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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 198591 matches for " David H. Schoellhamer "
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Spatial and temporal variability of suspended-sediment concentrations in a shallow estuarine environment
Catherine A. Ruhl,David H. Schoellhamer
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science , 2004,
Abstract: Shallow subembayments respond differently than deep channels to physical forces acting in estuaries. The U.S. Geological Survey measured suspended-sediment concentrations at five locations in Honker Bay, a shallow subembayment of San Francisco Bay, and the adjacent channel to investigate the spatial and temporal differences between deep and shallow estuarine environments. During the first freshwater pulse of the wet season, the channel tended to transport suspended sediments through the system, whereas the shallow area acted as off-channel storage where deposition would likely occur. Following the freshwater pulse, suspended-sediment concentrations were greater in Honker Bay than in the adjacent deep channel, due to the larger supply of erodible sediment on the bed. However, the tidal variability of suspended-sediment concentrations in both Honker Bay and in the adjacent channel was greater after the freshwater pulse than before. During wind events, suspended-sediment concentrations in the channel were not affected; however, wind played a crucial role in the resuspension of sediments in the shallows. Despite wind-wave sediment resuspension in Honker Bay, tidally averaged suspended-sediment flux was controlled by the flood-dominated currents.
Trends in the sediment yield of the Sacramento River, California, 1957 - 2001
Scott A. Wright,David H. Schoellhamer
San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science , 2004,
Abstract: Human activities within a watershed, such as agriculture, urbanization, and dam building, may affect the sediment yield from the watershed. Because the equilibrium geomorphic form of an estuary is dependent in part on the sediment supply from the watershed, anthropogenic activities within the watershed have the potential to affect estuary geomorphology. The Sacramento River drains the northern half of California s Central Valley and is the primary source of sediment to San Francisco Bay. In this paper, it is shown that the delivery of suspended-sediment from the Sacramento River to San Francisco Bay has decreased by about one-half during the period 1957 to 2001. Many factors may be contributing to the trend in sediment yield, including the depletion of erodible sediment from hydraulic mining in the late 1800s, trapping of sediment in reservoirs, riverbank protection, altered land-uses (such as agriculture, grazing, urbanization, and logging), and levees. This finding has implications for planned tidal wetland restoration activities around San Francisco Bay, where an adequate sediment supply will be needed to build subsided areas to elevations typical of tidal wetlands as well as to keep pace with projected sea-level rise. In a broader context, the study underscores the need to address anthropogenic impacts on watershed sediment yield when considering actions such as restoration within downstream depositional areas.
Projected Evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a Century of Climate Change
James E. Cloern, Noah Knowles, Larry R. Brown, Daniel Cayan, Michael D. Dettinger, Tara L. Morgan, David H. Schoellhamer, Mark T. Stacey, Mick van der Wegen, R. Wayne Wagner, Alan D. Jassby
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024465
Abstract: Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community changes as responses to cumulative effects of climate change and other drivers of habitat transformations; and (4) anticipation and adaptation to the growing probability of ecosystem regime shifts.
Separation of a Signal of Interest from a Seasonal Effect in Geophysical Data: I. El Niño/La Niña Phenomenon  [PDF]
David H. Douglass
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2011.24045
Abstract: Geophysical signals N of interest are often contained in a parent signal G that also contains a seasonal signal X at a known frequency fX. The general issues associated with identifying N and X and their separation from G are considered for the case where G is the Pacific sea surface temperature monthly data, SST3.4; N is the El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and the seasonal signal X is at a frequency of 1/(12 months). It is shown that the commonly used climatology method of subtracting the average seasonal values of SST3.4 to produce the widely used anomaly index Nino3.4 is shown not to remove the seasonal signal. Furthermore, it is shown that the climatology method will always fail. An alternative method is presented in which a 1/fX (= 12 months) moving average filter F is applied to SST3.4 to generate an El Niño/La Niña index NL that does not contain a seasonal signal. Comparison of NL and Nino3.4 shows, among other things, that estimates of the relative magnitudes of El Niños from index NL agree with observations but estimates from index Nino3.4 do not. These results are applicable to other geophysical measurements.
Recent Energy Balance of Earth  [PDF]
Robert S. Knox, David H. Douglass
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2010.13013
Abstract: A recently published estimate of Earth’s global warming trend is 0.63 ± 0.28 W/m2, as calculated from ocean heat content anomaly data spanning 1993-2008. This value is not representative of the recent (2003-2008) warming/cooling rate because of a “flattening” that occurred around 2001-2002. Using only 2003-2008 data from Argo floats, we find by four different algorithms that the recent trend ranges from –0.010 to –0.161 W/m2 with a typical error bar of ±0.2 W/m2. These results fail to support the existence of a frequently-cited large positive computed radiative imbalance.
Fractional Order for Food Gums: Modeling and Simulation  [PDF]
Sergio A. David, Aline H. Katayama
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.42046

Fractional order calculus can represent systems with high-order dynamics and complex nonlinear phenomena using few coefficients, since the arbitrary order of the derivatives provides an additional degree of freedom to fit a specific behavior. Numerous mathematicians have contributed to the history of fractional calculus by attempting to solve a fundamental problem to the best of their understanding. Each researcher sought a definition and therefore different approaches, which has led to various definitions of differentiation and anti-differentiation of non-integer orders that are proven equivalent. Although all these definitions may be equivalent, from one specific standpoint, i.e., for a specific application, some definitions seem more attractive. Furthermore, it is well known that food gums are complex carbohydrates that can suit for a wide variety of functions in the context of food engineering. The viscoelastic behavior of food gums is crucial for these applications and formulations of new or improved food products. Small progress has been made to understand the viscoelastic behavior of food gums and there are few studies in the literature about these models. In this paper, we applied the Riemann-Liouville approach and the Fourier transform in order to obtain numerical simulations results of a fractional derivative model based on previous literature that to make a quantitative description of the viscoelastic properties behavior for a food gum. The results reveal that the fractional model shows good simulation capability and can be an attractive means for predicting and to elucidate the dynamic viscoelastic behavior of food gums.

Review Study of Detection of Diabetes Models through Delay Differential Equations  [PDF]
Dimplekumar Chalishajar, David H. Geary, Geoffrey Cox
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.710097
Abstract: Mathematical models based on advanced differential equations are utilized to analyze the glucose-insulin regulatory system, and how it affects the detection of Type I and Type II diabetes. In this paper, we have incorporated several models of prominent mathematicians in this field of work. Three of these models are single time delays, where either there is a time delay of how long it takes insulin produced by the pancreas to take effect, or a delay in the glucose production after the insulin has taken effect on the body. Three other models are two-time delay models, and based on the specific models, the time delay takes place in some sort of insulin production delay or glucose production delay. The intent of this paper is to use these multiple delays to analyze the glucose-insulin regulatory system, and how if it is not properly working at any point, the high risk of diabetes becomes a reality.
Cosmological consequences of particle creation during inflation
David H. Lyth,David Roberts
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.57.7120
Abstract: Particle creation during inflation is considered. It could be important for species whose interaction is of gravitational strength or weaker. A complete but economical formalism is given for spin-zero and spin-half particles, and the particle abundance is estimated on the assumption that the particle mass in the early universe is of order the Hubble parameter $H$. It is roughly the same for both spins, and it is argued that the same estimate should hold for higher spin particles in particular the gravitino. The abundance is bigger than that from the usual particle collision mechanism if the inflationary energy scale is of order $10^{16} GeV$, but not if it is much lower.
Generating the curvature perturbation without an inflaton
David H. Lyth,David Wands
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(01)01366-1
Abstract: We present a mechanism for the origin of the large-scale curvature perturbation in our Universe by the late decay of a massive scalar field, the curvaton. The curvaton is light during a period of cosmological inflation, when it acquires a perturbation with an almost scale-invariant spectrum. This corresponds initially to an isocurvature density perturbation, which generates the curvature perturbation after inflation when the curvaton density becomes a significant fraction of the total. The isocurvature density perturbation disappears if the curvaton completely decays into thermalised radiation. Any residual isocurvature perturbation is 100% correlated with the curvature. The same mechanism can also generate the curvature perturbation in pre big bang/ekpyrotic models, provided that the curvaton has a suitable non-canonical kinetic term so as to generate a flat spectrum.
Conserved cosmological perturbations
David H Lyth,David Wands
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.68.103515
Abstract: A conserved cosmological perturbation is associated with each quantity whose local evolution is determined entirely by the local expansion of the Universe. It may be defined as the appropriately normalised perturbation of the quantity, defined using a slicing of spacetime such that the expansion between slices is spatially homogeneous. To first order, on super-horizon scales, the slicing with unperturbed intrinsic curvature has this property. A general construction is given for conserved quantities, yielding the curvature perturbation $\zeta$ as well as more recently-considered conserved perturbations. The construction may be extended to higher orders in perturbation theory and even into the non-perturbative regime.
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