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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14228 matches for " Defen Shen "
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Ocular manifestations and pathology of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1
Melissa M. Liu,Emiko Furusato,Xiaoguang Cao,DeFen Shen
Rare Tumors , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/rt.2010.e63
Abstract: The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), endemic in defined geographical areas around the world, is recognized as the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), or HTLV-1. ATL is a rare adult onset T-cell malignancy that is characterized by the presence of ATL flower cells with T-cell markers, HTLV-1 antibodies in the serum, and monoclonal integration of HTLV-1 provirus in affected cells. Ocular manifestations associated with HTLV-1 virus infection have been reported and include HTLV-1 uveitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca, but reports of ocular involvement in ATL are exceedingly rare. This article describes the ocular manifestations and pathology of ATL. We also report for the first time a case of a 34-year-old male with systemic ATL and prominent atypical lymphoid cell infiltration in the choroid. To our knowledge, this is the first report defining prominent choroidal involvement as a distinct ocular manifestation of ATL. ATL may masquerade as a variety of other conditions, and molecular techniques involving microdissection and PCR have proven to be critical diagnostic tools. Inter-national collaboration will be needed to better understand the presentation and diagnosis of this rare malignancy.
Molecular Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma
Yujuan Wang,Defen Shen,Vinson M. Wang,H. Nida Sen,Chi-Chao Chan
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095684
Abstract: Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) or primary intraocular lymphoma, a subtype of primary central nervous system lymphoma, often masquerades as uveitis. The diagnosis of PVRL requires identification of lymphoma cells inside the eye, which is often challenging due to the frequent necrosis and admixing of PVRL cells with reactive lymphocytes. Therefore, detection of immunoglobulin heavy chain ( IgH) and T-cell receptor ( TCR) gene rearrangements provide molecular diagnosis of B- and T-cell lymphoma, respectively. We retrospectively evaluated 208 cases with a clinical diagnosis of masquerade syndrome from 1998 to 2010. In 200 cases with molecular analyses using microdissection and polymerase chain reaction, we found that 110 cases had IgH gene rearrangement, 5 cases had TCR gene rearrangement, and 85 cases were negative for these two gene arrangements. The molecular data corroborated the cytopathological diagnoses of PVRL and uveitis in the majority of cases. Cytokine above the detected levels in the specimens were also measured in 80 of the 208 cases. A ratio of vitreous IL-10 to IL-6 greater than 1, suggesting PVRL, was found in 56/80 cases; 53/56 had the correct diagnosis. A ratio less than 1, suggesting uveitis, was found in 24/80 cases; 17/24 correctly confirmed the diagnosis. Moreover, the molecular data corresponded well with the clinical course of the diseases. The sensitivity and specificity of these molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis of PVRL are higher than 95%.
Hypocellular scar formation or aberrant fibrosis induced by an intrastromal corneal ring: a case report
Xiaoguang Cao, Roxana Ursea, Defen Shen, Hema L Ramkumar, Chi-Chao Chan
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-398
Abstract: A 47-year-old African-American man with a history of keratoconus and failure in using a Rigid Gas Permeable contact lens received an intrastromal corneal ring implant in his left eye. Due to complications, penetrating keratoplasty was performed. The intrastromal corneal ring channels were surrounded by a dense acellular (channel haze) and/or hypocellular (acidophilic densification) collagen scar and slightly edematous keratocytes. Mild macrophage infiltration was found near the inner aspect of the intrastromal corneal rings. Molecular analyses of the microdissected cells surrounding the intrastromal corneal ring channels and central corneal stroma revealed 10 times lower relative expression of IP-10/CXCL10 mRNA and two times higher CCL5 mRNA in the cells surrounding the intrastromal corneal ring, as compared to the central corneal stroma. IP-10/CXCL10 is a fibrotic and angiostatic chemokine produced by macrophages, endothelial cells and fibroblasts.An intrastromal corneal ring implant can induce hypocellular scar formation and mild inflammation, which may result from aberrant release of fibrosis-related chemokines.Intrastromal corneal ring segments (Intacs, KeraVision, Inc., Fremont, CA, USA), which have been approved for the treatment of myopia and astigmatism associated with keratoconus, are two tiny half rings made of polymethyl methacrylate [1]. Compared with penetrating keratoplasty or laser surgery, Intacs has the advantage of reshaping the abnormal cornea without removing tissue or injuring the central cornea, which is most critical for clear vision. Studies have shown that Intacs could be easily removed, with reversal of visual, refractive, and topographic changes.After implantation of Intacs, an extracellular intrastromal material may be found in the lamellar channel surrounding the segments [2]. This material might spontaneously dissolve after removal of the Intacs segments. Histopathology of corneas implanted with Intacs has been reported, and this materi
Ocular pathology of uncommon hematologic malignancies: a case series
James E Head, Defen Shen, Maribel Santiago-Maysonet, Rachel J Bishop, Chi-Chao Chan
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-1-158
Abstract: In the first case, a 54-year-old man with a previous diagnosis of lymphomatoid granulomatosis presented with a new-onset conjunctival lesion while his systemic disease was thought to be in remission. A biopsy was taken that revealed heavy infiltrates of B and T cells at the site of the lesion. Molecular analysis confirmed that these cells were positive for both Epstein-Barr viral DNA and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement, consistent with a manifestation of his systemic disease. In the second case, a 51-year-old man with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia died after a waxing and waning clinical course. Post-mortem studies revealed the presence of atypical monocytes in the choroidal and subretinal spaces, consistent with his previous diagnosis.While ocular involvement in hematologic malignancies is not uncommon, these two cases describe involvement of the eye by two relatively rare neoplasms. We herein emphasize novel findings in each case, including conjunctival involvement as the first sign of recurrent lymphomatoid granulomatosis and the combination of subretinal and choroidal myelomonocytic leukemic infiltration. With the evolution of new antineoplastic therapies that may prolong life, these cases exemplify the importance of eye care in patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies.Ocular complications of hematologic malignancies such as leukemia are well documented. It is estimated that 50% or more of all leukemias manifest some form of ocular involvement [1,2]. Here we present the cases of two patients with relatively rare hematologic malignancies with notable pre- or post-mortem demonstrating clinical and pathological ocular involvement.A 54 year-old man with a previous diagnosis of lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) presented with a left conjunctival growth consisting of clusters of papillae with focal hemorrhages of several weeks' duration (Figure 1A), during which time the systemic disease was thought to be in remission. The lesion was subsequentl
Anti-inflammatory recombinant TSG-6 stabilizes the progression of focal retinal degeneration in a murine model
Jingsheng Tuo, Xiaoguang Cao, Defen Shen, Yujuan Wang, Jun Zhang, Joo Oh, Darwin J Prockop, Chi-Chao Chan
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-59
Abstract: Recombinant TSG-6 (400 ng) was administered by intravitreous injection into the right eye of six-week-old Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mice. Their left eye was injected with phosphate-buffered saline as a control. Funduscopic pictures were taken before injection and sequentially once a month after injection. The mice were killed two months after injection and the ocular histology examined. Retinal A2E, a major component of lipofuscin, was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The microarray of ocular mRNA of 92 immunological genes was performed. The genes showing differentiated expression in microarray were further compared between the injected right eye and the contralateral (control) eye by [real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction] qRT-PCR.The continuous monitoring of the fundus for two months showed a slower progression or alleviation of retinal lesions in the treated right eyes as compared with the untreated left eyes. Among 23 pairs of eyes, the lesion levels improved in 78.3%, stayed the same in 8.7% and progressed in 13.0%. Histology confirmed the clinical observation. Even though there was no difference in the level of A2E between the treated and the untreated eyes, microarray analysis of 92 immune genes showed that IL-17a was substantially decreased after the treatment. Expression of TNF-α showed a similar pattern to IL-17a. The results were consistent in duplicated arrays and confirmed by qRT-PCR.We concluded that intravitreous administration of recombinant TSG-6 might stabilize retinal lesions in Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mice on rd8 background. Modulation of ocular immunological gene expressions, especially IL-17a, could be one of the mechanisms.Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of irreversible central blindness in elderly patients worldwide [1]. The pathological features of this neurodegenerative disease include degeneration and atrophy of the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the
Interleukin-17 Retinotoxicity Is Prevented by Gene Transfer of a Soluble Interleukin-17 Receptor Acting as a Cytokine Blocker: Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Daniel Ardeljan, Yujuan Wang, Stanley Park, Defen Shen, Xi Kathy Chu, Cheng-Rong Yu, Mones Abu-Asab, Jingsheng Tuo, Charles G. Eberhart, Timothy W. Olsen, Robert F. Mullins, Gary White, Sam Wadsworth, Abraham Scaria, Chi-Chao Chan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095900
Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common yet complex retinal degeneration that causes irreversible central blindness in the elderly. Pathology is widely believed to follow loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor degeneration. Here we report aberrant expression of interleukin-17A (IL17A) and the receptor IL17RC in the macula of AMD patients. In vitro, IL17A induces RPE cell death characterized by the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipids and autophagosomes with subsequent activation of pro-apoptotic Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. This pathology is reduced by siRNA knockdown of IL17RC. IL17-dependent retinal degeneration in a mouse model of focal retinal degeneration can be prevented by gene therapy with adeno-associated virus vector encoding soluble IL17 receptor. This intervention rescues RPE and photoreceptors in a MAPK-dependent process. The IL17 pathway plays a key role in RPE and photoreceptor degeneration and could hold therapeutic potential in AMD.
ARIMA Model in the Application of Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Index  [PDF]
Shichang Shen, Yue Shen
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.73016
Abstract: In the paper, based on the data of Shanghai and Shenzhen 300 stock index in 2011, the ARIMA model was established by using Eviews 6, and the historical trend of stock price was found out. The model was used to provide a reference for the investors.
Understanding the Determinants of Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Eco-Labeled Products: An Empirical Analysis of the China Environmental Label  [PDF]
Junyi Shen
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2012.51011
Abstract: This study applies data from a web-based survey conducted in mainland China to examine the determinants of consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for seven different product categories awarded with China Environmental Label and com- pare the mean WTP estimates among these categories. The Interval Regression method is used for estimation. The results indicate that Chinese consumers who regard environmental conservation as being more important than life convenience, who believe purchasing the eco-labeled products is good for the environment, and who have the experience in purchasing eco-labeled products are willing to pay more for those products with environmental label or eco-label. In addition, socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education and household income are found to be important factors to affect Chinese consumers’ WTP amounts. Finally, the results of pair-wise comparison among the mean WTP estimates of various eco-labeled products indicate that most of them are different, which implies that the degrees of Chinese consumers’ willingness to pay extra money for China Environmental Label are different based on the types of products.
Study on Supply Chain Cooperative Games between Airport and Cargo Airways within International Air-Transport Hub  [PDF]
Danyang Shen
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2012.51007
Abstract: Speed economy, proposed by Japanese scholars Masaki Tamura, refers to get the cost savings flow by accelerating the transaction process [1], which brings the a large market space to the cargo/express delivery industry [2]. Due to the rapidly growth of China air cargo/express market and the ongoing increasingly opening up of the sky, inter-national cargo/express giants have set up their hubs in China. The arrival of these global logistics integrators has brought a lot of influence to the development of airport. Hereinto, the unbalance between the scales of China cargo hubs and the rapid demand of air cargo/express development, the cooperation model of airports and air cargo/express have become the most urgently issue to explore. Therefore, on the basis of airport and airway co-competition analysis, the characteristics of the air cargo supply chain, and the airports and cargo airlines supply chain behavior, this paper will use the non-co- operative game of principal-agent model and the cooperative game model to analysis the revenue distribution of airport and cargo airway on the supply chain, this paper applies the cooperative game theory within a supply chain to analyze the cooperation model of airports and air cargo/express, so as to makes strategy suggestions on airport development.
The Economic Relations between China and Thailand under the Context of CAFTA: An Assessment  [PDF]
Shen Hongfang
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2013.21008
Abstract:
The bilateral economic relations betweenChinaandThailandhave unprecedentedly increased since the signing of China-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA). This paper describes the rapid economic relations between China and Thailand from the perspectives of bilateral trade and investment as well as other forms of economic cooperation within the latest one decade, and elaborates the spectacular features of Sino-Thai bilateral economic ties in comparison with ASEAN as a whole and the other ASEAN member countries. In addition to explore the driving factors in boosting these two countries’ economic relations, the paper also explores the problems that exists since the two countries’ economic exchanges are as matter of fact under a framework of “South to South” type that embrace inevitably the week pointes such as lacking of complementarities and the others, the effect of free trade pact of “earlier heaviest” concluded by Sino-Thai government since 2003 as an experimental arrangement of CAFTA will be revaluated.
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