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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 405671 matches for " David P. De Korte "
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A Comparison of Blind and Laryngoscopic Insertion of the EasyTube  [PDF]
Julia C. Caldwell, David P. De Korte, Renee E. Doll, Sonia J. Vaida
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2015.58035
Abstract: Introduction: The EasyTube is a disposable, polyvinyl-chloride, double-lumen, supraglottic airway device, which allows ventilation in either esophageal or tracheal position. The EasyTube may be positioned into the esophagus blindly or using a laryngoscope. Methods: Our study compared blind versus laryngoscopic-guided esophageal EasyTube insertion. Thirty two anesthesiologists inserted an EasyTube, size 41 Fr, into a mannequin, by using a blind and a laryngoscopic technique in a 2 × 2 crossover design. Results: No statistically significant difference in the time to achieve an effective airway was found: 23.9 ± 6 seconds for the blind and 29.5 ± 7.6 seconds for the laryngoscopic-guided technique. Conclusion: EasyTube insertion was equally successful with or without a laryn-goscope in a mannequin when used by anesthesia providers.
The Effects of Uniquely-Processed Titanium on Biological Systems: Implications for Human Health and Performance
David S. Rowlands,Sarah P. Shultz,Takahiro Ogawa,Wataru Aoi,Martin Korte
Journal of Functional Biomaterials , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/jfb5010001
Abstract: Titanium is biocompatible and widely utilized in a variety of applications. Recently, titanium in pico-nanometer scale and soluble form (Aqua Titan) has expanded its use to applied human health and performance. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence associated with specific physiological responses to Aqua Titan-treated materials. In vitro studies have shown that application of Aqua Titan can modify membrane potential and long-term potentiation in isolated hippocampal neurons, suggesting reduced pain memory as a possible mechanism for reported analgesia. Proximal contact with Aqua Titan-treated titanium increased gene expression, protein synthesis, cell growth and adhesion in normal cultured muscle and bone cells, suggesting application for Aqua Titan in clinical implant procedures and wound healing. Evidence for beneficial effects on neuromuscular control of muscle-tendon function and improvements in running economy in human athletes was seen when Aqua Titan-treated tape was applied to the human triceps surae following fatigue induced by prior strenuous exercise. Finally, behavioral responses and effects on the autonomic nervous system to environmental exposure suggest Aqua Titan may promote a mild relaxant, or stress-suppressive response. Together, data suggest exposure to Aqua Titan-treated materials modulates aspects of growth and function in neuronal and other musculoskeletal cells with possible benefits to musculotendinous recovery from exercise and to the systemic response to stress.
Food Insufficiency Is Associated with High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Women in Botswana and Swaziland
Sheri D Weiser ,Karen Leiter,David R Bangsberg,Lisa M Butler,Fiona Percy-de Korte,Zakhe Hlanze,Nthabiseng Phaladze,Vincent Iacopino,Michele Heisler
PLOS Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040260
Abstract: Background Both food insufficiency and HIV infection are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, yet the impact of food insufficiency on HIV risk behavior has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that food insufficiency is associated with HIV transmission behavior. Methods and Findings We studied the association between food insufficiency (not having enough food to eat over the previous 12 months) and inconsistent condom use, sex exchange, and other measures of risky sex in a cross-sectional population-based study of 1,255 adults in Botswana and 796 adults in Swaziland using a stratified two-stage probability design. Associations were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, clustered by country and stratified by gender. Food insufficiency was reported by 32% of women and 22% of men over the previous 12 months. Among 1,050 women in both countries, after controlling for respondent characteristics including income and education, HIV knowledge, and alcohol use, food insufficiency was associated with inconsistent condom use with a nonprimary partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–2.36), sex exchange (AOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74–1.93), intergenerational sexual relationships (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03–2.08), and lack of control in sexual relationships (AOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.24–2.28). Associations between food insufficiency and risky sex were much attenuated among men. Conclusions Food insufficiency is an important risk factor for increased sexual risk-taking among women in Botswana and Swaziland. Targeted food assistance and income generation programs in conjunction with efforts to enhance women's legal and social rights may play an important role in decreasing HIV transmission risk for women.
Routine HIV Testing in Botswana: A Population-Based Study on Attitudes, Practices, and Human Rights Concerns
Sheri D Weiser ,Michele Heisler,Karen Leiter,Fiona Percy-de Korte,Sheila Tlou,Sonya DeMonner,Nthabiseng Phaladze,David R Bangsberg,Vincent Iacopino
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030261
Abstract: Background The Botswana government recently implemented a policy of routine or “opt-out” HIV testing in response to the high prevalence of HIV infection, estimated at 37% of adults. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward routine testing, correlates of HIV testing, and barriers and facilitators to testing, 11 months after the introduction of this policy. Most participants (81%) reported being extremely or very much in favor of routine testing. The majority believed that this policy would decrease barriers to testing (89%), HIV-related stigma (60%), and violence toward women (55%), and would increase access to antiretroviral treatment (93%). At the same time, 43% of participants believed that routine testing would lead people to avoid going to the doctor for fear of testing, and 14% believed that this policy could increase gender-based violence related to testing. The prevalence of self-reported HIV testing was 48%. Adjusted correlates of testing included female gender (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1–1.9), higher education (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5–2.7), more frequent healthcare visits (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3–2.7), perceived access to HIV testing (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.5), and inconsistent condom use (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2–2.1). Individuals with stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV and AIDS were less likely to have been tested for HIV/AIDS (AOR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5–0.9) or to have heard of routine testing (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.45–0.76). While experiences with voluntary and routine testing overall were positive, 68% felt that they could not refuse the HIV test. Key barriers to testing included fear of learning one's status (49%), lack of perceived HIV risk (43%), and fear of having to change sexual practices with a positive HIV test (33%). Conclusions Routine testing appears to be widely supported and may reduce barriers to testing in Botswana. As routine testing is adopted elsewhere, measures should be implemented to assure true informed consent and human rights safeguards, including protection from HIV-related discrimination and protection of women against partner violence related to testing.
Correction: Routine HIV Testing in Botswana: A Population-Based Study on Attitudes, Practices, and Human Rights Concerns
Sheri D Weiser,Michele Heisler,Karen Leiter,Fiona Percy-de Korte,Sheila Tlou,Sonya DeMonner,Nthabiseng Phaladze,David R Bangsberg,Vincent Iacopino
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030395
A Population-Based Study on Alcohol and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors in Botswana
Sheri D Weiser ,Karen Leiter,Michele Heisler,Willi McFarland,Fiona Percy-de Korte,Sonya M DeMonner,Sheila Tlou,Nthabiseng Phaladze,Vincent Iacopino,David R Bangsberg
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030392
Abstract: Background In Botswana, an estimated 24% of adults ages 15–49 years are infected with HIV. While alcohol use is strongly associated with HIV infection in Africa, few population-based studies have characterized the association of alcohol use with specific high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana using a stratified two-stage probability sample design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess correlates of heavy alcohol consumption (>14 drinks/week for women, and >21 drinks/week for men) as a dependent variable. We also assessed gender-specific associations between alcohol use as a primary independent variable (categorized as none, moderate, problem and heavy drinking) and several risky sex outcomes including: (a) having unprotected sex with a nonmonogamous partner; (b) having multiple sexual partners; and (c) paying for or selling sex in exchange for money or other resources. Criteria for heavy drinking were met by 31% of men and 17% of women. Adjusted correlates of heavy alcohol use included male gender, intergenerational relationships (age gap ≥10 y), higher education, and living with a sexual partner. Among men, heavy alcohol use was associated with higher odds of all risky sex outcomes examined, including unprotected sex (AOR = 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 7.32), multiple partners (AOR = 3.08; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.87), and paying for sex (AOR = 3.65; 95% CI, 2.58 to 12.37). Similarly, among women, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of unprotected sex (AOR = 3.28; 95% CI, 1.71 to 6.28), multiple partners (AOR = 3.05; 95% CI, 1.83 to 5.07), and selling sex (AOR = 8.50; 95% CI, 3.41 to 21.18). A dose-response relationship was seen between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors, with moderate drinkers at lower risk than both problem and heavy drinkers. Conclusions Alcohol use is associated with multiple risks for HIV transmission among both men and women. The findings of this study underscore the need to integrate alcohol abuse and HIV prevention efforts in Botswana and elsewhere.
Supporting smoking cessation in healthcare: obstacles in scientific understanding and tobacco addiction management  [PDF]
Dianne de Korte, Onno C. P. van Schayck, Paul van Spiegel, Ad A. Kaptein, Alfred Sachs, Maureen Rutten-van M?lken, Niels Chavannes, Trudi Tromp-Beelen, Rik Bes, Remi Allard, Gerard Peeters, Leo Kliphuis, Jan Willem Schouten, Lies van Gennip, René van Ommen, Javier Asin
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.211189
Abstract: Despite ongoing efforts to reduce tobacco smoking, the smoking prevalence in many countries has remained stable for years. This may be a consequence of either lack of knowledge about effective ways to reduce smoking, or failing treatment of tobacco addiction in healthcare. This study explored gaps in the current understanding of smoking cessation and the challenges facing tobacco addiction management in order to formulate recommendations for future research and healthcare practice. A narrative review was written to determine areas in which more research is needed as well as areas in which sufficient knowledge is already available. Recommendations for future research were prioritised using a Delphi-procedure. Recommendations for healthcare practice were confirmed by expert’s assessment. Smoking is not widely acknowledged as an addiction and a relatively small number of smokers ask help from a healthcare professional when trying to stop smoking. Most healthcare professionals recognise the importance of advising patients to stop smoking, but experience certain barriers to actually do this. Overall, healthcare professionals need to be convinced that tobacco smoking is an addiction and should be treated likewise. If all healthcare professionals systematically advise their patients to give up smoking, eventually more smokers will successfully stop smoking.
Applying the linear δ-expansion to disordered systems
M. P. Blencowe,A. P. Korte
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.56.9422
Abstract: We apply the linear $\delta$-expansion (LDE), originally developed as a nonperturbative, analytical approximation scheme in quantum field theory, to problems involving noninteracting electrons in disordered solids. The initial idea that the LDE method might be applicable to disorder is suggested by the resemblance of the supersymmetric field theory formalism for quantities such as the disorder-averaged density of states and conductance to the path integral expressions for the n-point functions of $\lambda\phi^4$ field theory, where the LDE has proved a successful method of approximation. The field theories relevant for disorder have several unusual features which have not been considered before, however, such as anticommuting fields with Faddeev-Popov (FP) rather than Dirac-type kinetic energy terms, imaginary couplings and Minkowskian field coordinate metric.Nevertheless we show that the LDE method can be successfully generalized to such field systems.
Applying the linear delta expansion to `i phi^3'
M. P. Blencowe,H. F. Jones,A. P. Korte
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.57.5092
Abstract: The linear $\delta$ expansion (LDE) is applied to the Hamiltonian $H=(p^2 +m^2 x^2)/2 + igx^3$, which arises in the study of Lee-Yang zeros in statistical mechanics. Despite being non-Hermitian, this Hamiltonian appears to possess a real, positive spectrum. In the LDE, as in perturbation theory, the eigenvalues are naturally real, so a proof of this property devolves on the convergence of the expansion. A proof of convergence of a modified version of the LDE is provided for the $ix^3$ potential in zero dimensions. The methods developed in zero dimensions are then extended to quantum mechanics, where we provide numerical evidence for convergence.
Electromagnetic Interference in Patients with Implanted Cardioverter-Defibrillators and Implantable Loop Recorders
Marcos de Sousa,Gunnar Klein,Thomas Korte,Michael Niehaus
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal , 2002,
Abstract: Modern life exposes us all to an ever-increasing number of potential sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and patients with Implantable rhythm devices (IRD) like pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators or implantable loop recorders often ask about the use of microwave ovens, walking through airport metal detectors and the use of cellular phones. Electromagnetic interference occurs when electromagnetic waves emitted by one device impede the normal function of another electronic device. The potential for interaction between implanted pacing systems and cardioverter-defibrillators (electromagnetic interference, EMI) has been recognized for years.1,2,3,4. It has been shown that EMI can produce clinically significant effects on patients with implanted pacemakers and ICDs. For these reasons the following text discusses the influence of several EMI generating devices on IRD .
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