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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8585 matches for " Design "
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The Part Count Tool (PaCT) for Design Concept Selection  [PDF]
Tarang Parashar, Kerry Poppa, Katie Grantham Lough, Robert B. Stone
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2011.12003
Abstract: This paper presents a part count tool that predicts the part count for a particular product concept during the conceptual design phase. The part count tool will also aid in ranking the design concepts by the criterion of number of components for a product. This tool utilizes existing automated concept generation algorithms to generate the design concepts. It extracts the available data from the Design Engineering Lab Design Repository to determine an average number of parts per component type in the repository and then calculates an average part count for new concepts. The part count tool also uses an algorithm to determine how to connect two non-compatible components through the addition of mutually compatible components. While emphasis is placed on the average parts per product in evaluating designs, the overall functional requirement of the product is also considered.
A Combined Probabilistic and Optimization Approach for Improved Chemical Mixing Systems Design  [PDF]
Matthew J. Opgenorth, William E. McDermott, Peter Laz, Corinne S. Lengsfeld
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.36077
Abstract: A design analysis of a mixing nozzle was performed using a combination of probabilistic and optimization techniques. A novel approach was utilized where probabilistic analysis was used to reduce the number of geometric constraints based on sensitivity factors. An optimization algorithm used only the most significant parameters to maximize mixing. A second probabilistic analysis was performed after optimization was com-plete in order to quantitatively predict the effects of manufacturing tolerances on mixing performance. This process for automated design is attractive over full parameter optimization techniques due to the computa-tional efficiency resulting from an intelligent reduction in evaluated variables.
Probabilistic Simulation Approach to Evaluate the Tooth-Root Strength of Spur Gears with FEM-Based Verification  [PDF]
EL-Sayed S. Aziz, Constantin Chassapis
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.312142
Abstract: Dependency on deterministic design techniques without attention to inherent process variations and uncertainties in gear design and manufacturing processes can lead to unreliable results and affect the performance of a gearing system. A better understanding of the impact of uncertainty associated with the system input on the system output can be achieved by including reliability techniques to accomplish a reliable design methodology. This emerged the need to consider the probabilistic behavior of the stress distribution on the gear tooth during the design phase. The present effort reports on the application of the SSI theory within the context of a “Design for Reliability” approach in support a detailed gear design methodology for the evaluation the tooth-root strength with FEM-based verification. The SSI theory is formulated to predict the effect of the root fillet generated by a rack or hob tool with and without protuberance on the gear system reliability. The results obtained from the probabilistic analysis strongly agreed with the FEM’ results across a range of different gear tooth fillet profiles. A quantitative assessment of the investigated gear sets showed the highest tooth-root stress was associated with the lowest tip radius of the generating tool. This approach helps with making the decision by quantifying the impact of stress and strength variations during the gear design stage.
The Research for Exploring Product Design Characteristics by SEM via Correlated Innovation and Design Strategy  [PDF]
Yen Hsu
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.31002

Managers at NPD departments of Taiwan consumer electronic industry were interviewed to explore the effects innovation strategy (IS) has on design strategy (DS) and finally on product design characteristics (DC). The fitness of theoretical models and the observed data was examined. A questionnaire survey was conducted. 1300 enterprises in Taiwanconsumer electronic industry were randomly selected as the survey pool. At last, 370 effective questionnaires were collected. Their responses on the questionnaires were analyzed to test the fitness of the model with structural equation modeling analysis (SEM). A proper fitness was found for the correlation theoretical model of IS, DS, DC, and the observed data. In enterprises, IS will influence product DC, and at the same time, IS will influence product DC through DS. Among these three variables, DS serves as an independent variable and intervene variable to DC.

Explaining Design Dimensions of Ecological Greenways  [PDF]
Mohammadreza Pourjafar, Amir Moradi
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2015.53007
Abstract: Design of greenways is one of the most important planning tools in the promotion of quality of life of the city residents. Greenways are necessary due to their major role in increase of air quality and positive changes in the climate of the urban environments for keeping the environmental quality of the cities and considerably increasing aesthetic values of these environments. Protection of natural ecological systems, provision of extensive recreational opportunities for people in urban regions and rural districts, provision of economic benefits and protection of cultural values and historical heritage are the advantages of designing and creating greenways inside cities. The present paper which was conducted with descriptive-analytical method tried to explain design dimensions of ecological greenways in three urban physical, environmental and social-economic systems by studying suitable experimental concepts and samples in the world. In this regard, this paper studied five main goals of designing greenways: promotion of local and urban accesses with greenways, aesthetic aspects of urban landscapes, improvement of performance and distribution of activities by creating greenways, increase of efficiency and environmental aspects in the city and revival of social values considering economic sustainability and in this regard design strategies and policies were presented for each one of them based on these goals.
The Problems and Reform of Art and Design Education in Colleges and Universities in China  [PDF]
Xiangdong Dou
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.620227
Abstract: The modern art education was originated from Germany Faculty of Bauhaus, dating back more than 100 years, while our art and design education is still at primary stage, only with a history of 50 years. But we are enjoying a good development trend in art and design education and it develops fast. In such a fast developmental course, it is inevitable to produce various problems. This paper mainly analyzed the problems in art and design education in our colleges and universities and put forward some feasible reform programs.
“I’m Just Guiding You”: An Exploration of Software Design Mentorship within a Software Engineering Firm  [PDF]
Leshell Hatley, Maha Al-Freih, Brenda Bannan
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2018.116019
Abstract: The case study presented here uses an interpretivist (qualitative, humanistic) approach to illustrate and describe a range of interactions and behaviors that occur during design meetings where mentoring and design simultaneously occur within a software engineering firm, during a portion of the design phase for a software project. It attempts to examine the interaction between two design team members (one novice and one expert) and describes how these observations intersect with the theoretical and applied literature and actual design processes. Taking cues from two theoretical descriptions of the design process, the study presented here suggests that modes and models of mentorship should be added, when applicable, as a descriptive portion of the design process.
A Simplified Procedure for Prediction of Ultimate Strength of Beam-Column Channel Sections  [PDF]
Osama Bedair
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.310120
Abstract: A design procedure is presented to estimate the load carrying capacity of beam-column channel sections. A reduced cross-section is used to compensate for the reduction in the post-buckling stiffness. The non-linear stress distribution acting on the entire channel width is replaced by simplified linear distributions. Using this simplified concept, the maximum stress in the post-buckling state, is assumed to be carried entirely by both edges while the central region of the channel remains unstressed. Thus a fraction of the channel section is considered in resisting the applied loading. This approximation enables the structural engineer to deal with a simplified stress distribution to compute the ultimate strength instead of the non-linear one.
Parametric Study of Calibration Blackbody Uncertainty Using Design of Experiments  [PDF]
Nipa Phojanamongkolkij, Joe A. Walker, Richard P. Cageao, Martin G. Mlynczak, Joseph J. O’Connell, Rosemary R. Baize
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2012.23020
Abstract: NASA is developing the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to provide accurate measurements to substantially improve understanding of climate change. CLARREO will include a Reflected Solar (RS) Suite, an Infrared (IR) Suite, and a Global Navigation Satellite System-Radio Occultation (GNSS-RO). The IR Suite consists of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 5 to 50 micrometers (2000-200 cm-1 wavenumbers) and on-orbit calibration and verification systems. The IR instrument will use a cavity blackbody view and a deep space view for on-orbit calibration. The calibration blackbody and the verification system blackbody will both have Phase Change Cells (PCCs) to accurately provide a SI reference to absolute temperature. One of the most critical parts of obtaining accurate CLARREO IR scene measurements relies on knowing the spectral radiance output from the blackbody calibration source. The blackbody spectral radiance must be known with a low uncertainty, and the magnitude of the uncertainty itself must be reliably quantified. This study focuses on determining which parameters in the spectral radiance equation of the calibration blackbody are critical to the blackbody accuracy. Fourteen parameters are identified and explored. Design of Experiments (DOE) is applied to systematically set up an experiment (i.e., parameter settings and number of runs) to explore the effects of these 14 parameters. The experiment is done by computer simulation to estimate uncertainty of the calibration blackbody spectral radiance. Within the explored ranges, only 4 out of 14 parameters were discovered to be critical to the total uncertainty in blackbody radiance, and should be designed, manufactured, and/or controlled carefully. The uncertainties obtained by computer simulation are also compared to those obtained using the “Law of Propagation of Uncertainty”. The two methods produce statistically different uncertainties. Nevertheless, the differences are small and are not considered to be important. A follow-up study has been planned to examine the total combined uncertainty of the CLARREO IR Suite, with a total of 47 contributing parameters. The DOE method will help in identifying critical parameters that need to be effectively and efficiently designed to meet the stringent IR measurement accuracy requirements within the limited resources.
A Novel Methodology to Design Miniaturized Regular Planar Inverted-F Antennas Based on Parametric Simulations  [PDF]
Abdelhakim Elouadih, Ahmed Oulad-Said, Moha Mrabet Hassani
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2013.57047

This paper describes a novel methodology to design PIFA (Planar Inverted-F Antenna) antennas based on parametric simulations. The parameters considered in the parametric design are ground plan dimensions, height of radiating plate, feeding point position, shorting plate width and position. The choice of the parameters that must be varied independently or simultanously is important to design optimized antenna. The author studied two scenarios in precedent works [1,2]. He exposes here a third scenario of varing antenna parameters to design and simulate by HFSS (High Frequency Simulator Structure) simulator a probe-fed dual band PIFA for the use in GSM 850 band (824 MHz - 894 MHz) and PCS 1900 band (1850 MHz - 1990 MHz). The author compares the three scenarios and establishes a novel methodology to design optimized and miniaturized antennas mounted on mobile handsets.

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