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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 360858 matches for " David J van Westerloo "
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Self-disembowelment
Walter M van den Bergh, David J van Westerloo, Vincent M de Jong
Critical Care , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/cc11878
Abstract: A 26-year-old Chinese woman was found by alarmed paramedics outside her house while attempting to remove her bowels through a self-affected cut in her stomach with a 30 cm kitchen knife. Vital parameters were intact and there were no traumatic findings apart from a small left paramedian cut of approximately 5 cm in her upper abdomen. She was confused, and even in the shock room the patient proceeded with her attempts to remove her bowels.The most striking finding at computed tomography scan was the total absence of the small bowel, later confirmed during surgery (Figure 1). The police were contacted to see whether they could trace the missing bowels, and indeed several pieces of bowel, cut into pieces during the removal procedure, were found in the surroundings of the patient's house. The missing pieces were brought to the hospital but unfortunately were not found to be viable and replacement was considered futile (Figure 2).Notorious is the Japanese ritual suicide known as harakiri (spoken term) or seppuku (written term), which literally means 'cutting the belly' - the honorable method of taking one's own life practiced by men of the samurai (military) class in feudal Japan [1].The ancient Egyptians believed that toxins formed as a result of decomposition within the intestines. This perception still exists, as evidenced by the plethora of advertisements for colon cleansing. In combination with the tough image of samurai committing seppuku, this leads to phenomena such as the Australian death metal band Disembowelment and songs such as 'Self Disembowelment' by Devourment, with lyrics such as 'I must release these vile insects from inside of me' - although the lyrics as a whole are quite difficult to follow [2].Rare examples of self-disembowelment include the report of a New Jersey man who allegedly cut out his entrails in front of police and then threw bits of his intestines at them [3]. Also, a case is mentioned in the 1968 edition of the Atlas of Legal Medicine [4
Effective-Spring Model of Tympanic Response in Archosaurs  [PDF]
David T. Heider, J. Leo van Hemmen
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2019.91003
Abstract: Whereas for smaller animals the eardrums are well-characterized as excitable membranes or drums, some animals such as several archosaurs feature, as a first approximation, a rather stiff elastic shell supported by an elastic ring. Mathematically, the theory of plates and shells is applicable but its governing equations overly complicate the modeling. Here the notion of tympanic structure is introduced as a generalization of “ordinary” tympanic membranes so as to account for sound perception as it occurs in archosaurs, such as birds and crocodilians. A mathematical model for the tympanic structure in many archosaurs called two-spring model implements this notion. The model is exactly soluble and solutions are presented in closed form and as a series expansion. Special emphasis is put onto offering an easy-to-apply model for describing experiments and performing numerical studies. The analytic treatment is supplemented by a discussion of the applicability of the two-spring model in auditory research. An elasticity-theoretic perspective of the two-spring model is given in the Appendix.
Hyperpolarization-Activated Current (Ih) in Ganglion-Cell Photoreceptors
Matthew J. Van Hook,David M. Berson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015344
Abstract: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin and serve as the primary retinal drivers of non-image-forming visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment, the pupillary light reflex, and suppression of melatonin production in the pineal. Past electrophysiological studies of these cells have focused on their intrinsic photosensitivity and synaptic inputs. Much less is known about their voltage-gated channels and how these might shape their output to non-image-forming visual centers. Here, we show that rat ipRGCs retrolabeled from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) express a hyperpolarization-activated inwardly-rectifying current (Ih). This current is blocked by the known Ih blockers ZD7288 and extracellular cesium. As in other systems, including other retinal ganglion cells, Ih in ipRGCs is characterized by slow kinetics and a slightly greater permeability for K+ than for Na+. Unlike in other systems, however, Ih in ipRGCs apparently does not actively contribute to resting membrane potential. We also explore non-specific effects of the common Ih blocker ZD7288 on rebound depolarization and evoked spiking and discuss possible functional roles of Ih in non-image-forming vision. This study is the first to characterize Ih in a well-defined population of retinal ganglion cells, namely SCN-projecting ipRGCs.
Genomic risk factors in sudden infant death syndrome
David W Van Norstrand, Michael J Ackerman
Genome Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/gm207
Abstract: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of postneonatal infant death, and represents the third leading cause of infant mortality overall in the USA [1]. As defined by Willinger et al. in 1991 [2], SIDS is described as the sudden death of an infant under 1 year of age which remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of clinical history. SIDS pathogenesis has been understood through a 'triple risk hypothesis'. This argues that SIDS results from a convergence of three overlapping risk factors: (1) a vulnerable infant, (2) a critical development period, and (3) an exogenous stressor(s) [3]. An infant will only succumb to SIDS if and when all three overlapping factors exist and converge. Thus, the inherent vulnerability of an infant will lie dormant until a crucial developmental period when the infant is then presented with the exogenous stressor.Nearly two decades ago, the 1994 'Back to Sleep' campaign from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in the USA targeted such exogenous stressors as prone sleep, and reduced SIDS rates by more than 50% from 1.2 per 1,000 live births in 1992 to 0.55 per 1,000 live births in 2006, similar to reductions seen in Canada and many other countries [4,5]. However, despite these efforts, over 2,200 infants died of SIDS in 2004, and it appears that the recently witnessed reductions in deaths are diminishing [4]. Today, SIDS remains one of the leading causes of death for infants between 1 month and 1 year in developed countries [6], and current data suggest that approximately 60% to 80% of deaths under the age of 1 year remain autopsy negative [7,8].Among developed countries, SIDS rates vary widely [6], and ethnic-specific disparities in rates have been noted. For example, SIDS rates are approximately twice as high among infants born to African American or American Indian mothers as compared with Cauc
Nonnegative Scaling Vectors on the Interval
David K. Ruch,Patrick J. Van Fleet
Axioms , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/axioms2030371
Abstract: In this paper, we outline a method for constructing nonnegative scaling vectors on the interval. Scaling vectors for the interval have been constructed in [1–3]. The approach here is different in that the we start with an existing scaling vector ? that generates a multi-resolution analysis for L2(R) to create a scaling vector for the interval. If desired, the scaling vector can be constructed so that its components are nonnegative. Our construction uses ideas from [4,5] and we give results for scaling vectors satisfying certain support and continuity properties. These results also show that less edge functions are required to build multi-resolution analyses for L2 ([a; b]) than the methods described in [5,6].
Abstracting Abstract Control (Extended)
J. Ian Johnson,David Van Horn
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1145/2661088.2661098
Abstract: The strength of a dynamic language is also its weakness: run-time flexibility comes at the cost of compile-time predictability. Many of the hallmarks of dynamic languages such as closures, continuations, various forms of reflection, and a lack of static types make many programmers rejoice, while compiler writers, tool developers, and verification engineers lament. The dynamism of these features simply confounds statically reasoning about programs that use them. Consequently, static analyses for dynamic languages are few, far between, and seldom sound. The "abstracting abstract machines" (AAM) approach to constructing static analyses has recently been proposed as a method to ameliorate the difficulty of designing analyses for such language features. The approach, so called because it derives a function for the sound and computable approximation of program behavior starting from the abstract machine semantics of a language, provides a viable approach to dynamic language analysis since all that is required is a machine description of the interpreter. The original AAM recipe produces finite state abstractions, which cannot faithfully represent an interpreter's control stack. Recent advances have shown that higher-order programs can be approximated with pushdown systems. However, these automata theoretic models either break down on features that inspect or modify the control stack. In this paper, we tackle the problem of bringing pushdown flow analysis to the domain of dynamic language features. We revise the abstracting abstract machines technique to target the stronger computational model of pushdown systems. In place of automata theory, we use only abstract machines and memoization. As case studies, we show the technique applies to a language with closures, garbage collection, stack-inspection, and first-class composable continuations.
Design of a randomized controlled trial on the effects of Counseling of mental health problems by Occupational Physicians on return to work: the CO-OP-study
David S Rebergen, David J Bruinvels, Allard J van der Beek, Willem van Mechelen
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-183
Abstract: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), subjects in the intervention group were treated according to the guideline. The control group received usual care, with minimal involvement of the OP and easy access to a psychologist. Subjects were recruited from two Dutch police departments. The primary outcomes of the study are return to work and treatment satisfaction by the employee, employer, and OP. A secondary outcome is cost-effectiveness of the intervention, compared with usual care. Furthermore, prognostic measures are taken into account as potential confounders. A process evaluation will be done by means of performance indicators, based on the guideline.In this pragmatic trial, effectiveness instead of efficacy is studied. We will evaluate what is possible in real clinical practice, rather than under ideal circumstances. Many requirements for a high quality trial are being met. Results of this study will contribute to treatment options in occupational health practice for employees on sick leave due to mental health problems. Additionally, they may contribute to new and better-suited guidelines and stepped care. Results will become available during 2007.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN34887348Common mental health problems can affect functioning to such an extent that they can lead to work absenteeism and presenteeism. These may result in productivity loss [1]. The prevalence of absenteeism due to mental health problems is reported to be between 10 and 18%, which causes extensive societal and financial costs [2-7]. Up to ninety percent of absenteeism is caused by minor, stress-related, mental health problems [3,4,6]. A small, but substantial part (over 20%) of these 'common' mental health problems result in long lasting productivity loss. In the Netherlands associated costs are enormous (9.407 billion Euros in 2004)[8,9].For employees with common mental health problems, health care utilization is mainly restricted to primary care. In the Netherlands, primary care is
The Role of Temporally Coarse Form Processing during Binocular Rivalry
Jeroen J. A. van Boxtel, David Alais, Casper J. Erkelens, Raymond van Ee
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001429
Abstract: Presenting the eyes with spatially mismatched images causes a phenomenon known as binocular rivalry—a fluctuation of awareness whereby each eye's image alternately determines perception. Binocular rivalry is used to study interocular conflict resolution and the formation of conscious awareness from retinal images. Although the spatial determinants of rivalry have been well-characterized, the temporal determinants are still largely unstudied. We confirm a previous observation that conflicting images do not need to be presented continuously or simultaneously to elicit binocular rivalry. This process has a temporal limit of about 350 ms, which is an order of magnitude larger than the visual system's temporal resolution. We characterize this temporal limit of binocular rivalry by showing that it is independent of low-level information such as interocular timing differences, contrast-reversals, stimulus energy, and eye-of-origin information. This suggests the temporal factors maintaining rivalry relate more to higher-level form information, than to low-level visual information. Systematically comparing the role of form and motion—the processing of which may be assigned to ventral and dorsal visual pathways, respectively—reveals that this temporal limit is determined by form conflict rather than motion conflict. Together, our findings demonstrate that binocular conflict resolution depends on temporally coarse form-based processing, possibly originating in the ventral visual pathway.
Impact of Light and Temperature on the Uptake of Algal Symbionts by Coral Juveniles
David Abrego, Bette L. Willis, Madeleine J. H. van Oppen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050311
Abstract: The effects of temperature and light on the breakdown of the coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis are well documented but current understanding of their roles during initial uptake and establishment of symbiosis is limited. In this study, we investigate how temperature and light affect the uptake of the algal symbionts, ITS1 types C1 and D, by juveniles of the broadcast-spawning corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora. Elevated temperatures had a strong negative effect on Symbiodinium uptake in both coral species, with corals at 31°C showing as little as 8% uptake compared to 87% at 28°C. Juveniles in high light treatments (390 μmol photons m?2 s?1) had lower cell counts across all temperatures, emphasizing the importance of the light environment during the initial uptake phase. The proportions of the two Symbiodinium types taken up, as quantified by a real time PCR assay using clade C- and D-specific primers, were also influenced by temperature, although variation in uptake dynamics between the two coral species indicates a host effect. At 28°C, A. tenuis juveniles were dominated by C1 Symbiodinium, and while the number of D Symbiodinium cells increased at 31°C, they never exceeded the number of C1 cells. In contrast, juveniles of A. millepora had approximately equal numbers of C1 and D cells at 28°C, but were dominated by D at 30°C and 31°C. This study highlights the significant role that environmental factors play in the establishment of coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis and provides insights into how potentially competing Symbiodinium types take up residence in coral juveniles.
Moment computation in shift invariant spaces
David A. Eubanks,Patrick J. van Fleet,Jianzhong Wang
International Journal of Stochastic Analysis , 1998, DOI: 10.1155/s1048953398000380
Abstract: An algorithm is given for the computation of moments of f∈S, where S is either a principal h-shift invariant space or S is a finitely generated h-shift invariant space. An error estimate for the rate of convergence of our scheme is also presented. In so doing, we obtain a result for computing inner products in these spaces. As corollaries, we derive Marsden-type identities for principal h-shift invariant spaces and finitely generated h-shift invariant spaces. Applications to wavelet/multiwavelet spaces are presented.
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