisms, in Pseudosasa japonica var. tsutsumiana, a stable dwarf variant of P. japonica. 【Method】 Microscope observation and paraffin sections were used to compare cell morphology. Relative transcript abundance was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR), and ultra performance liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(UPLC/GC-MS)was used to investigate gibberellin(GA)abundance. 【Result】 Values for fiber length, the ratio of length to width, and the runkel ratio were significantly smaller in P. japonica var. tsutsumiana culm than in P. japonica. However, the width and lumen diameter values of the variant fiber were larger than that in the wild type. Although the fiber cell wall thickness in different culm parts of P. japonica var. tsutsumiana was smaller than those in P. japonica, the difference was statistically insignificant. In addition, the fiber length, length to width ratio, cell wall thickness, and runkel ratio in P. japonica var. tsutsumiana rhizomes were also significantly smaller than those in P. japonica. Similar to the culm, the values for width and lumen diameter in the rhizome fibers of the variant were larger than those of the wild type. Anatomical analysis revealed that irregular phenotypes of fiber cells in P. japonica var. tsutsumiana clearly emerged at the initiation stage of internode elongation. Relative gene expression level measurements of the GA, cell wall growth and cytoskeleton-related genes on the internodes at different elongation stages showed that the GA pathway in P. japonica var. tsutsumiana was inhibited at the early stage of internode growth, and that genes relating to cell wall and cytoskeleton organization were significantly downregulated on the internode during the active growth stage of the variant. Compared with the wild type, the GA content was indeed lower at the internode in the early elongation stage of P. japonica var. tsutsumiana, as was further demonstrated by the qRT-PCR results.
体育财政投入、体育事业发展与经济增长——基于我国时间序列数据的实证研究
Sports Financial Investment, Sports Business Development and Economic Growth——A Empirical Study Based on the Time Series Data in China

张羽,杨铁黎,赵鑫
- , 2015, DOI: 10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2015.06.003
Abstract: 摘要:运用文献资料法、时间序列计量等方法,搜集我国1995-2012年时间序列数据,构建包含体育财政投入、体育事业发展和经济增长三变量的向量自回归模型,实证研究三者的动态变化特征和交互影响机制,以弥补现有研究的不足,同时为我国体育事业发展相关政策的制定提供有益的经验证据。研究结果表明:体育财政投入、体育事业发展以及经济增长三者的变化具有协同性,仅研究单独的两个变量容易出现偏误。三者间具有紧密的联动关系,其中,体育财政投入能够通过促进体育事业发展来间接带动经济增长;体育事业发展和经济增长在短期和长期均相互促进,但体育事业发展和经济增长对投入的拉动作用不具有长期效应。为保证体育事业健康发展,进而推动我国的经济增长,结合实证结果和我国实际,提出如下政策建议:有关部门在制定财政投入预算时要提高针对性和目的性;继续加大对体育事业和第三产业的扶持和政策倾斜力度;特别是在制定相关政策时,要充分考虑政策的反应期,从而增强政策的前瞻性、针对性和有效性。
Abstract: Using the methods of literature review and time series measurement, based on China's time-series data in 1995-2012, we employed a VAR model including sports financial investment, sports business development and economic growth to study their dynamic changes and interrelated characteristics,?to make up for the inadequacy of existing research and provide useful experience for the establishment of related policies for our country sports enterprise development. The results showed that sports financial investment, sports business development and economic growth change synergistically, the model which includes only two variables is prone to be biased. There is a close linkage among them, sports financial investment promotes economic growth through boosting the development of sports industry, sports development and economic growth promote mutually in both short and long-term, sports development and economic growth do not drive into more sports financial investment in the long-term. In order to promote the healthy development of sports industry and economic growth in China, we make the following proposals: when developing financial investment budget, relevant departments should be targeted and purposeful; continue to support sports industry and the tertiary industry and make more policy support; when formulating relevant policies, policy makers should consolidate distribution, and take full account of time-lag effect, enhance the perspectiveness, pertinence and effectiveness of the policies
Transcriptome analysis of stem development in the tumourous stem mustard Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen et Lee by RNA sequencing
Quan Sun, Guanfan Zhou, Yingfan Cai, Yonghong Fan, Xiaoyan Zhu, Yihua Liu, Xiaohong He, Jinjuan Shen, Huaizhong Jiang, Daiwen Hu, Zheng Pan, Liuxin Xiang, Guanghua He, Daiwen Dong, Jianping Yang
BMC Plant Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-12-53
Abstract: Using Illumina short-read technology with a tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) system, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis. In our analysis, we assembled genetic information for tumourous stem mustard at various stem developmental stages. In addition, we constructed five DGE libraries, which covered the strains Yong'an and Dayejie at various development stages. Illumina sequencing identified 146,265 unigenes, including 11,245 clusters and 135,020 singletons. The unigenes were subjected to a BLAST search and annotated using the GO and KO databases. We also compared the gene expression profiles of three swollen stem samples with those of two non-swollen stem samples. A total of 1,042 genes with significantly different expression levels occurring simultaneously in the six comparison groups were screened out. Finally, the altered expression levels of a number of randomly selected genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR.Our data provide comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level and the first insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulatory pathways of stem swelling and development in this plant, and will help define new mechanisms of stem development in non-model plant organisms.The tumourous stem mustard, Brassica juncea (Cruciferae), is an important vegetable and the raw material for Fuling mustard. The genetics breeding, physiology, biochemistry and classification of mustards have been extensively studied, but little work has been done at the molecular level. The three diploid (B. nigra, B. oleracea, and B. campestris) and three allotetraploid (B. carinata, B. juncea, and B. napus) species of Brassica, related according to the U-triangle theory, are one of the best model systems to study polyploidy and genetic relationships [1]. Thus, investigating tumourous stem mustard at the molecular level may help to clarify the genetic relationships mentioned above.Developm
Research on the Influencing Effect between CHVA and CPI in China Based on VAR Models  [PDF]
Jinge Zhou, Juan Chen, Xiuli Yu, Yifan Li, Qifeng Lin
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.34044
Abstract:

The cointegration test, granger causality test, VAR model, impulse response function and other econometric methods are used in this paper to analyze the influencing effect between commercial housing vacancy rate and CPI and its delay impact. The results show that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between commercial housing vacancy rate and CPI in China. There are at least one cointegration relationship between CHVR and CPI. The past values of the CPI appear to contain information which is useful for forecasting changes in the CHVR. CPI has a significant effect on CHVR and CPI rising drives CHVR.

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