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Hospital Delivery Room versus Outdoor Birthing Place: Differences in Airborne Microorganisms and Their Impact on the Infant  [PDF]
Tobias C. Olofsson, Alejandra Vàsquez
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.31005
Abstract:

The incidence of allergic airway diseases continues to increase in industrial countries while remaining much more stable in developing countries. Allergens inhaled are eventually also swallowed and evidently the gastrointestinal immune system has a role in regulating allergic responses in the pulmonary as well as the GI system. While some studies have pointed out the role of probiotic bacteria as a supplementary protection against the early development of various allergies, little attention has been paid to the composition of the airborne microflora first and continuosly inhaled by newborns and infants. This study compares the composition of two airborne microbial communities, one from hospital delivery rooms and the other from a nature reserve, evidently in use as a birthing place as early as 7500 B.C. around the air from the outdoor birthing place was marked by a far greater variation in microbial composition and a much higher representation of fungi than the air from the hospitals. The dominant bacterial species from the delivery rooms were Staphylococcus areus and Micrococcus luteus, originating from the staff and the hospital environment; the outdoor flora, however, was dominated by Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. In addition, 56% of all the bacterial isolates from the delivery rooms were most closely related to strains previously associated with clinical infections, whereas only 15% of isolates in the outdoor bacterial sample had such relationships. The role of airborne microorganisms could be important to infants with developing immune systems considering the microbial bias of hospital air presented in this study.

O desenvolvimento de um modelo de assistência continua ao parto
Silveira Lambert,Ana Cláudia; Komura Hoga,Luiza Akiko; Temer Jamas,Milena;
Investigación y Educación en Enfermería , 2010,
Abstract: objective. to describe the obstetric nurses' experiences related with the development of a delivery care model. methodology. case study type research. four obstetric nurses who developed the delivery care model proposed by the sao paulo university testimonies were analyzed. the obtained information was analyzed using an inductive interpretative way. results. four descriptive categories came up from the testimonies: a) coping with ambivalence feelings, b) work with ease and difficulties with the new model adoption, c) the delivery concept changes and d) the nurses recognized the model viability, but its implementation depends in the philosophical and management guidelines related with delivery care and professionals' commitment. conclusion. the diverse aspects involved were recognized in the implementation of the delivery model.
Efeitos do banho logo após o nascimento sobre as adapta??es térmica e cardiorrespiratória do recém-nascido a termo
Pugliesi, Vania Elisa M.;Deutsch, Alice D'Agostini;Freitas, Marcia de;Dornaus, Maria Fernanda P.S.;Rebello, Celso Moura;
Revista Paulista de Pediatria , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-05822009000400010
Abstract: objective: to determine the effect of bathing right after birth on newborn's transition to extra-uterine life, mainly regarding thermoregulation and cardiorespiratory adaptation. methods: a retrospective comparative study enrolled infants admitted between january and march 2006 in a private tertiary care maternity hospital in the city of s?o paulo, brazil. inclusion criteria were: apgar score > 8 (5th minute), birth weight >2500g; gestational age >37 weeks, no congenital anomalies. newborns were divided in two study groups: 'bath' (bath right after birth) and 'control' (bath after the 3rd hour of life). outcome variables were evaluated at neonatal unit arrival: body temperature, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, mean arterial pressure. the time interval from birth to admission in the neonatal unit, the rate of breastfeeding in delivery room and mode of delivery were also analyzed. results: 194 newborns were included: 98 in the bath and 96 in the control group. both groups had similar temperature at admission in the neonatal unit (36.6±0.4 and 36.6±0.3oc; p=0.68); heart rate (143±13 and 146±14 bpm; p=0.26) respiratory rate (51±6 and 51±9 mov/min; p=0.90) mean blood pressure (44±6 and 47±9 mmhg; p=0.13) and oxygen saturation (98±2 and 98±3%; p=0.99) were also similar. the breastfeeding rate (91% and 57%; p<0.001) as well as the interval from birth to admission in the neonatal unit (95±21 and 79±29 minutes; p<0.001) were higher in the bath group. conclusions: in this retrospective study, bathing after birth in the delivery room did not affect thermoregulation and cardiorespiratory adaptation of term newborns.
O desenvolvimento de um modelo de assistência continua ao parto Desarrollo de un modelo de asistencia continua en el parto Development of a delivery continued care model
Ana Cláudia Silveira Lambert,Luiza Akiko Komura Hoga,Milena Temer Jamas
Investigación y Educación en Enfermería , 2010,
Abstract: Objetivo. Descrever as experiências das enfermeiras obstétricas relacionadas com o desenvolvimento de um modelo de assistência ao parto. Metodologia. investiga o do tipo estudo de caso. Analisaramse as declara es de quatro enfermeiras obstétricas, que desenvolveram o modelo de assistência ao parto proposto pelo Hospital Universitário da Universidade de S o Paulo. A informa o obtida se analisou de modo indutivo e interpretativo. Resultados. das narrativas surgiram quatro categorias descritivas: a) a convivência com o sentimento de ambivalência, b) o trabalho com facilidades e dificuldades com a ado o do novo modelo, c) as mudan as no conceito da assistência ao parto, e d) os benefícios proporcionados pelo modelo. As enfermeiras reconhecem a viabilidade do modelo, mas sua implementa o definitiva na institui o depende das mudan as nas diretrizes filosóficas e gerenciais relacionadas com a assistência ao parto e do compromisso dos profissionais. Conclus o. Reconheceramse os diversos aspectos envolvidos na implementa o do modelo de atendimento no parto. Objetivo. Describir las experiencias de las enfermeras obstétricas relacionadas con el desarrollo de un modelo de asistencia al parto. Metodología. Investigación del tipo estudio de caso. Se analizaron las declaraciones de cuatro enfermeras obstétricas, que desarrollaron el modelo de asistencia al parto propuesto por el Hospital Universitario de la Universidad de S o Paulo. La información obtenida se analizó de modo inductivo e interpretativo. Resultados. De las narrativas surgieron cuatro categorías descriptivas: a) la convivencia con el sentimiento de ambivalencia, b) el trabajo con facilidades y dificultades con la adopción del nuevo modelo, c) los cambios en el concepto de la asistencia al parto, y d) los beneficios proporcionados por el modelo. Las enfermeras reconocen la viabilidad del modelo, pero su implementación definitiva en la institución depende de los cambios en las directrices filosóficas y gerenciales relacionadas con la asistencia al parto y del compromiso de los profesionales. Conclusión. Se reconocieron los diversos aspectos involucrados en la implementación del modelo de atención en el parto. Objective. To describe the obstetric nurses' experiences related with the development of a delivery care model. Methodology. Case study type research. Four obstetric nurses who developed the delivery care model proposed by the Sao Paulo university testimonies were analyzed. The obtained information was analyzed using an inductive interpretative way. Results. Four descriptive categories came up
Comportamiento de la retinopatía diabética en salas de medicina del Hospital Dr. Salvador Allende 2003-2005
López López,Jorge; Triana Casado,Idalia; González Fernández,Nelson;
Revista Habanera de Ciencias M??dicas , 2010,
Abstract: it was carried out a descriptive retrospective study in 100 diabetic patients of the dr. salvador allende hospital, with the objective of determining the behavior of diabetic retinopathy in rooms of medicine of this institution and their relationship with the sex, the race, the age, the habit of smoking, the arterial hypertension, the index of corporal mass, the clinical type of diabetes, the received treatment, the years of evolution and the metabolic control. we check their presence in 26% of the patients. the metabolic bad control and the years of evolution were the variables that you/they kept bigger association with the presence of this complication. the diabetic type 1 and the treaties with insulin were those most affected ones.
O preparo da equipe cirúrgica: aspecto relevante no controle da contamina??o ambiental
Cataneo, Caroline;Silveira, Cristiane Aparecida;Simpionato, Erica;Camargo, Fernanda Carolina;Queiroz, Flavia Alline de;Cagnin, Marilise Carrascoza;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692004000200021
Abstract: the control of environmental contamination has been considered a rational measure for preventing surgical site infection. this study aims to present the current recommendations related to the preparation of the surgical team and to discuss the role of nurses in controlling environmental contamination. on the basis of current literature, we treat issues related to surgical garment and hand brushing. studies indicate that the preparation of the surgical team constitutes an important protection barrier for preventing surgical site infection; nevertheless, the need is highlighted for health professionals to realize procedures adequately.
Risk of Radiation Exposure During PCNL
Heshmatollah Soufi Majidpour
Urology Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: Fluoroscopic guidance is a routine practice in endourology; both the physician and the assistances are exposed to some radiation via radiation scatter. Measurement of radiation doses in staff is important, but often these data are not reported.Materials and Methods: We measured radiation exposure during 100 cases of percutaneous nephrolithotomy using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at the head, eye glasses, the fingers, and the legs of the operating surgeon, the assistant, and the circulating nurse.Results: The mean screening time was 4.5 minutes (range, 1 to 8 minutes) with mean fluoroscopy tube potential of 73 kVp, and mean tube current of 2.8 mA. The estimated scatter exposure rate at 40 cm from the x-ray beam was 0.47, 0.04, 0.21, and 4.1 μGy to the head, eye glasses, the fingers, and thelegs of the operating surgeon, respectively. The estimated scatter exposure rate at different points from the x-ray beam was 0.05, 0.01, 0.025, and 0.1 μGy to the head, eye glasses, the fingers, and the legs of the assistant, respectively and the estimated scatter exposure rate at all different points from the x-raybeam for circulating nurse was 0 μGy.Conclusion: Fluoroscopic screening results in radiation exposure of the medical staff. The surgeon received the maximum radiation exposure, mostly to the legs and very least to the eyes. The assistant received less radiation exposure than the surgeon and the nurse did not receive significant amountof radiation.
Coping among nurses of the operating room and recovery room
Laura de Azevedo Guido, Estela Regina Ferraz Bianchi, Graciele Fernanda da Costa Linch
Revista de Enfermagem UFPE On Line , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: to indentify the coping strategies used by nurses of the Operating Room and Recovery Room. Methods: this is a descriptive study, from quantitative approach. Data was collected by inventory of coping strategies of Lazarus and Folkman, which includes thoughts and actions used to deal with external or internal demands of a particular stressor, centralizing in the use of strategies for coping. The results were verified as statistically significant or not, stablishing the level of significance of 5%. This study has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Santa Maria (092/2001). Results: it was found that the confrontation and overcoming of stress in the workplace, converged for the pleasure and satisfaction of nurses. As the process is understood as an interactive model, in wich the relations between person and workplace interact constantly, it becomes evident that the adaptation of the human being to the different stress situations is necessary so that the adequate coping happens. Conclusion: it was concluded that the strategy used by nurses was more problem-solving and less used, the removal.
BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD
Mladen Hudec,Lidija Frgi?
Rudarsko-Geolo?ko-Naftni Zbornik , 1993,
Abstract: This paper includes main theses, proofs, and procedures of Boundary Element Method (BEM). The computer program. announced in 1981, for the calculation of stresses and strains around underground opening was used, comprising plane strain state for elastic continuum.Preprocessor with interactive input and postprocessor for graphic presentation of the results have been added to the program. In the main program the influences of various support systems for underground rooms were added, especially: shotcrete layers, steel arches and passive and prestressed bolts.This numerical method has been under current development, especially for materials with nonlinear behaviour The method is faster than other numerical methods and represents an efficient supplementation to them.
Impacto farmacoecon?mico da implanta??o do método de dispensa??o de drogas em forma de kit em procedimentos cirúrgicos e anestésicos
Mattos, Elisangela Maria Santos;Faintuch, Joel;Cecconello, Ivan;
ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva (S?o Paulo) , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-67202007000200008
Abstract: background: an adequate pharmaceutical drug distribution system may add to the advancement of pharmaceutical services, attending to the demands of institutions regarding quality and cost reduction. aim: to obtain rationalization of stock in the operating room through the implantation of a pharmaceutical drug distribution system using kits; to identify pharmaceutical drugs before and after the implantation of kits; to evaluate economic impacts of the pharmaceutical drug distribution system in surgical procedures. methods: qualitative/quantitative comparison of pharmaceutical drugs, extra solicitations, consumption and cost of drugs in the pre and post kit stages in the operating room. resulys: there were no critics or complaints from medical staffs regarding the acceptance of the new system. quantitatively, a reduction of approximately 47% in the initial stock quantity, 54% in extra solicitations and 30,4% in the consumption of drugs was observed, with relevant impact in costs. conclusions: the implantation of the kits was both viable and beneficial, with cost reduction, bringing less loss and waste.
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