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Selection on the wing in Heliconius butterflies
Delphine Legrand, Virginie M Stevens, Michel Baguette
BMC Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-12-31
Abstract: Rapid changes of phenotypes can be observed in small genetically isolated population because drift may enhance the rate of fixation of new variants. As a result, the long-term evolution of traits with ecological importance is thought to be tightly linked to the historical population structure of species for which strong genetic isolation is a common feature. Of course, species living in highly fragmented landscapes are more prone to exhibit strong genetic subdivision because gene flow will tend to be reduced in patchily distributed habitats.The study of Albuquerque de Moura et al. [1] published in BMC Genetics aimed at determining if such a general pattern of population structure can be observed in Heliconius species, which could have strong implications in the evolution of colour pattern diversification in these butterflies. Using a panel of genetic markers, they effectively found a widespread genetic differentiation of populations on unusually small geographic distances in the Mullerian co-mimetic butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene, but no isolation by distance [1]. Populations were sampled in Brazil's Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot that is now highly fragmented after 500 years of human disturbance. The low connectivity of this fragmented landscape for butterflies, resulting in a steep decrease in dispersal, and hence gene flow among populations, is proposed as the main driver of the observed genetic differentiation. Dispersal depression along fragmentation gradients and subsequent population differentiations has indeed been recorded in butterflies [2,3]. However, given the huge dispersal abilities of butterflies [4], such a high genetic differentiation of populations distant from 5 km and less is intriguing. It has particularly been established that average dispersal distance in Heliconius butterflies ranges from 3 to 10 km [5,6]. Thus, the genetic differentiation as described between the neighbouring populations of Albuquerque de Moura et al.
Fitness Costs of Thermal Reaction Norms for Wing Melanisation in the Large White Butterfly (Pieris brassicae)
Audrey Chaput-Bardy, Simon Ducatez, Delphine Legrand, Michel Baguette
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090026
Abstract: The large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, shows a seasonal polyphenism of wing melanisation, spring individuals being darker than summer individuals. This phenotypic plasticity is supposed to be an adaptive response for thermoregulation in natural populations. However, the variation in individuals’ response, the cause of this variation (genetic, non genetic but inheritable or environmental) and its relationship with fitness remain poorly known. We tested the relationships between thermal reaction norm of wing melanisation and adult lifespan as well as female fecundity. Butterflies were reared in cold (18°C), moderate (22°C), and hot (26°C) temperatures over three generations to investigate variation in adult pigmentation and the effects of maternal thermal environment on offspring reaction norms. We found a low heritability in wing melanisation (h2 = 0.18). Rearing families had contrasted thermal reaction norms. Adult lifespan of males and females from highly plastic families was shorter in individuals exposed to hot developmental temperature. Also, females from plastic families exhibited lower fecundity. We did not find any effect of maternal or grand-maternal developmental temperature on fitness. This study provides new evidence on the influence of phenotypic plasticity on life history-traits’ evolution, a crucial issue in the context of global change.
Association between Family Environment and Sexual Behaviour of Adolescents in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Miangotar Yode, Thomas LeGrand
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2014.22005
Abstract: Studies conducted in Africa have demonstrated the existence of a significant association between family environment and the sexual behaviour of adolescents. Generally, empirical studies of this topic are based on parental control, and family or conjugal instability and socialization approaches. The objective of this study is to assess the association between family environment and the sexual behaviour of adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. The 2004 National Survey of Adolescents (NSA) in Burkina Faso provides data for studying operationalization. Analyses were bivariate and multivariate. The former were conducted using cross tabulations while the latter used three logistic regression models. Results indicate a significant but low association among family environment variables. Absence of both parents, or a number of individuals under 20 years old higher than the number of adults in a household is not systematically associated with risky sexual behaviour. Parental control was shown to be more discriminating of sexual behaviour of adolescents from Burkina Faso, compared with communication with family members regarding sexuality. Despite current ongoing economic crises and sociocultural mutations in Burkinabe societies, household members and family still play major roles in adolescents’ education. Results reinforce sexual and reproductive health programs where parents and household members are central to strategies.
Transposable Elements Are a Major Cause of Somatic Polymorphism in Vitis vinifera L.
Grégory Carrier, Lo?c Le Cunff, Alexis Dereeper, Delphine Legrand, Fran?ois Sabot, Olivier Bouchez, Laurent Audeguin, Jean-Michel Boursiquot, Patrice This
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032973
Abstract: Through multiple vegetative propagation cycles, clones accumulate mutations in somatic cells that are at the origin of clonal phenotypic diversity in grape. Clonal diversity provided clones such as Cabernet-Sauvignon N°470, Chardonnay N° 548 and Pinot noir N° 777 which all produce wines of superior quality. The economic impact of clonal selection is therefore very high: since approx. 95% of the grapevines produced in French nurseries originate from the French clonal selection. In this study we provide the first broad description of polymorphism in different clones of a single grapevine cultivar, Pinot noir, in the context of vegetative propagation. Genome sequencing was performed using 454 GS-FLX methodology without a priori, in order to identify and quantify for the first time molecular polymorphisms responsible for clonal variability in grapevine. New generation sequencing (NGS) was used to compare a large portion of the genome of three Pinot noir clones selected for their phenotypic differences. Reads obtained with NGS and the sequence of Pinot noir ENTAV-INRA? 115 sequenced by Velasco et al., were aligned on the PN40024 reference sequence. We then searched for molecular polymorphism between clones. Three types of polymorphism (SNPs, Indels, mobile elements) were found but insertion polymorphism generated by mobile elements of many families displayed the highest mutational event with respect to clonal variation. Mobile elements inducing insertion polymorphism in the genome of Pinot noir were identified and classified and a list is presented in this study as potential markers for the study of clonal variation. Among these, the dynamic of four mobile elements with a high polymorphism level were analyzed and insertion polymorphism was confirmed in all the Pinot clones registered in France.
The BELFRAIL (BFC80+) study: a population-based prospective cohort study of the very elderly in Belgium
Bert Vaes, Agnes Pasquet, Pierre Wallemacq, Nawel Rezzoug, Hassan Mekouar, Pierre-Alexandre Olivier, Delphine Legrand, Catharina Mathe?, Gijs Van Pottelbergh, Jan Degryse
BMC Geriatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-10-39
Abstract: The BFC80+ is a prospective, observational, population-based cohort study of subjects aged 80 years and older in three well-circumscribed areas of Belgium. In total, 29 general practitioner (GP) centres were asked to include patients aged 80 and older. Only three exclusion criteria were used: severe dementia, in palliative care and medical emergency. Two sampling methods for the recruitment of patients were used. Between November 2, 2008 and September 15, 2009, 567 subjects were included in the BFC80+ study. Every study participant was invited to undergo four study visits. The GP recorded background variables and medical history and performed a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. The clinical research assistant performed an extensive examination including performance testing, questionnaires and technical examinations. Echocardiography was performed at home by a cardiologist. A blood sample was collected in the morning. Follow-up reporting of hard outcome measures including mortality, hospitalization and morbidity was organized. A second data collection is planned after 18 months.The BFC80+ was designed to acquire a better understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of chronic diseases in the very elderly and to study the dynamic interaction between health, frailty and disability in a multi-system approach. The wide variety of dimensions investigated in the BFC80+ will enable us not only to investigate in depth the relationship between the different physiological systems but also to initiate new research questions based on this unique database of community-dwelling elderly.Health care and social security systems in industrialized countries are confronted with ageing populations. By 2050, 10% of people living in Belgium will have reached the age of 80 or older [1]. This forthcoming "grey epidemic" will lead to an explosion of chronic diseases. This situation has stimulated researchers to focus their efforts on studying relationships between chronic
Vertical Heterogeneity of Genotypic Structure and Toxic Potential within Populations of the Harmful Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa  [PDF]
Benjamin Misson, Delphine Latour
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.36A004
Abstract: We investigated the vertical variability of toxic potential (i.e. proportions of cells containing microcystin genes) and genotypic structure within different populations of Microcystis aeruginosa that developed in deep artificial reservoirs on the Loire River (France). We demonstrated that a great qualitative vertical heterogeneity could exist within a single bloom of this cyanobacterium in deep lakes. Indeed, we observed important vertical shifts of both toxic potential and genotypic structure, whatever the bloom magnitude. These variations occurred mainly within the euphotic zone and proved to occur independently from abundance vertical shifts. One of the most striking results of this study is that the genotypic structure of a population of M. aeruginosa was more variable between different depths sampled at a single site than between different sites of the same reservoir sampled on top of the water column. In the same way the proportion of potentially toxic cells was sometimes more variable vertically than horizontally. The occurrence of such vertical heterogeneity in three different blooms suggests that this could be a frequent pattern within populations of M. aeruginosa.
Another Look at a Bahamian Mystery: The Murder of Sir Harry Oakes
LeGrand, Cathy
International Journal of Bahamian Studies , 2010,
Abstract: Stop me if you've heard this one:The richest man in the Bahamas, no, the richest man in the British empire, is murdered in his bed. He has suffered a fatal head wound caused by a boat's winch lever. Or by bullets from a small-caliber gun. No, by a conch shell. Or by some blunt object close at hand, still unidentified.The rich man's body is set afire in order to burn down his house and conceal the details of the crime. Or as a diversionary tactic, to confuse the authorities. No, in a voodoo ritual.The killer is his son-in-law. Or his houseguest. Or a mafia hitman.The reason for the murder: to eliminate a powerful opponent of casino gambling. Or to prevent this rich man from leaving the Bahamas with his businesses and wealth. Or to avenge the rich man's resentment of his daughter's choice of husband. Or to steal the enormous horde of gold reported to be hidden in his house.The richest man in the Bahamas (if not the whole Empire) was Sir Harry Oakes, who earned his fortune from gold prospecting and spent the rest of his life avoiding the tax man. He was found murdered in the morning of 8 July 1943, having been killed sometime after midnight during a summer thunderstorm. His body, bearing four lethal head wounds and burns from the fire, was discovered the next morning by his close friend and houseguest, Harold Christie, an influential Bahamian estate agent.Add to this cast of characters a smooth-operating Mauritian (Alfred de Marigny) married to Oakes' young daughter; a former King of England (the Duke of Windsor), now forced to serve this tiny colonial outpost; and the Duke's scandalous wife (the Duchess of Windsor), for whom he renounced his crown.Also, factor in the war raging around the globe. France had recently fallen to the Nazis; German U-boats patrolled the Atlantic; and the shortages and other exigencies of wartime were the rule. The trial of Alfred deMarigny, Oakes' son-in-law, made international news and his eventual acquittal left the case unsolved -- it remains unsolved today. Let us not forget the recurring legend of all the “unexplained killings of people directly, or indirectly, involved” with the Harry Oakes murder. (Marquis 6) This may sound too good to be true. It may sound like the plot to a best-selling pot-boiler. And it all serves to explain the continuing interest in the murder of Sir Harry Oakes, often referred to, hyperbolically (and hyperbole is in no short supply in the coverage of the murder), as "the crime of the century." (deMarigny 41)
Préface à une édition italienne (parfois en forme d’exhortation) Foreword to an Italian Edition (Sometimes Reading Like a Manifesto)
Pierre Legrand
Droit et Cultures , 2009,
Abstract: Comme faisant suite à la parution de son ouvrage Le droit comparé en 1999, l’auteur est conduit à une réflexion sur la théorie de la comparaison des droits à l’occasion de la publication d’une traduction italienne. C’est la préface à cette version transalpine qu’il livre ici à un lectorat francophone. L’auteur y défend à nouveau la cause d’études juridiques comparatives se démarquant résolument de la pratique positiviste et s’inscrivant dans une perspective phénoménologique et herméneutique faisant d’ailleurs une place importante aux thèses de la déconstruction venues interroger ces projets philosophiques mêmes. Following upon the release of his Le droit comparé in 1999, the author is prompted to reflect on the theory of comparison-at-law on the occasion of the publication of an Italian translation of his book. It is the foreword written for this new version that he brings here to the attention of a francophone readership. Once again, the author argues the case for a brand of comparative legal studies that resolutely eschews positivist practice and that fosters a phenomenological and hermeneutical perspective also making significant allowance for the deconstructionist theses that have called into question these philosophical projects themselves.
Au nom du père, du fils et de la femme : aux origines des études de genre dans Les Faux-monnayeurs d’André Gide
Justine Legrand
Babel : Littératures Plurielles , 2012,
Abstract: En amont de la French Theory, véritable source d’inspiration pour les chercheurs sur les études de genre, il semble à certains égards que l’on puisse parler d’influence directe de l’ uvre gidienne. En effet, les différentes théories liées à la sexualité qui ont pu voir le jour à partir des années 1960 en France puis quelques années plus tard Outre-Atlantique sont à divers égards inspirées par André Gide. Comme l’auteur le reconna t lui-même, le travail du littéraire exige du lecteur qu’il fas...
The Upper Silurian of Touat (Algerian Sahara) and its fauna
Legrand P
Bulletin of Geosciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3140/bull.geosci.1305
Abstract: In the Touat region (Algerian Sahara), the most complete Palaeozoic succession occurs to the southwest of Adrar. In the Tamest section, the Silurian comprises the Fenourine Clay and the Touat Sandstone formations. The Fenourine Clay Formation consists mostly of silty claystones of which only the upper 150m crop out. At the base of the section, bivalves occur, followed by the graptolites Saetograptus chimaera aff. salweyi (Hopkinson) and Pristiograptus cf. P. tumescens minor (Wood) which are described and figured in this paper. The overlying Touat Sandstone Formation is 170m thick. It comprises silty claystones with several lenticular, sandy beds, surmounted by a sandy, calcareous bed. At the base of the sandstone, pieces of homalonotine trilobites, brachiopods and bivalves are present. Above the base, silty claystones, a ferrugineous siltstone bed and the first Tentaculoidea occur. A conglomeratic limestone bed yielding a Pragian fauna tops the formation. The ages are as follows: the lower and middle Silurian do not crop out. The graptolites at the base of the extant section belong to the associations σ3β which characterize the Saharan Ludlow Series (g3b) (Legrand 1981, 1985). The silty, clayey beds that follow may be the equivalent of the P ídolí (g3c). The fossiliferous beds at the base of the Touat Sandstone may also be of P ídolí age, or may indicate the base of the Lochkovian (g4c). These outcrops reveal an interesting evolution in terms of facies and faunal assemblages towards the Ougarta Mountains and the Gourara to the northwest and the Azzel Matti to the southeast.
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