Abstract:
We evaluated the misjudgement rate of the aetiology of vaginal complaints. A total of 220 vaginal samples from women with a vaginal complaint were obtained and analysed for numbers of total lactobacilli, H2O2-producing lactobacilli, total aerobic cell counts and total anaerobic cell counts including bifidobacteria, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. Additionally, the presence of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis was evaluated by DNA-hybridisation using the PCR and Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test, respectively.The participating physicians diagnosed Bacterial vaginosis (BV) as origin of discomfort in 80 cases, candidiasis in 109 cases and mixed infections in 8 cases. However, a present BV, defined as lack of H2O2-lactobacilli, presence of marker organisms, such as G. vaginalis, Bacteroides spp. or Atopobium vaginae, and an elevated pH were identified in only 45 cases of the women examined. Candida spp. were detected in 46 cases. Interestingly, an elevated pH corresponded solely to the presence of Atopobium vaginae, which was detected in 11 cases.Errors in the diagnosis of BV and candida vulvovaginitis (CV) were high. Interestingly, the cases of misjudgement of CV (77%) were more numerous than that of BV (61%). The use of Amsel criteria or microscopy did not reduce the number of misinterpretations. The study reveals that the misdiagnosis of vaginal complaints is rather high.The microbiology of the vagina is complex, containing 109 bacterial colony forming units per gram of secretions and potentially dozens of species. It is mainly dominated by members of the genus Lactobacillus, which are capable of H2O2-production and lactic acid, thereby maintaining the generally acidic vaginal pH. Age, phase of the menstrual cycle, sexual activity, contraceptive choice, pregnancy, presence of necrotic tissue or foreign bodies, and use of hygienic products or antibiotics can disrupt this ecosystem. A disturbed vaginal microbiot

Abstract:
For every functional functor $F:Comp\to Comp$ in the category $Comp$ of compact Hausdorff spaces we define the notions of $F$-Dugundji and $F$-Milutin spaces, generalizing the classical notions of a Dugundji and Milutin spaces. We prove that the class of $F$-Dugundji spaces coincides with the class of absolute $F$-valued retracts. Next, we show that for a monomorphic continuous functor $F:Comp\to Comp$ admitting tensor products each Dugundji compact is an absolute $F$-valued retract if and only if the doubleton $\{0,1\}$ is an absolute $F$-valued retract if and only if some points $a\in F(\{0\})\subset F(\{0,1\})$ and $b\in F(\{1\})\subset F(\{0,1\})$ can be linked by a continuous path in $F(\{0,1\})$. We prove that for the functor $Lip_k$ of $k$-Lipschitz functionals with $k<2$, each absolute $Lip_k$-valued retract is openly generated. On the other hand the one-point compactification of any uncountable discrete space is not openly generated but is an absolute $Lip_3$-valued retract. More generally, each hereditarily paracompact scattered compact space $X$ of finite scattered height $n$ is an absolute $Lip_k$-valued retract for $k=2^{n+2}-1$.

Abstract:
In a performance – and results – driven educational world the concept of formative assessment has inspired the educational community by its discourse and focus on learning and learners. However, a number of controversies have surfaced: primary among these are terminological opacities and disparities both within and across continents and sectors (TARAS 2007b, 2009). Among others, Perrenoud (1998) signals the importance of positioning theoretical and practical discourse on assessment within a wider pedagogic context and within theories of learning. Taras (2005) argues that concepts of assessment, including formative assessment, are best and more effectively understood firstly within the wider assessment framework and, secondly, within the relationships of summative, formative and self-assessment. This paper examines definitions of assessments. It begins with basic concepts of assessment, summative, formative, self-assessment and feedback and inter-relates these. The principles inherent in definitions set the parameters of both processes and practice as part of a logical sequence and framework.

Abstract:
We considered the thermodynamics in spaces with deformed commutation relation leading to existence of the minimal length. We developed a classical method of the partition function evaluation. We calculated the partition function and heat capacity for ideal gas and harmonic oscillators using this method. The obtained results are in good agreement with the exact quantum ones. We also showed that the minimal length introduction reduces degrees of freedom of an arbitrary system in the high temperature limit significantly.

Abstract:
The ultimate sensitivity of optical detection is limited by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The first part of the paper shows that coherence plays an important role in the noise analysis. Although interference between an auxiliary wave and a signal wave makes the photo detector response to the signal stronger, the coherent noise also enhances. This makes insignificant the gain in the SNR. Pulsed-excitation gated-detection (PEGD) is described and analyzed in the second part to show that 1) a high brightness of detected particles is not a prerequisite for a high SNR, 2) optimized parameters of the PEGD protocol demonstrate interesting bifurcation making a sudden jump from an effectively continuous regime to PEGD, and 3) photo-physical properties of NV centers in nano crystals of diamond approach those ideal for PEGD.

Abstract:
In the theory of algebraic group actions on affine varieties, the concept of a Kempf-Ness set is used to replace the categorical quotient by the quotient with respect to a maximal compact subgroup. By making use of the recent achievements of "toric topology" we show that an appropriate notion of a Kempf-Ness set exists for a class of algebraic torus actions on quasiaffine varieties (coordinate subspace arrangement complements) arising in the Batyrev-Cox "geometric invariant theory" approach to toric varieties. We proceed by studying the cohomology of these "toric" Kempf-Ness sets. In the case of projective non-singular toric varieties the Kempf-Ness sets can be described as complete intersections of real quadrics in a complex space.

Abstract:
We prove that each infinite 2-group with a unique 2-element subgroup is isomorphic either to the quasicyclic 2-group or to the infinite group of generalized quaternions.

Abstract:
We answer several questions of I.Protasov and E.Zelenyuk concerning topologies on groups determined by T-sequences. A special attention is paid to studying the operation of supremum of two group topologies.

Abstract:
A topological group $G$ is called an $M_\omega$-group if it admits a countable cover $\K$ by closed metrizable subspaces of $G$ such that a subset $U$ of $G$ is open in $G$ if and only if $U\cap K$ is open in $K$ for every $K\in\K$. It is shown that any two non-metrizable uncountable separable zero-dimenisional $M_\omega$-groups are homeomorphic. Together with Zelenyuk's classification of countable $k_\omega$-groups this implies that the topology of a non-metrizable zero-dimensional $M_\omega$-group $G$ is completely determined by its density and the compact scatteredness rank $r(G)$ which, by definition, is equal to the least upper bound of scatteredness indices of scattered compact subspaces of $G$.