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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 270272 matches for " David R Hinton "
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Methionine sulfoxide reductase A: Structure, function and role in ocular pathology
Parameswaran G Sreekumar,David R Hinton,Ram Kannan
World Journal of Biological Chemistry , 2011, DOI: 10.4331/wjbc.v2.i8.184
Abstract: Methionine is a highly susceptible amino acid that can be oxidized to S and R diastereomeric forms of methionine sulfoxide by many of the reactive oxygen species generated in biological systems. Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are thioredoxin-linked enzymes involved in the enzymatic conversion of methionine sulfoxide to methionine. Although MsrA and MsrB have the same function of methionine reduction, they differ in substrate specificity, active site composition, subcellular localization, and evolution. MsrA has been localized in different ocular regions and is abundantly expressed in the retina and in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. MsrA protects cells from oxidative stress. Overexpression of MsrA increases resistance to cell death, while silencing or knocking down MsrA decreases cell survival; events that are mediated by mitochondria. MsrA participates in protein-protein interaction with several other cellular proteins. The interaction of MsrA with α-crystallins is of utmost importance given the known functions of the latter in protein folding, neuroprotection, and cell survival. Oxidation of methionine residues in α-crystallins results in loss of chaperone function and possibly its antiapoptotic properties. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that MsrA is co-localized with αA and αB crystallins in the retinal samples of patients with age-related macular degeneration. We have also found that chemically induced hypoxia regulates the expression of MsrA and MsrB2 in human RPE cells. Thus, MsrA is a critical enzyme that participates in cell and tissue protection, and its interaction with other proteins/growth factors may provide a target for therapeutic strategies to prevent degenerative diseases.
Red Wolf (Canis rufus) Recovery: A Review with Suggestions for Future Research
Joseph W. Hinton,Michael J. Chamberlain,David R. Rabon
Animals , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ani3030722
Abstract: By the 1970s, government-supported eradication campaigns reduced red wolves to a remnant population of less than 100 individuals on the southern border of Texas and Louisiana. Restoration efforts in the region were deemed unpromising because of predator-control programs and hybridization with coyotes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) removed the last remaining red wolves from the wild and placed them in a captive-breeding program. In 1980, the USFWS declared red wolves extinct in the wild. During 1987, the USFWS, through the Red Wolf Recovery Program, reintroduced red wolves into northeastern North Carolina. Although restoration efforts have established a population of approximately 70–80 red wolves in the wild, issues of hybridization with coyotes, inbreeding, and human-caused mortality continue to hamper red wolf recovery. We explore these three challenges and, within each challenge, we illustrate how research can be used to resolve problems associated with red wolf-coyote interactions, effects of inbreeding, and demographic responses to human-caused mortality. We hope this illustrates the utility of research to advance restoration of red wolves.
A selective cyclic integrin antagonist blocks the integrin receptors αvβ3 and αvβ5 and inhibits retinal pigment epithelium cell attachment, migration and invasion
Stephan Hoffmann, Shikun He, Manlin Jin, Marianne Ehren, Peter Wiedemann, Stephen J Ryan, David R Hinton
BMC Ophthalmology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-5-16
Abstract: The effect of a cyclic integrin antagonist and a control peptide (0.01 μg/ml to 300 μg/ml) was investigated on serum or cytokine (bFGF or PDGF-BB pretreatment) induced human fetal RPE cell proliferation by H3-thymidine uptake. The effect of the cyclic integrin antagonist on RPE cell attachment onto different extracellular matrices (laminin, collagen IV, fibronectin), RPE cell invasion stimulated by PDGF-BB or serum, and migration stimulated by PDGF-BB, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or serum was explored. PDGF-BB and bFGF modulation of the integrin receptors αvβ3 and αvβ5 was evaluated by flow cytometry.The integrin antagonist did not inhibit DNA synthesis stimulated by serum, bFGF, or PDGF-BB treatment. RPE attachment onto fibronectin was inhibited in a concentration range of 1–10 μg/ml (p < 0.05). Attachment of the RPE cells onto collagen IV and laminin was inhibited in a range of 3–10 μg/ml (p < 0.05). Serum and PDGF-BB stimulated migration was inhibited by the cyclic integrin antagonist in a concentration range of 1–10 μg/ml (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the cyclic integrin antagonist inhibited PDGF-BB stimulated RPE cell invasion through fibronectin (3μg/ml: 66% inhibition, p < 0.001). In each of these experiments, the control peptides had no significant effects. PDGF-BB and bFGF pretreatment of RPE cells increased the expression of integrin receptors αvβ3 (bFGF: 1.9 fold, PDGF-BB: 2.3 fold) and αvβ5 (bFGF: 2.9 fold, PDGF-BB: 1.5 fold).A selective inhibition of the integrin receptors αvβ3 and αvβ5 through a cyclic integrin antagonist is able to inhibit RPE cell attachment, migration and invasion. Since these steps are of importance for the progression of PVR, a cyclic integrin antagonist should be further evaluated for the treatment of this disease.Integrins are a family of heterodimeric, non-covalently bound cell surface receptors, which mediate cell-cell and cell to extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. They are transmembrane glycoproteins consisting of
Enhanced CD8 T-cell anti-viral function and clinical disease in B7-H1-deficient mice requires CD4 T cells during encephalomyelitis
Phares Timothy W,Stohlman Stephen A,Hinton David R,Bergmann Cornelia C
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-269
Abstract: Background Anti-viral CD8 T-cell activity is enhanced and prolonged by CD4 T-cell-mediated help, but negatively regulated by inhibitory B7-H1 interactions. During viral encephalomyelitis, the absence of CD4 T cells decreases CD8 T cell activity and impedes viral control in the central nervous system (CNS). By contrast, the absence of B7-H1 enhances CD8 T-cell function and accelerates viral control, but increases morbidity. However, the relative contribution of CD4 T cells to CD8 function in the CNS, in the absence of B7-H1, remains unclear. Methods Wild-type (WT) and B7-H1 / mice were infected with a gliatropic coronavirus and CD4 T cells depleted to specifically block T helper function in the CNS. Flow cytometry and gene expression analysis of purified T-cell populations from lymph nodes and the CNS was used to directly monitor ex vivo T-cell effector function. The biological affects of altered T-cell responses were evaluated by analysis of viral control and spinal-cord pathology. Results Increased anti-viral activity by CD8 T cells in the CNS of B7-H1 / mice was lost upon depletion of CD4 T cells; however, despite concomitant loss of viral control, the clinical disease was less severe. CD4 depletion in B7-H1 / mice also decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by microglia and macrophages, consistent with decreased microglia/macrophage activation and reduced interferon (IFN)-γ. Enhanced production of IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-21 mRNA was seen in CD4 T cells from infected B7-H1 / compared with WT mice, suggesting that over-activated CD4 T cells primarily contribute to the increased pathology. Conclusions The local requirement of CD4 T-cell help for CD8 T-cell function is not overcome if B7-H1 inhibitory signals are lost. Moreover, the increased effector activity by CD8 T cells in the CNS of B7-H1 / mice is attributable not only to the absence of B7-H1 upregulation on major histocompatibility complex class I-presenting resident target cells, but also to enhanced local CD4 T-cell function. B7-H1-mediated restraint of CD4 T-cell activity is thus crucial to dampen both CD8 T-cell function and microglia/macrophage activation, thereby providing protection from T-cell-mediated bystander damage.
Protection of Retina by αB Crystallin in Sodium Iodate Induced Retinal Degeneration
Peng Zhou, Ram Kannan, Christine Spee, Parameswaran G. Sreekumar, Guorui Dou, David R. Hinton
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098275
Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the developed world. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a critical site of pathology in AMD and αB crystallin expression is increased in RPE and associated drusen in AMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of αB crystallin in sodium iodate (NaIO3)-induced retinal degeneration, a model of AMD in which the primary site of pathology is the RPE. Dose dependent effects of intravenous NaIO3 (20-70 mg/kg) on development of retinal degeneration (fundus photography) and RPE and retinal neuronal loss (histology) were determined in wild type and αB crystallin knockout mice. Absence of αB crystallin augmented retinal degeneration in low dose (20 mg/kg) NaIO3-treated mice and increased retinal cell apoptosis which was mainly localized to the RPE layer. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed with NaIO3 in mouse and human RPE which increased further after αB crystallin knockout or siRNA knockdown, respectively. NaIO3 upregulated AKT phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator–activator receptor–γ (PPARγ) which was suppressed after αB crystallin siRNA knockdown. Further, PPARγ ligand inhibited NaIO3-induced ROS generation. Our data suggest that αB crystallin plays a critical role in protection of NaIO3-induced oxidative stress and retinal degeneration in part through upregulation of AKT phosphorylation and PPARγ expression.
Neutrophils Compromise Retinal Pigment Epithelial Barrier Integrity
Jiehao Zhou,Shikun He,Ning Zhang,Christine Spee,Peng Zhou,Stephen J. Ryan,Ram Kannan,David R. Hinton
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/289360
Abstract: We hypothesized that neutrophils and their secreted factors mediate breakdown of the integrity of the outer blood-retina-barrier by degrading the apical tight junctions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The effect of activated neutrophils or neutrophil cell lysate on apparent permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants was evaluated by measuring [3H] mannitol flux in a modified Ussing chamber. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 in murine peritoneal neutrophils, and the effects of neutrophils on RPE tight-junction protein expression were assessed by confocal microscopy and western blot. Our results revealed that basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophils decreased occludin and ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours and increased the permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants by >3-fold (<.05). Similarly, basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophil lysate decreased ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours (<.05) and increased permeability of explants by 75%. Further, we found that neutrophils prominently express MMP-9 and that incubation of explants with neutrophils in the presence of anti-MMP-9 antibody inhibited the increase in permeability. These data suggest that neutrophil-derived MMP-9 may play an important role in disrupting the integrity of the outer blood-retina barrier.
αB Crystallin Is Apically Secreted within Exosomes by Polarized Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Provides Neuroprotection to Adjacent Cells
Parameswaran G. Sreekumar,Ram Kannan,Mizuki Kitamura,Christine Spee,Ernesto Barron,Stephen J. Ryan,David R. Hinton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012578
Abstract: αB Crystallin is a chaperone protein with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory functions and has been identified as a biomarker in age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether αB crystallin is secreted from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, the mechanism of this secretory pathway and to determine whether extracellular αB crystallin can be taken up by adjacent retinal cells and provide protection from oxidant stress. We used human RPE cells to establish that αB crystallin is secreted by a non-classical pathway that involves exosomes. Evidence for the release of exosomes by RPE and localization of αB crystallin within the exosomes was achieved by immunoblot, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic analyses. Inhibition of lipid rafts or exosomes significantly reduced αB crystallin secretion, while inhibitors of classic secretory pathways had no effect. In highly polarized RPE monolayers, αB crystallin was selectively secreted towards the apical, photoreceptor-facing side. In support, confocal microscopy established that αB crystallin was localized predominantly in the apical compartment of RPE monolayers, where it co-localized in part with exosomal marker CD63. Severe oxidative stress resulted in barrier breakdown and release of αB crystallin to the basolateral side. In normal mouse retinal sections, αB crystallin was identified in the interphotoreceptor matrix. An increased uptake of exogenous αB crystallin and protection from apoptosis by inhibition of caspase 3 and PARP activation were observed in stressed RPE cultures. αB Crystallin was taken up by photoreceptors in mouse retinal explants exposed to oxidative stress. These results demonstrate an important role for αB crystallin in maintaining and facilitating a neuroprotective outer retinal environment and may also explain the accumulation of αB crystallin in extracellular sub-RPE deposits in the stressed microenvironment in age-related macular degeneration. Thus evidence from our studies supports a neuroprotective role for αB crystallin in ocular diseases.
Mechanism of RPE Cell Death in α-Crystallin Deficient Mice: A Novel and Critical Role for MRP1-Mediated GSH Efflux
Parameswaran G. Sreekumar, Christine Spee, Stephen J. Ryan, Susan P. C. Cole, Ram Kannan, David R. Hinton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033420
Abstract: Absence of α-crystallins (αA and αB) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells renders them susceptible to oxidant-induced cell death. We tested the hypothesis that the protective effect of α-crystallin is mediated by changes in cellular glutathione (GSH) and elucidated the mechanism of GSH efflux. In α-crystallin overexpressing cells resistant to cell death, cellular GSH was >2 fold higher than vector control cells and this increase was seen particularly in mitochondria. The high GSH levels associated with α-crystallin overexpression were due to increased GSH biosynthesis. On the other hand, cellular GSH was decreased by 50% in murine retina lacking αA or αB crystallin. Multiple multidrug resistance protein (MRP) family isoforms were expressed in RPE, among which MRP1 was the most abundant. MRP1 was localized to the plasma membrane and inhibition of MRP1 markedly decreased GSH efflux. MRP1-suppressed cells were resistant to cell death and contained elevated intracellular GSH and GSSG. Increased GSH in MRP1-supressed cells resulted from a higher conversion of GSSG to GSH by glutathione reductase. In contrast, GSH efflux was significantly higher in MRP1 overexpressing RPE cells which also contained lower levels of cellular GSH and GSSG. Oxidative stress further increased GSH efflux with a decrease in cellular GSH and rendered cells apoptosis-prone. In conclusion, our data reveal for the first time that 1) MRP1 mediates GSH and GSSG efflux in RPE cells; 2) MRP1 inhibition renders RPE cells resistant to oxidative stress-induced cell death while MRP1 overexpression makes them susceptible and 3) the antiapoptotic function of α-crystallin in oxidatively stressed cells is mediated in part by GSH and MRP1. Our findings suggest that MRP1 and α crystallin are potential therapeutic targets in pathological retinal degenerative disorders linked to oxidative stress.
IFN-γ protects from lethal IL-17 mediated viral encephalomyelitis independent of neutrophils
Carine Savarin, Stephen A Stohlman, David R Hinton, Richard M Ransohoff, Daniel J Cua, Cornelia C Bergmann
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-104
Abstract: Encephalitis induced by a gliatropic murine coronavirus was used as a model to assess the direct contributions of neutrophils, IFN-γ and IL-17 to virus-induced mortality. CNS inflammatory conditions were selectively manipulated by adoptive transfer of virus-primed wild-type (WT) or IFN-γ deficient (GKO) memory CD4+ T cells into infected SCID mice, coupled with antibody-mediated neutrophil depletion and cytokine blockade.Transfer of GKO memory CD4+ T cells into infected SCID mice induced rapid mortality compared to recipients of WT memory CD4+ T cells, despite similar virus control and demyelination. In contrast to recipients of WT CD4+ T cells, extensive neutrophil infiltration and IL-17 expression within the CNS in recipients of GKO CD4+ T cells provided a model to directly assess their contribution(s) to disease. Recipients of WT CD4+ T cells depleted of IFN-γ did not express IL-17 and were spared from mortality despite abundant CNS neutrophil infiltration, indicating that mortality was not mediated by excessive CNS neutrophil accumulation. By contrast, IL-17 depletion rescued recipients of GKO CD4+ T cells from rapid mortality without diminishing neutrophils or reducing GM-CSF, associated with pathogenic Th17 cells in CNS autoimmune models. Furthermore, co-transfer of WT and GKO CD4+ T cells prolonged survival in an IFN-γ dependent manner, although IL-17 transcription was not reduced.These data demonstrate that IL-17 mediates detrimental clinical consequences in an IFN-γ-deprived environment, independent of extensive neutrophil accumulation or GM-CSF upregulation. The results also suggest that IFN-γ overrides the detrimental IL-17 effector responses via a mechanism downstream of transcriptional regulation.
Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in AIDS-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma Cells
Jie Cai,Tong Zheng,Rizwan Masood,D. Lynne Smith,David R. Hinton,Caryn Nae Kim,Guofu Fang,Kapil Bhalla,Parkash S. Gill
Sarcoma , 2000, DOI: 10.1155/s1357714x00000074
Abstract: Paclitaxel is a microtubule stabilizing drug that causes dividing cells to arrest and then undergo apoptosis. It also has antiangiogenic activity because it alters cytoskeletal structure, affecting migration and invasion. Paclitaxel is an effective treatment for AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). KS is a tumor in which there is marked proliferation of endothelial cells in addition to the tumor cells, which themselves share many markers with activated (proliferating) endothelial cells.We sought to determine the mechanism by which paclitaxel exerts its anti-KS tumor effects. In vitro, KS cells are very sensitive to paclitaxel, with half-maximal growth inhibition observed at 0.8 nM. Inhibition of migration of KS cells was also observed at nanomolar concentrations of the drug. Paclitaxel induced cell cycle arrest with an accumulation of cells in sub-G1.This was accompanied in vitro by various events typical of apoptosis: phosphorylation of two anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL , release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, cleavage and activation of caspase-3. In vitro results were borne out by studies of KS tumor xenografts in nude mice. Paclitaxel (10 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth by 75% over 21 days. Histological examination of the tumors revealed a decrease in proliferative index, a decrease in the number of mitotic figures and an increase in apoptotic cells compared to tumors from untreated mice.
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