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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 162248 matches for " David O. Edokpa "
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Regional Air Quality of the Nigeria’s Niger Delta  [PDF]
Precious N. Ede, David O. Edokpa
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2015.41002
Abstract:

There is no systematic attempt to evaluate the air quality of any settlement in the Niger Delta region over a long period. Records of air quality data for this study were generated through secondary sources from impact assessment of facilities aimed at implementing air quality regulations on the environment. Suspended particulate matter in the region’s atmosphere ranged from 40 mg/m3 in Brass to 98 mg/m3 in Port Harcourt. Carbon monoxide concentrations were highest in Mbiama (191 mg/m3). Nitrogen dioxide concentration was highest in Bonny (187 mg/m3), and sulphur dioxide concentrations ranged from 19 m

Analysis of Lower Tropospheric Lapse Rate Trend over Port Harcourt Coastal City, Nigeria  [PDF]
Vincent E. Weli, David O. Edokpa
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2018.82010
Abstract: Understanding the spatial distribution of temperature, especially the relationship between temperature and altitude, is essential for understanding both climatological and hydrological processes and their variabilities. This is because those processes are sensitive to air temperature, especially in sub humid tropical regions, where air temperature influences the movements of pollutants and controls exchanges of energy and water fluxes between land and atmosphere particularly within the lower troposphere. This study examined the trend of lower tropospheric lapse rate in the coastal area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Six years’ data (2010-2015) for temperature between 1000 mbar and 850 mbar pressure levels was retrieved from era-interim re-analysis platform for the analysis. The data was acquired at 6-hourly synoptic hours: 0000H, 0600H, 1200H and 1800H at 0.125° grid resolution. Findings from the computed environmental lapse rate (ELR) show that conditional instability with an annual lapse rate of 5.5°C/km persists at the area from January to December. It was revealed that the months of December and January constituted the highest ELR trends of 6.5°C/km and 5.9°C/km respectively. This indicates that the month of December assumes a normal tropospheric lapse rate trend. The average range of lapse rate trend in the area which is close to the moist adiabatic lapse rate (MALR) of 5.0°C/km than the dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) shows that the study atmospheric environment is rich in water vapour. The 6-hourly synoptic analysis of the ELR pattern shows that lapse rate range between 1°C/km - 6.4°C/km and 6.5°C/km - 10°C/km
An Assessment of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Turbulence in Maiduguri, Nigeria  [PDF]
David O. Edokpa, Vincent E. Weli
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2017.62003
Abstract: This study examined the level of turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. Five years (2011-2015) temperature and wind speed data at 1000 mbar pressure level retrieved from Era-Interim Reanalysis Platform was used. These data were gotten at 6-hourly synoptic hours: 0000H, 0600H, 1200H and 1800H at 0.125° grid resolution. The gradient Richardson (Rig) number method was utilised in analysing turbulence across three layers: 10 - 50 m (surface layer); 50 - 100 m (mid layer) and 100 - 1300 m (upper layer). Findings shows that the surface layer is always in a turbulent state as over 95% of Rig values were below Richardson Critical (Ric) value of 0.25 with range 0.02 - 0.94. However, all values across the hours were below the Richardson Termination (RT) value of 1. Laminar conditions exist at the mid layer across the hours as 99.9% of Rig values ranging 0.88 - 8.02 were greater than RT of 1. Rig values for the upper layer were largely negative and ranged between -78.71 to -724.14. This indicates robust turbulent conditions. Turbulence generated through forced and free ascents prevailed at the surface layer and upper layer respectively. This shows that wind shear is dominant at the surface while thermal buoyancy prevails at the upper level. The months of February and September at 1200 and 1800 hours respectively are the periods of maximum (about 134 m) and minimum (below 15 m) heights were free convection destabilises forced convection in the study area. Relating findings to emission dispersion suggests that air pollutants will be transported across far and near distances at the upper layer and surface layers respectively. This is due to the stable nature of the mid layer that will limits vertical emission dispersion. Policy makers should ensure that potential emission sources stacks are above 50 m to ensure pollutants are dispersed aloft in the area.
The Risk of Impaired Coagulation in Surgical Jaundice: An Analysis of Routine Parameters  [PDF]
David O. Irabor
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.33023
Abstract: The study is a retrospective study of 30 patients who had operations for obstructive jaundice at the University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria between 1998 and 2003. The aim was to see if one could predict the patients at risk of bleeding by analysing the routine investigations like the Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Serum bilirubin levels, Alkaline phosphatase and the International Normalised Ratio (INR). These parameters were analysed against the age and pathology of the condition i.e. the respective diagnoses. The male/female ratio was 1:1.4 and the mean age was 52.8 years. The mean total bilirubin was 14.2 mg% (241.4 micromol/L) and the mean PCV was 31.6%. The condition of the pathology was split between carcinoma of the head of pancreas, carcinoma of the gall bladder, common bile duct stone and peri-ampullary carcinoma. The results suggest that the risk of haemorrhage increases with age and the levels of bilirubin beyond 15 mg% (255 micromol/L) in persons with carcinoma of the gall bladder.
A Patient Bill of Rights for Psychotropic Prescription: A Call for a Higher Standard of Care  [PDF]
Barry L. Duncan, David O. Antonuccio
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.24061
Abstract: The pharmaceutical industry has made it very difficult to know what the clinical trial evidence actually is regarding psychotropics. Consequently, primary care physicians and other front-line practitioners are at a disadvantage when attempting to adhere to the ethical and scientific mandates of evidence based prescriptive practice. This article calls for a higher standard of prescriptive care derived from a risk/benefit analysis of clinical trial evidence. The authors assert that current prescribing practices are often empirically unsound and unduly influenced by pharmaceutical company interests, resulting in unnecessary risks to patients. In the spirit of evidenced based medicine’s inclusion of patient values as well as the movement toward health home and integrated care, we present a patient bill of rights for psychotropic prescription. We then offer guidelines to raise the bar of care equal to the available science for all prescribers of psychiatric medications.
Hepatitis E Virus Infection in HIV Positive ART Naive and Experienced Individuals in Nigeria  [PDF]
Georgina N. Odaibo, David O. Olaleye
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.33029
Abstract:

Background: Studies have shown Hepatitis E Virus to be a causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis in severely immunocompromised patients such as organ transplant recipients and person with HIV infection. This study was designed to determine the burden of HEV infection among HIV positive individuals in Nigeria and the effect of HIV treatment on the burden of HEV infection among this group of patients. Methods: Aliquot of plasma samples collected for laboratory investigations such as CD4 enumeration, blood chemistry (AST, ALT, Creatine, Urea) were used to determine the presence of HEV IgG and IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA. Samples analysed in the study were collected from 180 HIV positive individuals (90 ART naive and 90 ART experienced) attending the ART clinic at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Results: Twenty two of the 180 (12.2%) samples were positive for either HEV IgG (20/180) or IgM (2/180). The rate of HEV IgG was higher among ART naive individuals and the two IgM positive persons were ART naive. There was no significant difference in the mean CD4 count and mean ALT between HEV seronegative and seropositive individuals (P = 0.8 and 0.2 respectively). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest the need to test for HEV infection in HIV positive individuals for the early diagnosis and proper management since HEV is known to be fulminant in the presence of underlying liver disease that is common among HIV infected persons. In addition, the use of ART may reduce the incidence of HEV infection in HIV positive persons.

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Road Side Soils from Selected Locations in the Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria
David O. Olukanni,David O. Adeoye
International Journal of Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in road side soils in Lagos metropolis is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to people and the environment. This is due to rapid increase in the use of vehicles for day to day transportation coupled with lack of emission standards which has raised serious concern about vehicular pollution. This paper reports the results of the investigation of heavy metal concentration in road side soils of selected areas in Lagos metropolis as a result of vehicular pollution. Locations considered were motor parks, garages and roadsides in Alimosho-, Agege-, Ikeja-, and Oshodi/Isolo-LGA of Lagos State. Seven locations that spans across the four local governments were selected on the basis of their high concentration of vehicular traffic. Three sites with low traffic concentration were also selected outside the seven locations to act as control sites. Soil samples were collected at each location for a period of three months in the dry season. The concentrations of six heavy metals (manganese, nickel, lead, chromium, zinc, and iron) in the samples were determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). All the monitored heavy metal pollutants where compared with European Union (EU) regulatory standard. Results show that the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil samples from the seven locations were within safe limits though higher than in the control sites. It is evident that as time goes on, these heavy metals may pose health hazards. The study reveals that vehicular-related pollution in Lagos metropolis is indeed significant with possible severe health consequences.
The pattern of fall of serum bilirubin after operative relief of obstructive jaundice. A preliminary report
Irabor,David O.;
Revista Ciencias de la Salud , 2009,
Abstract: this is the beginning of a prospective study on patients who have obstructive jaundice to see how the serum bilirubin falls after operative relief of the obstruction. seven of such patients have been studied; four had carcinoma of the head of the pancreas while the other three had choledocholithiasis. the patients with carcinoma had relief of the jaundice through a biliary -enteric anastomosis and those with common bile duct stones had choledochotomy with stone extraction which was completed with insertion of a t-tube. serial bilirubin estimations were then performed post-operatively to chart the pattern and rate of descent of this in each patient. our observations suggest that the pattern of fall of serum bilirubin after successful decompression of the extra-hepatic biliary tree exhibit a distinct pattern regardless of the surgical procedure performed for the relief of the obstruction.
El lenguaje no verbal del buceo recreativo: Análisis semiótico y terminológico
Londo?o,David Alberto;
Revista Interamericana de Bibliotecología , 2009,
Abstract: in recreational diving specialized communication, non-verbal language is an important aspect in information exchange; since, non verbal diving language meets the characteristics of a specialized communication by means of the specificity of the communicative act and the importance of it in submersion, where diver's security depends on clarity, precision, mode and relevance of the information transmission by means o non verbal code in context. the methodology used in the research work was qualitative. therefore, elements applied to the data collection were addressed to identify, determine, put in order, analyze and classify collected corpus, in this case, conceptual units in normative use of recreational diving non verbal language among the members of three recreational diving schools, whose divers are certified by the agencies: professional association of scuba instructors (padi) and confédération mondiales des activités subaquatiques (cmas); and four diving schools' handbooks in medellin, cartagena, and germany who were certified by some of both agencies. regarding to its analysis method, this was onomasiological approach. finally, it was possible to analyze and ratify that communicative act taken in diving non verbal language, from terminology theory, are compounded by mobile conceptual units (ucm in spanish), which are created and assimilated them, initially, by means of divers' didactics-pragmatics thought. it was able to be recognized that conceptual system is built by pre-established ucm, according to specific contexts, non-normalized.
Socio-Psychological Determinants of ESL Pragmatic Competence in Nigeria
O. Fakeye David
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The inability of Nigerian secondary school students` inability to match utterances with contexts in which they are appropriate (Pragmatic competence) has affected their overall communicative competence. It is therefore not surprising that misunderstandings and misinterpretations often characterize speakers` intention in utterances. Scholars have identified socio-psychological factors as major determinants of language proficiency which subsumes pragmatic competence. Hence, this ex-post facto research examined the socio-psychological determinants of pragmatic competence among 2,400 senior secondary school students in South-Western Nigeria. Three research questions were raised while pertinent data for the study were generated with the use of pragmatic competence test and questionnaire on socio-psychological determinants of students` pragmatic competence. The data generated ere analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The results revealed that: Socio-psychological factors to a large extent determine students` pragmatic competence; students home background, interest and verbal ability are the specific socio-psychological determinants of students. Pragmatic competence and they are effective predictors of students pragmatic competence. Based on predictors of student pragmatic competence. Based on these findings, it is recommended that English Language teachers should move beyond linguistic processing of meaning to pragmatic meaning in language teaching and learning, ad that authentic language samples must be used by English language teachers to provide practice for students in expressing themselves pragmatically, not just linguistically. English language teachers must also adopt teaching and learning strategies that will maximize pragmatic competence of the earners given the variations in their interest, verbal ability and home background.
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