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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 306127 matches for " Devasahayam J. Christopher "
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High Annual Risk of Tuberculosis Infection among Nursing Students in South India: A Cohort Study
Devasahayam J. Christopher, Prince James, Peter Daley, Lois Armstrong, Barney T. J. Isaac, Balamugesh Thangakunam, Beulah Premkumar, Alice Zwerling, Madhukar Pai
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026199
Abstract: Background Nurses in developing countries are frequently exposed to infectious tuberculosis (TB) patients, and have a high prevalence of TB infection. To estimate the incidence of new TB infection, we recruited a cohort of young nursing trainees at the Christian Medical College in Southern India. Annual tuberculin skin testing (TST) was conducted to assess the annual risk of TB infection (ARTI) in this cohort. Methodology/Principal Findings 436 nursing students completed baseline two-step TST testing in 2007 and 217 were TST-negative and therefore eligible for repeat testing in 2008. 181 subjects completed a detailed questionnaire on exposure to tuberculosis from workplace and social contacts. A physician verified the questionnaire and clinical log book and screened the subjects for symptoms of active TB. The majority of nursing students (96.7%) were females, almost 84% were under 22 years of age, and 80% had BCG scars. Among those students who underwent repeat testing in 2008, 14 had TST conversions using the ATS/CDC/IDSA conversion definition of 10 mm or greater increase over baseline. The ARTI was therefore estimated as 7.8% (95%CI: 4.3–12.8%). This was significantly higher than the national average ARTI of 1.5%. Sputum collection and caring for pulmonary TB patients were both high risk activities that were associated with TST conversions in this young nursing cohort. Conclusions Our study showed a high ARTI among young nursing trainees, substantially higher than that seen in the general Indian population. Indian healthcare providers and the Indian Revised National TB Control Programme will need to implement internationally recommended TB infection control interventions to protect its health care workforce.
Tuberculosis Infection among Young Nursing Trainees in South India
Devasahayam J. Christopher,Peter Daley,Lois Armstrong,Prince James,Richa Gupta,Beulah Premkumar,Joy Sarojini Michael,Vedha Radha,Alice Zwerling,Ian Schiller,Nandini Dendukuri,Madhukar Pai
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010408
Abstract: Among healthcare workers in developing countries, nurses spend a large amount of time in direct contact with tuberculosis (TB) patients, and are at high risk for acquisition of TB infection and disease. To better understand the epidemiology of nosocomial TB among nurses, we recruited a cohort of young nursing trainees at Christian Medical College, a large, tertiary medical school hospital in Southern India.
Challenges in the Development of an Immunochromatographic Interferon-Gamma Test for Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis
Claudia M. Denkinger, Yatiraj Kalantri, Samuel G. Schumacher, Joy S. Michael, Deepa Shankar, Arvind Saxena, Natarajan Sriram, Thangakunam Balamugesh, Robert Luo, Nira R. Pollock, Madhukar Pai, Devasahayam J. Christopher
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085447
Abstract: Existing diagnostic tests for pleural tuberculosis (TB) have inadequate accuracy and/or turnaround time. Interferon-gamma (IFNg) has been identified in many studies as a biomarker for pleural TB. Our objective was to develop a lateral flow, immunochromatographic test (ICT) based on this biomarker and to evaluate the test in a clinical cohort. Because IFNg is commonly present in non-TB pleural effusions in low amounts, a diagnostic IFNg-threshold was first defined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IFNg in samples from 38 patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis (cut-off of 300pg/ml; 94% sensitivity and 93% specificity). The ICT was then designed; however, its achievable limit of detection (5000pg/ml) was over 10-fold higher than that of the ELISA. After several iterations in development, the prototype ICT assay for IFNg had a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval (CI): 50-83) and a specificity of 94% (95% CI: 81-99%) compared to ELISA on frozen samples. Evaluation of the prototype in a prospective clinical cohort (72 patients) on fresh pleural fluid samples, in comparison to a composite reference standard (including histopathological and microbiologic test results), showed that the prototype had 65% sensitivity (95% CI: 44-83) and 89% specificity (95% CI: 74-97). Discordant results were observed in 15% of samples if testing was repeated after one freezing and thawing step. Inter-rater variability was limited (3%; 1out of 32). In conclusion, despite an iterative development and optimization process, the performance of the IFNg ICT remained lower than what could be expected from the published literature on IFNg as a biomarker in pleural fluid. Further improvements in the limit of detection of an ICT for IFNg, and possibly combination of IFNg with other biomarkers such as adenosine deaminase, are necessary for such a test to be of value in the evaluation of pleural tuberculosis.
Investigation into Failure in Mining Wire Ropes—Effect of Crystallinity  [PDF]
Sheila Devasahayam, Veena Sahajwalla, Michael Sng
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2013.32006
Abstract: A range of blends of polypropylene-polyethylene are investigated for their mechanical performances. These speciality polymer blends are chemically designed to suit high modulus/high load bearing mining wire rope applications subjected to continued bending and tensile stresses and fluctuating loads and are exposed to extreme weather conditions. In this paper we study the influence of different parameters on the performance of the wire ropes: chemistry of polymer, crystallinity of the polymer matrix, and the morphology. The FTIR and SEM studies revealed that the high fraction of polypropylene in polypropylene-polyethylene matrix lead to early failure as a result of incompatibility and phase segregation and high spherulite sizes of the polymer matrix.

When We Eat What We Eat: Classifying Crispy Foods in Malaysian Tamil Cuisine
Theresa W. Devasahayam
Anthropology of Food , 2003,
Abstract: This paper examines the gastronomic rules that determine when and why “crispy foods” are eaten within the Tamil community of Malaysia. Based on ethnographic fieldwork of twenty-five Tamil Hindu families living in the Klang Valley of Peninsular Malaysia, everyday and festive culinary life reveal foods that are classified into categories of ‘crispy” and “soft/wet”. Situation and context determine the kind of “crispy” foods consumed. While savoury crispy foods are reserved for meals, a mixture of the savoury and sweet are eaten as snacks. I draw upon the observations of Claude Levi-Strauss, Mary Douglas and Michael Nicod to examine the processes of defining the inclusion and exclusion of particular “crispy” foods at meals and as snacks. My conclusion focuses on the textural composition of these foods, which highlights the “playful” dimension of eating and, hence, what is termed as “crispy” foods are not treated as “real” food.
International Exhaustion, Parallel Imports, and the Conflict between the Patent and Copyright Laws of the United States  [PDF]
Christopher J. Clugston
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.43012

This article analyses the principle of international exhaustion—the doctrine that sales in a foreign country extinguish intellectual property rights. Many developed countries have pushed the international community not to recognize international exhaustion, and thus, to prevent parallel imports. However, the Supreme Court of the United States has recently held that there is exhaustion under US Copyright law for international sales. This is an unexpected holding and it creates a conflict between copyright law and patent law on the issue of international exhaustion. This article examines the effects and possible resolution of that conflict.

A Comparison of Pinch Force between Finger and Palm Grasp techniques in Laparoscopic Grasping  [PDF]
Susmitha Wils K, George Mathew, M. Manivannan, Suresh R Devasahayam
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.410B012

Laparoscopic surgery is a new abdominal surgical procedure which helps the patients in many ways like less hospital stay, faster recovery and reduced pain. The main disadvantage in this surgical procedure is the reduced haptic perception by the surgeons due to the usage of laparoscopic instrument to handle tissues which in turn cause damage of it as compared to an open surgery. The primary aim of this investigation was to compare the pinch force applied during two different methods of laparoscopic grasping: Finger and Palm grasp. A low cost force sensing resistor tailor made for the grasper tip was designed and fabricated for quantifying the grasper tip force in the study. The results indicate more pinch force was applied during palm grasp as compared to finger grasp so as to prevent the slippage of the tissues from the jaws of the laparoscopic graspers.

Optimized Rapid Data Collection in Tree Based WSN
International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing , 2013,
Abstract: Fast and energy efficient data collection in an energy constraint ad-hoc sensor network is alwaysa challenging issue. The network topology and interferences causes significant effects on data collection andhence on sensors’ energy usage. Various approaches using single channel, multichannel andconvergecasting had already been proposed. Here in this paper we have shown data collection performanceusing multi-frequency in channel assignment, and effect of network topology, for moderate size networks ofabout 50-100 nodes. For the study we have used some realistic simulation models under many-to-onecommunication paradigm called convergecast, a single frequency channel and TDMA technique to haveminimum time slots for convergecasting.
There’s a World Going on Underground—Infant Mortality and Fracking in Pennsylvania  [PDF]
Christopher Busby, Joseph J. Mangano
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.84028
Abstract: Background: There has been a rapid global development of the horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing process termed fracking. This involves the dispersion of “produced water” which contains naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) which may contaminate surface water and pose a health risk. Objectives: To investigate association between early (0-28 days) infant mortality by county in Pennsylvania and fracking. Methods: We compared early infant mortality for 2007-2010 after fracking developed with a control period 2003-2006, contrasting a group of the 10 most heavily fracked counties with the rest of Pennsylvania. Results: Whilst early infant deaths decreased by 2.4% in the State over the period, in the 82,558 births in the 10 fracked counties there was a significant increase in mortality (238 vs 193; RR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.05, 1.55; p = 0.011). For the five north east fracked counties Bradford, Susquehanna, Lycoming, Wyoming and Tioga the combined early infant mortality increased from 34 deaths to 60 (RR 1.66; 1.05, 2.51; p = 0.014), whereas in the south western 5 counties Washington, Westmoreland, Fayette, Butler and Greene the increase was modest, 157 to 178 (RR 1.18; 0.95, 1.46; p = 0.13). Increased risk was associated with exposure to groundwater, expressed as the county ratio of water wells divided by the number of births. Conclusions: Fracking appears to be associated with early infant mortality in populations living in counties where the process is carried out. There is some evidence that the effect is associated with private water well density and/or environmental law violations.
Longitudinal Imaging Studies of Tumor Microenvironment in Mice Treated with the mTOR Inhibitor Rapamycin
Keita Saito, Shingo Matsumoto, Hironobu Yasui, Nallathamby Devasahayam, Sankaran Subramanian, Jeeva P. Munasinghe, Vyomesh Patel, J. Silvio Gutkind, James B. Mitchell, Murali C. Krishna
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049456
Abstract: Rapamycin is an allosteric inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, and inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. Recent studies suggested a possibility that rapamycin renormalizes aberrant tumor vasculature and improves tumor oxygenation. The longitudinal effects of rapamycin on angiogenesis and tumor oxygenation were evaluated in murine squamous cell carcinoma (SCCVII) by electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify an optimal time after rapamycin treatment for enhanced tumor radioresponse. Rapamycin treatment was initiated on SCCVII solid tumors 8 days after implantation (500–750 mm3) and measurements of tumor pO2 and blood volume were conducted from day 8 to 14 by EPRI/MRI. Microvessel density was evaluated over the same time period by immunohistochemical analysis. Tumor blood volume as measured by MRI significantly decreased 2 days after rapamycin treatment. Tumor pO2 levels modestly but significantly increased 2 days after rapamycin treatment; whereas, it decreased in non-treated control tumors. Furthermore, the fraction of hypoxic area (pixels with pO2<10 mm Hg) in the tumor region decreased 2 days after rapamycin treatments. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor microvessel density and pericyte coverage revealed that microvessel density decreased 2 days after rapamycin treatment, but pericyte coverage did not change, similar to what was seen with anti-angiogenic agents such as sunitinib which cause vascular renormalization. Collectively, EPRI/MRI co-imaging can provide non-invasive evidence of rapamycin-induced vascular renormalization and resultant transient increase in tumor oxygenation. Improved oxygenation by rapamycin treatment provides a temporal window for anti-cancer therapies to realize enhanced response to radiotherapy.
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