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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 371491 matches for " David S. Vicario "
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Toward a neurobiology of auditory object perception: What can we learn from the songbird forebrain?
Kai LU, David S. VICARIO
Current Zoology , 2011,
Abstract: In the acoustic world, no sounds occur entirely in isolation; they always reach the ears in combination with other sounds. How any given sound is discriminated and perceived as an independent auditory object is a challenging question in neuroscience. Although our knowledge of neural processing in the auditory pathway has expanded over the years, no good theory exists to explain how perception of auditory objects is achieved. A growing body of evidence suggests that the selectivity of neurons in the auditory forebrain is under dynamic modulation, and this plasticity may contribute to auditory object perception. We propose that stimulus-specific adaptation in the auditory forebrain of the songbird (and perhaps in other systems) may play an important role in modulating sensitivity in a way that aids discrimination, and thus can potentially contribute to auditory object perception [Current Zoology 57 (6): 671–683, 2011].
Response Properties of the Auditory Telencephalon in Songbirds Change with Recent Experience and Season
Thomas A. Terleph, Kai Lu, David S. Vicario
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002854
Abstract: The caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) is a telencephalic auditory area that is selectively activated by conspecific vocalizations in zebra finches and canaries. We recently demonstrated that temporal and spectral dynamics of auditory tuning in NCM differ between these species [1]. In order to determine whether these differences reflect recent experience, we exposed separate groups of each species and sex to different housing conditions. Adult birds were housed either in an aviary with conspecifics (NORM), with heterospecifics (canary subjects in a zebra finch aviary, and vice versa: (CROSS)), or in isolation (ISO) for 9 days prior to testing. We then recorded extracellular multi-unit electrophysiological responses to simple pure tone stimuli (250–5000 Hz) in awake birds from each group and analyzed auditory tuning width using methods from our earlier studies. Relative to NORM birds, tuning was narrower in CROSS birds, and wider in ISO birds. The trend was greater in canaries, especially females. The date of recording was also included as a covariate in ANCOVAs that analyzed a larger set of the canary data, including data from birds tested outside of the breeding season, and treated housing condition and sex as independent variables. These tests show that tuning width was narrower early in the year and broader later. This effect was most pronounced in CROSS males. The degree of the short-term neural plasticity described here differs across sexes and species, and may reflect differences in NCM's anatomical and functional organization related to species differences in song characteristics, adult plasticity and/or social factors. More generally, NCM tuning is labile and may be modulated by recent experience to reflect the auditory processing required for behavioral adaptation to the current acoustic, social or seasonal context.
Disaster Preparedness in the Philippines: From the Will to the Way  [PDF]
Angel Vicario-Merino, Noemi Mu?oz-Agustín, Montserrat Ruiz-López, Jesús Guodemar-Pérez, Juan Pablo Hervás-Pérez, David Pérez-Manchón
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2019.93034
Abstract: Geographically situated in the circle of fire in the Pacific and bordering the pacific tectonic plate, makes the Filipino archipelago one of the most disaster-prone areas in the world. As a result of this exposure, it is estimated that an annual USD 7.893 million are spent directly to the multi-hazard prevention, promotion and response, representing the 69% of social expenditure in the country. Multilevel efforts to prevent the results of the disasters hitting the Philippines have been developed, including the local, regional, country and regional areas. These efforts are being developed at operational and promotional levels, including the political initiatives at local, country and regional frameworks. There have been political efforts to create guidelines so as to work on disaster risk reduction and vulnerability reduction for the most vulnerable countries, with the first world conference held in 1994. The second one in Hyogo in 2005 produced a comprehensive guideline for the risk reduction for the most vulnerable countries, focusing on those most at risk like archipelagos, countries in high risk areas and high impact areas. There is a surprisingly small amount of literature published concerning the impact of the political initiatives and its impact on the health of such populated areas. The paper describes the responses generated by the Filipino government after Yolanda, based on the legal framework that Hyogo provided, as well as provides a literature review of the published manuscripts on different sources, finalising with several recommendations as the improvement of the coordination and communication between levels of implementation, the clarification of the real problems identified for each area and the coordination between all the actors involved (local government, INGOs, regional government, international initiatives…) in the DRR process in an area to avoid duplication of activities and looking forward to engaging in synergetic initiatives.
Más allá de la cría extensiva: un estudio matizado sobre la geografía económica de Uruguay antes de la modernización
Vicario, Carolina;
América Latina en la historia económica , 2012,
Abstract: the aim of this paper is to establish some questions about some economic and demographic characteristics of pre-industrial latin america societies, specially the demographic and occupational structure of the south of uruguay between 1760 and 1860 in the río de la plata context. we highlight in the first place the importance of the familiar labor force in different socioeconomic contexts of the region; in the second place, the size of the productive sectors in the occupational structure. from this, we can see a different economic geography from those which raised the image of uruguay as a homogeneous territory: the regions are distinguished by the demographic and economic path and the society segmented in estancieros and gauchos is questioned. from population registers from montevideo and surroundings we analyze the size and composition of the homes, the active population and the occupational structure.
Síndrome X: Una identidad paradójicamente anónima
Vicario,Augusto;
Medicina (Buenos Aires) , 2005,
Abstract: since the original description, the list of sta- tistically related components, which make up the metabolic syndrome, is in continuous increase. therefore, different medical groups and their consensus and reports still do not agree on the criteria for its definition and denomination. although the syndrome is related with high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the trials have not demonstrated the relationship between hyperinsulinemia and cardiovascular diseases; in consequence it is difficult to conclude whether cardiovascular disease is a part of the syndrome or its consequence. therefore, it is impossible to accept that the syndrome is synonymous of high risk for cardiovascular disease. these facts may be the reason why its identity hides behind an ?x?.
Síndrome X: Una identidad paradójicamente anónima Syndrome X. A paradoxically anonymous identity
Augusto Vicario
Medicina (Buenos Aires) , 2005,
Abstract: Desde su descripción original, la lista de entidades, asociadas estadísticamente, que integran el síndrome metabólico, parece en continuo crecimiento. Este hecho justifica las posturas que diferentes agrupaciones médicas encuentran en el momento de individualizar criterios para su definición y denominación. Si bien el síndrome está relacionado con riesgo elevado para desarrollar diabetes y enfermedad cardiovascular, los ensayos clínicos han fallado en demostrar una fuerte relación de la hiperinsulinemia con enfermedad cardiovascular, no pudiendo concluir si la misma es un integrante más del síndrome o su resultante, hechos que conducen a pensar en forma falsa que el síndrome es sinónimo de riesgo cardiovascular. Tales interrogantes sean tal vez el motivo por el cual su identidad se encubre bajo una incógnita X. Since the original description, the list of sta- tistically related components, which make up the metabolic syndrome, is in continuous increase. Therefore, different medical groups and their consensus and reports still do not agree on the criteria for its definition and denomination. Although the syndrome is related with high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the trials have not demonstrated the relationship between hyperinsulinemia and cardiovascular diseases; in consequence it is difficult to conclude whether cardiovascular disease is a part of the syndrome or its consequence. Therefore, it is impossible to accept that the syndrome is synonymous of high risk for cardiovascular disease. These facts may be the reason why its identity hides behind an “X”.
Cultura y economía en el siglo XXI
Fernando Vicario
Quórum : Revista de Pensamiento Iberoamericano , 2005,
Abstract: La Corporación Andina de Fomento ha elaborado un documento que trata de servir en las reflexiones de los encargados de pensar y ejecutar las políticas económicas de los países de la región. La importancia de la economía en las acciones políticas es algo de sobra conocido y que no hace falta remarcar. Pero lo novedoso son los elementos que participan hoy día en la construcción de esa economía. La cultura, a través de sus industrias, llama a la puerta de este importante eslabón del desarrollo, con una fuerza que los economistas no habían previsto, ni en los más ilusos augurios. El trabajo da claves para desbrozar el camino de los análisis, de las proyecciones y de las implicaciones que este nuevo modo de desarrollo tiene para las sociedades latinoamericanas.
Sobre cultura y desarrollo
Fernando Vicario
Quórum : Revista de Pensamiento Iberoamericano , 2007,
Abstract: La relación entre ambos conceptos se ve dificultada por el problema de la medición de sus resultados. Sin embargo, su imbricación es prioritaria y debe planearse desde las raíces de la necesidad de encontrar lenguajes y medios comprensibles y significativos. Llenar de cultura los contenidos de la cooperación y el desarrollo sostenible es humanizar, diferenciar, reconocer y promover un sentido profundamente nuevo y distinto de las relaciones entre pueblos y culturas. Es necesario luchar sin miedo contra la homogeneización de los comportamientos y la construcción de la diversidad.
Más allá de la cría extensiva: un estudio matizado sobre la geografía económica de Uruguay antes de la modernización
Carolina Vicario
América Latina en la historia económica , 2012,
Abstract: Este artículo analiza algunas características sociodemográficas y económicas de las sociedades de América Latina precapitalistas del Cono Sur; específicamente, la estructura demográfica y ocupacional del sur de Uruguay entre 1760 y 1860. Se enfatiza en la importancia de la mano de obra familiar en los distintos contextos socioeconómicos de la región, así como en el peso de los sectores productivos en la estructura ocupacional. A partir de esto se visualiza una geografía económica distinta a la que planteaba a Uruguay como un territorio homogéneo: las regiones se distinguen según su trayectoria demográfica y económica y se matiza la imagen de una sociedad segmentada en estancieros y gauchos, característica de la historiografía tradicional de la cuenca del Plata. A partir de padrones de la población de Montevideo y sus alrededores se estudia el tama o y la composición de los hogares, la población activa y la estructura ocupacional. The aim of this paper is to establish some questions about some economic and demographic characteristics of pre-industrial Latin America societies, specially the demographic and occupational structure of the South of Uruguay between 1760 and 1860 in the Río de la Plata context. We highlight in the first place the importance of the familiar labor force in different socioeconomic contexts of the region; in the second place, the size of the productive sectors in the occupational structure. From this, we can see a different economic geography from those which raised the image of Uruguay as a homogeneous territory: the regions are distinguished by the demographic and economic path and the society segmented in estancieros and gauchos is questioned. From population registers from Montevideo and surroundings we analyze the size and composition of the homes, the active population and the occupational structure.
Noradrenergic Control of Gene Expression and Long-Term Neuronal Adaptation Evoked by Learned Vocalizations in Songbirds
Tarciso A. F. Velho, Kai Lu, Sidarta Ribeiro, Raphael Pinaud, David Vicario, Claudio V. Mello
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036276
Abstract: Norepinephrine (NE) is thought to play important roles in the consolidation and retrieval of long-term memories, but its role in the processing and memorization of complex acoustic signals used for vocal communication has yet to be determined. We have used a combination of gene expression analysis, electrophysiological recordings and pharmacological manipulations in zebra finches to examine the role of noradrenergic transmission in the brain’s response to birdsong, a learned vocal behavior that shares important features with human speech. We show that noradrenergic transmission is required for both the expression of activity-dependent genes and the long-term maintenance of stimulus-specific electrophysiological adaptation that are induced in central auditory neurons by stimulation with birdsong. Specifically, we show that the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), an area directly involved in the auditory processing and memorization of birdsong, receives strong noradrenergic innervation. Song-responsive neurons in this area express α-adrenergic receptors and are in close proximity to noradrenergic terminals. We further show that local α-adrenergic antagonism interferes with song-induced gene expression, without affecting spontaneous or evoked electrophysiological activity, thus dissociating the molecular and electrophysiological responses to song. Moreover, α-adrenergic antagonism disrupts the maintenance but not the acquisition of the adapted physiological state. We suggest that the noradrenergic system regulates long-term changes in song-responsive neurons by modulating the gene expression response that is associated with the electrophysiological activation triggered by song. We also suggest that this mechanism may be an important contributor to long-term auditory memories of learned vocalizations.
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