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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 94 matches for " Demetrius Albanes "
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Circulating Thyroxine, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, and Hypothyroid Status and the Risk of Prostate Cancer
Alison M. Mondul,Stephanie J. Weinstein,Tracey Bosworth,Alan T. Remaley,Jarmo Virtamo,Demetrius Albanes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047730
Abstract: Thyroid hormones may influence risk of cancer through their role in cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism. One study of circulating thyroid hormones supports this hypothesis with respect to prostate cancer. We undertook a prospective analysis of thyroid hormones and prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study.
Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Lung Cancer in Male Smokers: A Nested Case-Control Study
Stephanie J. Weinstein,Kai Yu,Ronald L. Horst,Dominick Parisi,Jarmo Virtamo,Demetrius Albanes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020796
Abstract: A role for vitamin D in cancer risk reduction has been hypothesized, but few data exist for lung cancer. We investigated the relationship between vitamin D status, using circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and lung cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of Finnish male smokers.
Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing
Reeta Hakkarainen, Timo Partonen, Jari Haukka, Jarmo Virtamo, Demetrius Albanes, Jouko L?nnqvist
Nutrition Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-3-14
Abstract: The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents lung cancer. At baseline 27,111 men completed a diet history questionnaire from which food and alcohol consumption and nutrient intake were calculated. The questionnaire on background and medical history included three symptoms on mental wellbeing, anxiety, depression and insomnia experienced in the past four months.Energy intake was higher in men who reported anxiety or depressed mood, and those reporting any such symptoms consumed more alcohol. Subjects reporting anxiety or depressed mood had higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids.Our findings conflict with the previous reports of beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on mood.Diet has an effect on mood and cognitive function [1]. There is some evidence that deficiency or supplementation of nutrients can affect not only mood, but also behavioral patterns.A double-blind placebo-controlled trial with 30 patients showed that omega-3 essential fatty acid supplements alleviated symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder [2]. In a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on 231 young adult prisoners, by comparing the number of their disciplinary offences before and during the supplementation, antisocial behavior was reduced by the supplementation of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids [3]. Vitamin D supplementation during winter was reported to improve mood in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on 44 healthy volunteers [4].A number of studies have shown that acute tryptophan depletion produces depressive symptoms and results in worsening of mood [5]. Folic acid deficiency may also correlate with depression, and it has particular effects on mood, cognitive as well as social functioning [6]. Recently, it ha
Serum Vitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer
Gabriella M. Anic, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Alison M. Mondul, Satu M?nnist?, Demetrius Albanes
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102966
Abstract: Background We previously reported a positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and colorectal cancer risk. To further elucidate this association, we examined the molar ratio of 25(OH)D to vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary 25(OH)D transport protein, and whether DBP modified the association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer risk. Methods In a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, controls were 1:1 matched to 416 colorectal cancer cases based on age and date of blood collection. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quartiles of 25(OH)D, DBP, and the molar ratio of 25(OH)D:DBP, a proxy for free, unbound circulating 25(OH)D. Results Comparing highest to lowest quartiles, DBP was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.42, p for trend = 0.58); however, a positive risk association was observed for the molar ratio of 25(OH)D:DBP (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 0.92, 2.26, p for trend = 0.04). In stratified analyses, the positive association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer was stronger among men with DBP levels above the median (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.07, 3.36, p for trend = 0.01) than below the median (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.68, 2.12, p for trend = 0.87), although the interaction was not statistically significant (p for interaction = 0.24). Conclusion Circulating DBP may influence the association between 25(OH)D and colorectal cancer in male smokers, with the suggestion of a stronger positive association in men with higher DBP concentrations. This finding should be examined in other populations, especially those that include women and non-smokers.
Serum α-Tocopherol and γ-Tocopherol Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk in the PLCO Screening Trial: A Nested Case-Control Study
Stephanie J. Weinstein, Ulrike Peters, Jiyoung Ahn, Marlin D. Friesen, Elio Riboli, Richard B. Hayes, Demetrius Albanes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040204
Abstract: Background Vitamin E compounds exhibit prostate cancer preventive properties experimentally, but serologic investigations of tocopherols, and randomized controlled trials of supplementation in particular, have been inconsistent. Many studies suggest protective effects among smokers and for aggressive prostate cancer, however. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, with 680 prostate cancer cases and 824 frequency-matched controls. Multivariate-adjusted, conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for tocopherol quintiles. Results Serum α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol were inversely correlated (r = ?0.24, p<0.0001). Higher serum α-tocopherol was associated with significantly lower prostate cancer risk (OR for the highest vs. lowest quintile = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44–0.92, p-trend 0.05). By contrast, risk was non-significantly elevated among men with higher γ-tocopherol concentrations (OR for the highest vs. lowest quintile = 1.35, 95% CI 0.92–1.97, p-trend 0.41). The inverse association between prostate cancer and α-tocopherol was restricted to current and recently former smokers, but was only slightly stronger for aggressive disease. By contrast, the increased risk for higher γ-tocopherol was more pronounced for less aggressive cancers. Conclusions Our findings indicate higher α-tocopherol status is associated with decreased risk of developing prostate cancer, particularly among smokers. Although two recent controlled trials did not substantiate an earlier finding of lower prostate cancer incidence and mortality in response to supplementation with a relatively low dose of α-tocopherol, higher α-tocopherol status may be beneficial with respect to prostate cancer risk among smokers. Determining what stage of prostate cancer development is impacted by vitamin E, the underlying mechanisms, and how smoking modifies the association, is needed for a more complete understanding of the vitamin E-prostate cancer relation.
Pre-Diagnostic Circulating Vitamin D and Risk of Melanoma in Men
Jacqueline M. Major, Christine Kiruthu, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Ronald L. Horst, Kirk Snyder, Jarmo Virtamo, Demetrius Albanes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035112
Abstract: Purpose Various studies have examined the association between serum vitamin D levels and different cancers; however, this is the first prospective study of this association with melanoma risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between serum vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and melanoma in a cohort of older, middle-aged Finnish male smokers. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. From the ATBC cohort, 368 subjects were chosen for our study; 92 participants that developed melanoma and 276 matched control subjects. At study baseline, lifestyle questionnaires and blood samples were collected. Serum 25(OH)D was modeled as three sets of categorical variables: clinically-defined categories, season-specific quartiles and season-adjusted residual quartiles. Conditional logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to estimate the association between circulating vitamin D and melanoma risk. Results Overall no association of serum 25(OH)D and melanoma risk was observed. A decreased risk of developing melanoma was observed in the middle categories compared to the lowest category, albeit not significant. Conclusion Results indicate no association between serum 25(OH)D levels and melanoma. Additional studies, including possibly consortium efforts, are needed to investigate the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and risk of melanoma in larger, more diverse study populations.
A prospective study of physical activity and the risk of pancreatic cancer among women (United States)
Brook A Calton, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Steven C Moore, Arthur Schatzkin, Catherine Schairer, Demetrius Albanes, Michael F Leitzmann
BMC Cancer , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-8-63
Abstract: This study examined the associations of total, moderate, and vigorous physical activity to pancreatic cancer in a cohort of 33,530 U.S. women enrolled in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP). At baseline (1987–1989), information on physical activity over the past year was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals of pancreatic cancer risk.70 incident cases of pancreatic cancer were ascertained during 284,639 person years of follow-up between 1987–1989 and 1995–1998. After adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking status, history of diabetes, and height, increased physical activity was related to a suggestively decreased risk of pancreatic cancer. The RRs for increasing quartiles of total physical activity were 1.0, 0.80, 0.66, 0.52 (95% CI = 0.26, 1.05; ptrend = 0.05). This association was consistent across subgroups defined by body mass index and smoking status. We also observed statistically non-significant reductions in pancreatic cancer risk for women in the highest quartile of moderate (RR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.26, 1.26) and highest quartile of vigorous physical activity (RR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.31, 1.28) compared to their least active counterparts.Our study provides evidence for a role of physical activity in protecting against pancreatic cancer.Few risk factors have been established for pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States [1]. Cigarette smoking, diabetes, and obesity have been consistently associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer; however, few other modifiable lifestyle factors have been identified that inarguably protect against this highly fatal cancer [2,3]. High glucose levels and low insulin sensitivity characteristic of both obesity and early-stage diabetes may lead to pancreatic cell damage and subsequently, an increased risk of pancreatic cancer [4,5]. Physical a
Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity and Risk of Lung Cancer
Jill Koshiol, Roberto Flores, Tram K. Lam, Philip R. Taylor, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Jarmo Virtamo, Demetrius Albanes, Guillermo Perez-Perez, Neil E. Caporaso, Martin J. Blaser
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032106
Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA) antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75–1.6) or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77–1.7). Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.
Prospective study of physical activity and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer
Michael F Leitzmann, Steven C Moore, Tricia M Peters, James V Lacey, Arthur Schatzkin, Catherine Schairer, Louise A Brinton, Demetrius Albanes
Breast Cancer Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2190
Abstract: We studied 32,269 women enrolled in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project Follow-up Study. Usual physical activity (including household, occupational and leisure activities) throughout the previous year was assessed at baseline using a self-administered questionnaire. Postmenopausal breast cancer cases were identified through self-reports, death certificates and linkage to state cancer registries. A Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the relative risk and 95% confidence intervals of postmenopausal breast cancer associated with physical activity.During 269,792 person-years of follow-up from 1987 to 1998, 1506 new incident cases of postmenopausal breast cancer were ascertained. After adjusting for potential risk factors of breast cancer, a weak inverse association between total physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer was suggested (relative risk comparing extreme quintiles = 0.87; 95% confidence interval = 0.74 to 1.02; p for trend = 0.21). That relation was almost entirely contributed by vigorous activity (relative risk comparing extreme categories = 0.87; 95% confidence interval = 0.74 to 1.02; p for trend = 0.08). The inverse association with vigorous activity was limited to women who were lean (ie, body mass index <25.0 kg/m2: relative risk = 0.68; 95% confidence interval = 0.54 to 0.85). In contrast, no association with vigorous activity was noted among women who were overweight or obese (ie, body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m2: relative risk = 1.18; 95% confidence interval = 0.93 to 1.49; p for interaction = 0.008). Non-vigorous activity showed no relation to breast cancer (relative risk comparing extreme quintiles = 1.02; 95% confidence interval = 0.87 to 1.19; p for trend = 0.86). The physical activity and breast cancer relation was not specific to a certain hormone receptor subtype.In this cohort of postmenopausal women, breast cancer risk reduction appeared to be limited to vigorous forms of activity; it was apparent amo
The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study
Somdat Mahabir, David J Baer, Laura L Johnson, Joanne F Dorgan, William Campbell, Ellen Brown, Terryl J Hartman, Beverly Clevidence, Demetrius Albanes, Joseph T Judd, Philip R Taylor
Nutrition Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-3-11
Abstract: Postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed 0 (placebo), 15 (1 drink), and 30 (2 drinks) g alcohol (ethanol)/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models.At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24) when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006) when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P < 0.0001) on 15 g of alcohol per day and 9.2% (P < 0.0001) when 30 g alcohol was consumed per day. Trend tests across doses for both estrone sulfate (P = 0.0006) and DHEAS (P < 0.0001) were significant. We found no significant differences between the absolute levels of serum estrone sulfate at week 4 versus week 8 (P = 0.32) across all doses. However, absolute DHEAS levels increased from week 4 to week 8 (P < 0.0001) at all three dose levels.These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion.Epidemiological evidence consistently shows a positive association between alcohol, even low to moderate intake, and breast cancer risk [1]. However, during the past two decades, it has become evident that moderate drinking is associated with longer life [2], reduced rates of heart disease [3] and stroke [4]. What does this mean for women when the epidemiologic data show an exposure is associated with both benefits and harms? Recommendations regarding the use or avoidance of moderate alcohol, must take into consideration both its potential benefit on cardiovascular disease, as well as its potential risk for breast cancer. To understand the biologic parameters potentially influenced by alcohol, there is a need for well-controlled mechanistic studie
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