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Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in Northwest Ethiopia
Bemnet Amare, Jemal Ali, Beyene Moges, Gizachew Yismaw, Yeshambel Belyhun, Simon Gebretsadik, Desalegn Woldeyohannes, Ketema Tafess, Ebba Abate, Mengistu Endris, Desalegn Tegabu, Andargachew Mulu, Fusao Ota, Bereket Fantahun, Afework Kassu
BMC Pediatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-13-7
Abstract: A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction.A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1?±?2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n?=?80) and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n?=?20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z?=??0.198, P?>?0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy.The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the prevalence of allergy and their nutritional status, and parasite infection. Further research prospective observational and intervention studies are required to address the question of causality between nutritional factors, parasites, and allergy.According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 2 billion people are affected by helminthic infection worldwide [1]. These infections are responsible for high levels of morbidity and mo
Stability Analysis and Stochastic SI Modelling of Endemic Diseases  [PDF]
Desalegn Petros Kelkile
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2018.85030
Abstract: In this paper, we study a stochastic epidemic model in Meta-population setting. The stochastic model is obtained from the deterministic model by set up random perturbations about the endemic equilibrium state. The outcome of random perturbations on the stability actions of endemic equilibrium is discussed. Stability of the two equilibriums is studied using the Lyapunov function.
Medical Students’ Attitudinal Changes towards Cadaver Dissection: A Longitudinal Study
A Mulu, D Tegabu
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Recently, not only the medical school curriculum but also medical students’ attitude towards cadaver-based learning of anatomy has changed. This investigation is therefore designed to analyse students’ attitudes towards human cadaveric dissection before and after exposure to dissection. Methods: A longitudinal survey was conducted among second year medical students in 2010 at the college of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar. All second year medical students (n=147) were included in the study where their attitudes were surveyed at three time points (one week prior to dissection session, a week after the initiation of dissection and eight weeks after the second survey). Three standardized and pretested questionnaires prepared in English were used to collected relevant data from the subjects. Results: Out of the 147 students 85.7% were males. The subjects’ age ranged between 18 and 23 with a mean and standard deviation of 19.5±1 years. This study has revealed that among majority of the students fear and nausea have decreased while their interest and excitement has increased on subsequent exposure to dissection (P<0.05). About 75% of students considered the dissection room as slightly or highly stressful. Smell of the cadaver and eye irritation as a result of the chemicals in it were the major aspects identified as making the dissecting room stressful. The result also showed that almost all (99%) considered cadaver dissection had very important educational value for anatomy learning. Conclusion: In the majority of the students fear and nausea had decreased while interest and excitement had increased on subsequent exposure to dissection. It also showed that chemical odour and eye irritations were the leading factors which create discomfort in the dissection room even though anatomical dissection by itself was not considered as a stressor. Thus, instructors are recommended to adequately prepare students mentally and emotionally before the commencement of the dissection session for an exciting and stress free anatomy learning though dissection.
Stability Analysis of a Deterministic Epidemic Model in Metapopulation Setting  [PDF]
Petros Kelkile Desalegn, Samuel Mwalili, John Mango
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2018.83011
Abstract: We present in this article an epidemic model with saturated in metapopulation setting. We develop the mathematical modelling of HIV transmission among adults in Metapopulation setting. We discussed the positivity of the system. We calculated the reproduction number, If \"\"?for \"\", then each infectious individual in Sub-Population j infects on average less than one other person and the disease is likely to die out. Otherwise, if \"\"?for \"\", then each infectious individual in Sub-Population j infects on average more than one other person; the infection could therefore establish itself in the population and become endemic. An epidemic model, where the presence or absence of an epidemic wave is characterized by the value of \"\"?both ideas of the inner equilibrium point of stability properties are discussed.
Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Framework for Action
Belay Simane,Benjamin F. Zaitchik,Desalegn Mesfin
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9020610
Abstract: Ethiopia has become warmer over the past century and human induced climate change will bring further warming over the next century at unprecedented rates. On the average, climate models show a tendency for higher mean annual rainfall and for wetter conditions, in particular during October, November and December, but there is much uncertainty about the future amount, distribution, timing and intensity of rainfall. Ethiopia’s low level of economic development, combined with its heavy dependence on agriculture and high population growth rate make the country particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change. Nearly 90% of Ethiopia’s population lives in the Highlands, which include the critical Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands—a region that holds special importance due to its role in domestic agricultural production and international water resources. A five year study of climate vulnerability and adaptation strategies in communities of Choke Mountain, located in the center of the Abay Highlands, has informed a proposed framework for enhancing climate resilience in communities across the region. The framework is motivated by the critical need to enhance capacity to cope with climate change and, subsequently, to advance a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy in Ethiopia. The implicit hypothesis in applying a research framework for this effort is that science-based information, generated through improved understanding of impacts and vulnerabilities of local communities, can contribute to enhanced resilience strategies. We view adaptation to climate change in a wider context of changes, including, among others, market conditions, the political-institutional framework, and population dynamics. From a livelihood perspective, culture, historical settings, the diversity of income generation strategies, knowledge, and education are important factors that contribute to adaptive capacities. This paper reviews key findings of the Choke Mountain study, describes the principles of the climate resilience framework, and proposes an implementation strategy for climate resilient development to be applied in the Abay Highlands, with potential expansion to agricultural communities across the region and beyond.
Mothers' satisfaction with referral hospital delivery service in Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Azmeraw Tayelgn, Desalegn T Zegeye, Yigzaw Kebede
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-78
Abstract: A hospital-based cross-sectional survey that involved an exit interview was conducted from September to November 2009 in three referral hospitals in Ethiopia. A total of 417 delivering mothers were enrolled in the study. Client satisfaction was measured using a survey instrument adopted from the Donabedian quality assessment framework. We collect data systematically from every other postnatal woman who delivered in the referral hospitals. Multivariate and binary logistic regression was applied to identify the relative effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome (satisfaction).The proportion of mothers who were satisfied with delivery care in this study was 61.9%. Women's satisfaction with delivery care was associated with wanted status of the pregnancy, immediate maternal condition after delivery, waiting time to see the health worker, availability of waiting area, care providers' measure taken to assure privacy during examinations, and amount of cost paid for service.The overall satisfaction of hospital delivery services in this study is found to be suboptimal. The study strongly suggests that more could be done to assure that services provided are more patient centered.One of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG5) is to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by 3/4 between 1990 and 2015. Pregnancy and childbirth claim the lives of an estimated half a million of women globally each year [1]. More than half of these deaths occur in Africa [1]. Ethiopia is one of the countries that have highest maternal mortality rates (MMR) in the world which is estimated to be 673/100,000 live births [2]. Part of this mortality is attributed to poor delivery care [3].The Ethiopian government and international organizations are working for making hospital delivery services accessible and usable for all pregnant women but still the proportion of births attended by a skilled birth attendant is about 18.4% [4] in 2009 which was much lower than the average level in developing count
Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of secondary school adolescents in northwest Ethiopia
Desalegn Zegeye, Berihun Megabiaw, Abay Mulu
BMC Women's Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-9-29
Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted in two small towns called Dabat and Kola Diba, northwest Ethiopia between April and May 2007. Systematic sampling method was used to select 622 school girls from two secondary schools. A pretested questionnaire prepared in Amharic was used to gather data. Selected girls cooperated in answering the questionnaire in their classrooms under the supervision of the research team. Only 612 of the adolescent females were included in the final analysis, of which 305 were from Koladiba High School and 307 from Dabat.The age of the study subjects ranges between 14 and 19 with a mean (standard deviation) of 16.9 ± 1 years. About 92.2% had attained menarche by the time the survey was conducted. The probit analysis of the status quo data yielded a median (CI) age at menarche of 14.8 (13.9-15.3) years. The average age at menarche by recall method was 15.8 ± 1 years. The mean age at menarche was 0.3 years younger for urban females compared with rural ones (p < 0.001). A cycle length between 21 and 35 days was observed in 70.3% of the girls. The mean duration of flow was 4 ± 1.3 days with a range of 2-7 days. The menstrual cycles were irregular in 42.8% of the subjects. The overall prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was 72% among these subjects. Premenstrual symptoms were present in 435 of the females (75.4%). The leading sources of menarcheal information to the adolescents were mothers (39.7%), followed by their friends (26.6%) and teachers (21.8%).In this study age of menarche was found to be delayed which is even higher than the findings indicated similar studies conducted in Ethiopia and other African countries. A significant number of students complain of abnormal menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhoea and premenstrual symptoms which call for appropriate counselling and management.Menarche is the onset of menstruation and it is one of the most significant milestones in a woman's life. The mean age at menarche varies from population to population and is kn
Patients-to-healthcare workers HIV transmission risk from sharp injuries, Southern Ethiopia
B Desalegn, H Beyene, R Yamada
SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance) , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Accidental needlestick injury rate among healthcare workers in Hawassa is extremely high. Epidemiological findings proved the infectious potential of this injury contaminated with a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patient’s blood. Objective: This study aimed at estimating the risk of HIV transmission from patients to healthcare workers in Hawassa City, Ethiopia. Method: A probabilistic risk model was employed. Scenario-based assumptions were made for the values of parameters following a review of published reports between 2007 and 2010. Parameters: HIV prevalence, needlestick injury rate, exposure rate, sero-conversion rate, risk of HIV transmission and cumulative risk of HIV transmission. Finding: Generally, healthcare workers in Hawassa are considered to be at a relatively low (0.0035%) occupational risk of contracting HIV – less than 4 in 100,000 of healthcare workers in the town (1 in 28,751 workers a year). The 30 years’ maximum cumulative risk estimate is approximately five healthcare workers per 1000 workers in the study area. Still, this small number should be considered a serious matter requiring post-exposure prophylaxis following exposure to unsafe medical practice leading to HIV infection.
The Effect of Maternal Helminth Infection on Maternal and Neonatal Immune Function and Immunity to Tuberculosis
Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Kassu Desta, Girmay Desalegn, Rawleigh Howe, Markos Abebe
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093429
Abstract: Background M. tuberculosis and helminth infection each affects one third of the world population. Helminth infections down regulate cell mediated immune responses and this may contribute to lower efficacy of BCG vaccination and higher prevalence of tuberculosis. Objective To determine the effect of maternal helminth infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to TB. Methods In this cross sectional study, eighty five pregnant women were screened for parasitic and latent TB infections using Kato-Katz and QFT-GIT tests, respectively. IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISpot on Cord blood Mononuclear Cells, and total IgE and TB specific IgG ELISA on cord blood plasma was performed to investigate the possible effect of maternal helminth and/or latent TB co-infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to TB. Result The prevalence of helminth infections in pregnant women was 27% (n = 23), with Schistosoma mansoni the most common helminth species observed (20% of women were infected). Among the total of 85 study participants 25.8% were QFT-GIT positive and 17% had an indeterminate result. The mean total IgE value of cord blood was significantly higher in helminth positive than negative women (0.76 vs 0.47, p = 0.042). Cross placental transfer of TB specific IgG was significantly higher in helminth positive (21.9±7.9) than negative (12.3±5.1), p = 0.002) Latent TB Infection positive participants. The IFN-γ response of CBMCs to ESAT-6/CFP-10 cocktail (50 vs 116, p = 0.018) and PPD (58 vs 123, p = 0.02) was significantly lower in helminth positive than negative participants. There was no significant difference in IL-4 response of CBMCs between helminth negative and positive participants. Conclusions Maternal helminth infection had a significant association with the IFN-γ response of CBMCs, total IgE and cross placental transfer of TB specific IgG. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to determine the effect of these factors on neonatal immune response to BCG vaccination.
Analysis of Droughts in the Central Region of South Africa and Their Association with SST Anomalies
Desalegn C. Edossa,Yali E. Woyessa,Worku A. Welderufael
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/508953
Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterise meteorological droughts in the Central Region of South Africa using Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and to examine if there is a relationship between drought and El Ni?o events. The SPEI was used to quantify the precipitation deficit over time and space across the catchment for the time-scales that are important for planning and management of water resources. Based on 12-month time-scale, the total number of drought events identified in the area using SPEI ranged between 13 and 20 during the period of analysis (1952–1999). Considering the effects of event magnitude and duration as severity parameters, the most severe drought event was identified during 1973 followed by 1995 based on 12-month time-scale. Moreover, it was also found that the number of moderate, severe, and extreme drought events identified by SPEI follows increasing trend with decade during the period of analysis. Results of Spearman’s rank correlation test revealed that the trends exhibited by mild (SPEI-3 and SPEI-6), moderate (SPEI-12), severe (SPEI-12), and extreme (SPEI-3) drought categories are statistically significant at 5% significance level. The study also revealed that drought events in the central region of South Africa are preceded by El Ni?o events in the tropical Pacific (Nino 3.4) with an average lag time of 8 months between the onsets of the two events. It was found that hydrological drought events in the study area lag behind meteorological drought events with an average lag time of 7.4 months. Findings of this study can be used to forecast drought events in the area for the proper planning and management of water resources. 1. Introduction It is well established that precipitation characteristics have changed, and they will continue to change towards more intense and intermittent spells [1]. This translates into more frequent and more severe water-related extreme events. For example, Rouault and Richard [2] reported an increase in the spatial extent of drought in southern Africa since the 1970s due to stronger relationship between El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the southern African rainfall. Janowiak [3] reported that positive rainfall departures in equatorial East Africa and negative departures in South Africa followed ENSO events. Nicholson and Kim [4] made a comprehensive assessment of the rainfall response to ENSO episodes over Africa and reported that the strongest signals have appeared in southern, eastern, and far northern Africa and the weakest in the Sahel. Nicholson and
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