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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 139293 matches for " David I Laibson "
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Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons
Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Aron S Buchman, David I Laibson, David A Bennett
BMC Geriatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-11-53
Abstract: Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15) versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment.In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE) = 0.39, p < 0.001) and global cognitive function (estimate = -1.05, standard error (SE) = 0.34, p < 0.003) were significantly inversely associated with risk aversion. Thus, a lower level of global cognitive function and female sex were associated with greater risk aversion. Moreover, performance on four out of the five cognitive domains was negatively related to risk aversion (i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed); performance on visuospatial abilities was not.A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater risk aversion in advanced age.Compelling economics, behavioral economics, and neuroeconomics studies have shown that r
The Carter Cuff: A Preliminary Assessment of Its Effectiveness in Enhancing Upper Body Strength in People with Unilateral Amputation and Other Disabilities  [PDF]
Marilyn Mitchell, David I. Anderson
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2017.54011
Abstract: Five participants with unilateral, upper extremity amputation were recruited from a convenience sample and participated in a supervised resistance training exercise program in their own local exercise facility using the Carter Cuff (Carter Medical Devices, LLC). The Carter Cuff is a relatively new assistive device that allows people with unilateral, upper extremity amputation and other disabilities or injuries of the hand to engage in resistance training exercises. Following a six weeks training period, an online survey was made available to the participants who provided demographic information and answered questions about their exercise habits and their satisfaction with the ease of use and effectiveness of the Carter Cuff as well as its impact on their lives. The results of the survey provided preliminary support for the effectiveness of the Carter Cuff and its positive effects on people with amputations. Though more quantitative data on physiological and psychological measures are needed, these preliminary findings have important implications for occupational therapy practice.
Three year results of the Prospective Evaluation of Radial Keratotomy (PERK) study
Waring III George,Lynn Michael,Culbertson William,Laibson Peter
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1990,
Abstract: The Prospective Evaluation of Radial Keratotomy (PERK) study is a nine-center clinical trial of a standardized technique of radial keratotomy in 435 patients who had simple myopia with a preoperative refractive error between -2.00 and -8.00 diopters (D). We report results for one eye of each patient. The surgical technique consisted of eight incisions using a diamond micrometer knife with the blade length determined by intraoperative ultrasonic pachymetry and the diameter of the central clear zone determined by the preoperative refractive error. At three years after surgery, 58% of eyes had refractive error within one diopter of emmetropia; 26% were undercorrected, and 16% were overcorrected by more than one diopter. Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or better in 76% of eyes. The operation was more effective in eyes with a preoperative refractive error between -2.00 and -4.37 diopters. Between one and three years after surgery, the refractive error changed by 1.00 diopter or more in 12% of eyes, indicating a lack of stability in some eyes.
Ultrasound-Guided Peri-Lymphatic and Peri-Neural Corticosteroid Injection as an Adjuvant to Pain and Lymphedema Management in Terminal Cancer: Two Case Reports  [PDF]
Clark K. Choi, David I. Rosenblum
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2012.25054
Abstract: We are reporting two patients presented with intractable cancer pain that was treated with a novel application of an ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block using corticosteroid. This technique offered relief to both patients whom otherwise their cancer pain was difficult to manage. The first patient developed lymphedema to the right axilla from metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. After multiple injections were deposited around the brachial plexus, lymphedema on the right axilla decreased slightly in size; however, range of motion improved post-procedure prior to his discharge one week later. In the second patient with left inguinal lymphadenopathy from metastatic left ureteral transitional cell carcinoma, there was a dramatic reduction in lymphedema in the left groin and leg as well as a considerable decrease in pain score during a two week follow-up after the peri-neural and peri-lymphatic femoral block. A 75% improvement in patient satisfaction was reported in the office visit’s questionnaire form. Corticosteroids can be used as an adjuvant to peripheral nerve block to decrease the pain secondary to lymphedema caused by the inflammatory response from metastatic cancer. This application can provide an alternative way to manage severe cancer-related pain caused by lymphedema in both upper and lower limbs.
Grip Force Using an Artificial Limb in a Congenital Amputee  [PDF]
Michael Trujillo, David I. Anderson, Marilyn Mitchell
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2014.23014
Abstract: While much attention is being given in the application of advanced technologies to improve upper extremity prostheses, traditional body-powered prostheses still remain the most popular by people with an amputation. A body-powered prosthesis provides the user with a reasonable solution for limb loss given their simple design, lower maintenance and initial cost. The two major types of body-powered prosthesis use either voluntary opening or voluntary closing control of the terminal device (or prehensor) used for holding and manipulating objects. What differentiates these two types of control is the relationship between the muscular force used to apply tension on the cable attached to the prehensor and the force produced by the prehensor. It has been argued that the voluntary closing prosthesis has more optimal compatibility between the muscle force and grip force of the prehensor. As a result, it may provide an advantage to the user in tasks requiring the control of grip force. To determine the effectiveness of the voluntary closing and voluntary opening prosthesis, we asked a person with a congenital quadruple limb deficiency who is right hand dominant, and that uses voluntary opening prostheses to participate in a study investigating grip force control. The participant was required to match different target grip forces displayed on a computer monitor by manipulating the pressure exerted on a hand dynamometer using either a voluntary closing or voluntary opening prosthesis. The participant only had previous experience with a voluntary opening prosthesis. The results showed that in several measures, the participant performed better with the voluntary closing prosthesis. These results provided support for the muscular force-grip force compatibility hypothesis.
Ferromagnetic spin fluctuation induced superconductivity in Sr_2RuO_4
I. I. Mazin,David Singh
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.733
Abstract: We propose a quantitative model for triplet superconductivity in Sr_2RuO_4 based on first principles calculations for the electronic structure and magnetic susceptibility. The superconductivity is due to ferromagnetic spin fluctuations, that are strong at small wave vectors. The calculated effective mass renormalization, renormalized susceptibility, and superconducting critical temperature are all in good agreement with experiment. The most stable superconducting solution has order parameters of comparable magnitude on all three sheets of the Fermi surface. We also propose an explanation of the discrepancy between the Fermi surface topology observed in the photoemission and in de Haas-van Alphen experiments.
The hope for an HIV vaccine based on induction of CD8+ T lymphocytes: a review
Watkins, David I;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762008000200001
Abstract: the only long-term and cost-effective solution to the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) epidemic in the developing world is a vaccine that prevents individuals from becoming infected or, once infected, from passing the virus on to others. there is currently little hope for an aids vaccine. conventional attempts to induce protective antibody and cd8+ lymphocyte responses against hiv and simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) have failed. the enormous diversity of the virus has only recently been appreciated by vaccinologists, and our assays to determine cd8+ lymphocyte antiviral efficacy are inadequate. the central hypothesis of a ctl-based vaccine is that particularly effective cd8+ lymphocytes directed against at least five epitopes that are derived from regions under functional and structural constraints will control replication of pathogenic siv. this would be somewhat analogous to control of virus replication by triple drug therapy or neutralizing antibodies.
The pro-allergic influences of helminth parasites
Pritchard, David I;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761997000800004
Abstract: parasitic infection is highly allergenic, and the present paper illustrates how parasites might disrupt the regulation of ige synthesis, resulting in heightened th-2 responses. the study of parasites, and dysregulation of the ige ntwork, could in turn provide information relating to the aetiology of allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis.
El Pronom personal de tercera persona
David Casellas i Gispert
Llengua & Literatura , 2006, DOI: 10.2436/l&l.vi.1183
A redetermination of the structure of poly[[μ4-(R)-2-ammonio-3-sulfonatopropanoato]aquasodium], originally reported as poly[[μ7-l-cysteato(2−)]disodium]
I. David Brown
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2012, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536812009683
Abstract: The structure originally reported as poly[[μ7-l-cysteato(2 )]disodium], [Na2(C3H5NO5S)]n [Liu (2002). Acta Cryst. E67, m1346–m1347], has been redetermined with one of the sodium atoms replaced with a water molecule and an additional proton attached to the amine group, resulting in the revised formula [Na{CO2CH(CH2SO3)NH3}(H2O)]n. The agreement index, wR, has been reduced from 0.159 to 0.087 and the global instability index from 0.56 vu (valence units) to the acceptable value of 0.11 vu.
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