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Bethany Spielman
Medicolegal and Bioethics , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/MB.S17848
Abstract: Editorial Editorial (5692) Total Article Views Authors: Bethany Spielman Published Date March 2011 Volume 2011:1 Pages 1 - 2 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/MB.S17848 Bethany Spielman Medical Humanities, Southern Illinois School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA Twenty five years ago, the terms “nanomedicine,” “neuroethics,” and “global health law” did not exist. The Human Genome Project had not yet begun, and most human subjects research took place in North America and Europe. No World Wide Web or open access journals existed. All that has changed. As part of the new wave, Dove Press is launching a new journal, Medicolegal and Bioethics as an online, open-access, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary and international journal we aim to meet rigorous intellectual standards, yet deliver content rapidly. The journal will grow from cross-fertilization and creative tension not only among disciplines but also among cultures. Post to: Cannotea Citeulike Del.icio.us Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Readers of this article also read: Performance in L1 and L2 observed in Arabic-Hebrew bilingual aphasic following brain tumor: A case constitutes double dissociation Local anesthetic failure associated with inflammation: verification of the acidosis mechanism and the hypothetic participation of inflammatory peroxynitrite The cognitive basis of diglossia in Arabic: Evidence from a repetition priming study within and between languages "Globalized public health.” A transdisciplinary comprehensive framework for analyzing contemporary globalization’s influences on the field of public health Potential renovascular hypertension, space missions, and the role of magnesium Epigenomics in cancer management Amino acid-responsive Crohn's disease: a case study Evaluation of in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility of different morphological forms of Borrelia burgdorferi Long-term treatment of bipolar disorder with a radioelectric asymmetric conveyor Radio electric asymmetric brain stimulation in the treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease
Twenty two cases of canine neural angiostronglyosis in eastern Australia (2002-2005) and a review of the literature
Julian A Lunn, Rogan Lee, Joanna Smaller, Bruce M MacKay, Terry King, Geraldine B Hunt, Patricia Martin, Mark B Krockenberger, Derek Spielman, Richard Malik
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-70
Abstract: Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode that normally lives in the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries of rats, its definitive (permissive) host [1]. While many species of rats can carry patent infections, the Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) are considered the most important definitive hosts. In wild populations of rats, A. cantonensis infections cause little disease, as expected for an efficient parasite [1-3]. Dogs, humans, horses, Australian native mammals (e.g. possums, macropods, macrobats) and birds (e.g. tawny frogmouths), and various zoo animals are non-permissive "accidental" hosts that become infected after ingesting third-stage larvae (L3) in intermediate hosts (molluscs) [1,4] or transport hosts (such as planarians, frogs, fish and crustaceans) [5-7]. Tawny frogmouths and Australian marsupials are highly susceptible to clinical neural angiostrongylosis.In rats, following digestion, L3 migrate from the gut to peripheral nerves, nerve roots, spinal cord and brain [8]. A. cantonensis shows obligate neurotropism, i.e. larvae must migrate through the central nervous system (CNS) before taking up residence in the pulmonary arteries, where they subsequently mate and produce eggs which embolise in the pulmonary capillary bed. Larvae migrate up the trachea, then are coughed up, swallowed and passed in the stool, where they access intermediate mollusc hosts (slugs or snails). Virtually all species of native and introduced terrestrial molluscs in Australia are suitable intermediate hosts [1].Larval neurotropism dominates disease pathogenesis in non-permissive hosts like dogs and people. In human patients, signs of NA include headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, neck stiffness, paraesthesia, face or limb paralysis, photophobia, diplopia, coma, seizures and even death [9-11]. Canine NA usually results from ingestion of slugs, snails or paratenic hosts containing infective L3 [12-15]. After ingestion, larvae leave
Extensive production of Neospora caninum tissue cysts in a carnivorous marsupial succumbing to experimental neosporosis
Jessica S King, Bronwyn McAllan, Derek S Spielman, Scott A Lindsay, Lada H?rková-Hofmannová, Ashlie Hartigan, Sarwat E Al-Qassab, John T Ellis, Jan ?lapeta
Veterinary Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-42-75
Abstract: For much of the past 100 000 years Australian fauna have evolved without the presence of the Australian dingo. The dingo mitochondrial (mt)DNA sequences and fossil records indicate that this current top order predator arrived on the continent less than 5000 years ago [1]. Consequently, diseases transmitted by dingoes are exotic to Australian fauna and may present a serious factor contributing to their endangerment. The Australian dingo, together with the domestic dog, is a definitive host for the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum [2]. Neosporosis is a major protozoal reproductive disease in cattle and a recognised neurological disease in dogs [3-5]. Currently, the majority of research on neosporosis has focused on cattle because the cattle industry identified the disease as a significant economic burden worldwide. However, virtually all vertebrates are assumed to be susceptible to neosporosis, with the degree of pathology varying between host species [4]. Indeed, in other countries, desert dwelling animals such as gerbils appear to be particularly susceptible to this parasite [6-8]. While the presence of tissue cysts determines if the animal can serve as a source of infection for the canid definitive host, tissue cysts are rarely documented in either experimental or naturally infected animals [4,9,10].In Australia a sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum is hypothesised between the dingo and an undefined range of small marsupials and eutherian mammals [5]. The cost to wildlife due to disease transmitted from domestic and farm animals is unknown [11]. Since no information exists on neosporosis in Australian native small marsupials, our aim was to provide evidence using experimentally infected animals. Our trial used Sminthopsis crassicaudata, the fat-tailed dunnart, a carnivorous marsupial widely distributed throughout the arid and semi-arid zones of Australia and one of only a few marsupial species bred in laboratory [12,13]. The fat-tailed dunnart (adult body mass
Targeted Inactivation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 9 Enzymatic Activity Causes Mouse Neonate Lethality
Margaret G. Gall, Yiqian Chen, Ana Julia Vieira de Ribeiro, Hui Zhang, Charles G. Bailey, Derek S. Spielman, Denise M. T. Yu, Mark D. Gorrell
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078378
Abstract: Dipeptidyl Peptidase (DPP) 4 and related dipeptidyl peptidases are emerging as current and potential therapeutic targets. DPP9 is an intracellular protease that is regulated by redox status and by SUMO1. DPP9 can influence antigen processing, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated signaling and tumor biology. We made the first gene knock-in (gki) mouse with a serine to alanine point mutation at the DPP9 active site (S729A). Weaned heterozygote DPP9wt/S729A pups from 110 intercrosses were indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. No homozygote DPP9S729A/S729A weaned mice were detected. DPP9S729A/S729A homozygote embryos, which were morphologically indistinguishable from their wild-type littermate embryos at embryonic day (ED) 12.5 to ED 17.5, were born live but these neonates died within 8 to 24 hours of birth. All neonates suckled and contained milk spots and were of similar body weight. No gender differences were seen. No histological or DPP9 immunostaining pattern differences were seen between genotypes in embryos and neonates. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from DPP9S729A/S729A ED13.5 embryos and neonate DPP9S729A/S729A mouse livers collected within 6 hours after birth had levels of DPP9 protein and DPP9-related proteases that were similar to wild-type but had less DPP9/DPP8-derived activity. These data confirmed the absence of DPP9 enzymatic activity due to the presence of the serine to alanine mutation and no compensation from related proteases. These novel findings suggest that DPP9 enzymatic activity is essential for early neonatal survival in mice.
Circling the Blood in the Water: The Difficulties in Endangered Species Protections for the Great White Shark  [PDF]
Derek Julio
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.511058
The purpose of legislation like the Endangered Species Act is to provide a means to conserve the ecosystems of endangered and threatened species, but not all species that may appear to need conservation are granted protection. An estimated 100 million sharks are killed each year largely due to exploitation, yet few shark species are ever granted protection under state or federal endangered species acts. The Northeastern Pacific population of the Great White Shark is no exception. Despite the numerous threats facing the white shark, NOAA denied a petition to list it as an endangered or threatened species under the federal Endangered Species Act. In light of the pending California decision to list the white shark under its state endangered species act, this paper considers whether or not such extreme protections are necessary. This paper first discusses the threats facing the white shark, the listing processes of both the federal and the California endangered species acts, and NOAA’s 12-month negative finding. Finally, this paper concludes that endangered species protections are not warranted in the case of the Northeastern Pacific white shark because of prior government intervention and conservation efforts already in place.
Extended Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line and Dual-Band Reactance Transformation
Yuming Zhang,Barry Spielman
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/303864
Abstract: An extended composite right/left-handed transmission line is introduced, and its dual-band bandpass filter characteristics are explored. Novel reactance transformations, derived from this transmission line, are formulated to transform a low-pass prototype filter into a dual-band bandpass filter with arbitrary dual pass bands, well-defined in-band attenuation ripples, and high out-of-band rejection. The physical insight into such a dual-band bandpass filter is provided with a dispersion analysis. The transformations are verified by simulated results for dual-band bandpass filters.
Raman processes and effective gauge potentials
I. B. Spielman
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.063613
Abstract: A new technique is described by which light-induced gauge potentials allow systems of ultra-cold neutral atoms to behave like charged particles in a magnetic field. Here, atoms move in a uniform laser field with a spatially varying Zeeman shift and experience an effective magnetic field. This technique is applicable for atoms with two or more internal ground states. Finally, an explicit model of the system using a single-mode 2D Gross-Pitaevskii equation yields the expected vortex lattice.
Does reservoir host mortality enhance transmission of West Nile virus?
Ivo M Foppa, Andrew Spielman
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-4-17
Abstract: Inspection of the Ross-Macdonald expression of the basic reproductive number (R0) suggests that this quantity may increase with reservoir host mortality. Computer simulation confirms this finding and indicates that the level of virulence is positively associated with the numbers of infectious mosquitoes by the end of the epizootic. The presence of reservoir incompetent hosts in even moderate numbers largely eliminated the transmission-enhancing effect of host mortality. Local host die-off may prevent mosquitoes to "waste" infectious blood meals on immune host and may thus facilitate perpetuation and spread of transmission.Under certain conditions, host mortality may enhance transmission of WNV and similarly maintained arboviruses and thus facilitate their emergence and spread. The validity of the assumptions upon which this argument is built need to be empirically examined.In 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in North America with a massive and deadly avian epizootic in New York City [1] that was accompanied by a cluster of human meningo-encephalitis cases [2]. Among the avian species affected by that epizootic, corvids and certain exotic zoo specimens were particularly obvious [3]. Since then, WNV has disseminated across the entire contiguous United States and southern Canada, becoming the most common arboviral disease in North America. More recently, evidence of WNV transmission has been reported from Central America, South America and the Caribbean [4-7]. Although Work and colleagues, in their original studies on WNV transmission [8], observed 100% mortality in experimentally infected hooded crows (Corvus cornix), substantial and widespread mortality in wild birds had not previously been noted. In the year preceding the emergence of WNV in North America, however, a number of domestic geese (Anser anser) and white storks (Ciconia ciconia) died of WNV infection in Israel [9,10]. That variant of the virus was closely related to the virus introduced into North Amer
Spin-orbit coupling in quantum gases
Victor Galitski,Ian B. Spielman
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/nature11841
Abstract: Spin-orbit coupling links a particle's velocity to its quantum mechanical spin, and is essential in numerous condensed matter phenomena, including topological insulators and Majorana fermions. In solid-state materials, spin-orbit coupling originates from the movement of electrons in a crystal's intrinsic electric field, which is uniquely prescribed. In contrast, for ultracold atomic systems, the engineered "material parameters" are tuneable: a variety of synthetic spin-orbit couplings can be engineered on demand using laser fields. Here we outline the current experimental and theoretical status of spin-orbit coupling in ultracold atomic systems, discussing unique features that enable physics impossible in any other known setting.
An Elementary Proof of the Restricted Invertibility Theorem
Daniel A. Spielman,Nikhil Srivastava
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: We give an elementary proof of a generalization of Bourgain and Tzafriri's Restricted Invertibility Theorem, which says roughly that any matrix with columns of unit length and bounded operator norm has a large coordinate subspace on which it is well-invertible. Our proof gives the tightest known form of this result, is constructive, and provides a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for finding the desired subspace.
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