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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 200625 matches for " David H King "
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Meta-analysis of Urine Heme Dipstick Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium Infection, Including Low-Prevalence and Previously-Treated Populations
Charles H. King ,David Bertsch
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002431
Abstract: Background Urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly endemic in Africa. Current control is based on drug administration, targeted either to school-age children or to high-risk communities at-large. Urine dipsticks for detection of microhematuria offer an inexpensive means for estimating infection prevalence. However, their diagnostic performance has not been systematically evaluated after community treatment, or in areas with continuing low prevalence. The objective of the present study was to perform meta-analysis of dipstick accuracy for S. haematobium infection in endemic regions, with special attention to performance where infection intensity or prevalence was low. Methodology/Principal Findings This review was registered at inception with PROSPERO (CRD42012002165). Included studies were identified by computerized search of online databases and hand search of bibliographies and existing study archives. Eligible studies included published or unpublished population surveys irrespective of date, location, or language that compared dipstick diagnosis of S. haematobium infection to standard egg-count parasitology. For 95 included surveys, variation in dipstick sensitivity and specificity were evaluated according to study size, age- and sex-specific participation, region, local prevalence, treatment status, and other factors potentially affecting test performance. Independent of prevalence, accuracy was greater in surveys of school-age children (vs. adults), whereas performance was less good in North Africa, as compared to other regions. By hierarchical ROC analysis, overall dipstick sensitivity and specificity for detection of egg-positive urine were estimated at 81% and 89%, respectively. Sensitivity was lower among treated populations (72%) and in population subgroups having lower intensity infection (65%). When the insensitivity of egg count testing was considered (and diagnosis inferred instead from combined hematuria and egg-count findings), overall dipstick sensitivity/specificity were 82%/97%, with significantly better sensitivity (92%) in high prevalence settings. Conclusions/Significance This analysis suggests that dipsticks will continue to serve as very useful adjuncts for monitoring community prevalence following implementation of population-based control of urogenital schistosomiasis.
Historical Perspective: Snail Control to Prevent Schistosomiasis
Charles H. King,David Bertsch
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003657
Abstract:
Categorizing HIV-1 subtypes using an ant-based clustering algorithm  [PDF]
David King, Wei Hu
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.38104
Abstract: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is especially difficult to treat due to its rapid mutation rate. There are currently eleven different genomic subtypes of HIV-1, as well as a number of recombinant subtypes. An area of study in bioinformatics is the development of algorithms to identify the subtypes of HIV-1 genomes. Ant-based algorithms have the ability to find global solutions in optimizations problems, and are also able to process complex data efficiently. We proposed a new technique named Ant Colony Anchor Algorithm (ACAA), using anchors of training data on a topographic map to categorize HIV-1 sequences based on ant-based clustering. We used three sets of sequences from the POL region of the HIV-1 genome. We categorized these three dataset with the Subtype Analyzer (STAR), a current HIV-1 categorization algorithm, and the ACAA. We found that the ACAA returned higher accuracy values of 83.2%, 67.1%, and 53.5% for our three datasets respectively, than the STAR’s 47.3%, 49.4% and 18%. The results of the ACAA are the average results of 20 runs of the algorithm. We also observed the performance of the algorithm on specific subtypes, and observed that while the STAR and ACAA performed with similar accuracy on several subtypes (A, B, and C in particular), the ACAA had a significant advantage over the STAR in others, especially in categorizing recombinant subtypes.
Adjuvant high dose rate brachytherapy for soft tissue sarcomas: initial experience report
Julie A. Bradley,Sara H. Kleinman,Jason Rownd,David King
Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: Adjuvant high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) offers advantages over low dose rate brachytherapy (LDRBT), although there are little data on local tumor control and treatment related toxicity. We report outcome in patients with primary, recurrent, and metastatic extremity and superficial trunk soft tissue sarcoma. Material and methods: Eleven patients (12 sites) with intermediate or high grade sarcoma were treated with adjuvant HDRBT following surgical resection. Patients were treated at 3.4 Gy fractions delivered twice daily to a total dose of 34 Gy (1 patient received 9 fractions). Results: With median follow-up of 20.8 months, 1 patient developed a local recurrence. 2-year local control and overall survival are 89% and 71%, respectively. Wound complications occurred in 3 sites. Two of the wound complications developed in the area of previous external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Conclusion: Surgical resection followed by HDRBT is associated with excellent early local tumor control and acceptable wound complication.
Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI): An update for practitioners
Mo Al-Qaisi, David M Nott, David H King, et al
Vascular Health and Risk Management , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S6759
Abstract: nkle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI): An update for practitioners Review (11918) Total Article Views Authors: Mo Al-Qaisi, David M Nott, David H King, et al Published Date September 2009 Volume 2009:5 Pages 833 - 841 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S6759 Mo Al-Qaisi1, David M Nott1, David H King2, Sam Kaddoura1 1Imperial College, London, UK; 2Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, Essex, UK Abstract: Peripheral vascular disease affects some 12%–14% of the general population, and the majority of people with the disease are asymptomatic. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) test is widely used by a diverse range of practitioners (in the community and hospital setting) in order to screen asymptomatic patients, diagnose patients with clinical symptoms, and to monitor patients who have had radiological or surgical intervention. This paper explains the theoretical basis of the ABPI test, as well as the relevance of the common modifications of the test. It explores the background to the quoted normal ranges for the ABPI test. It reviews the large body of literature that has developed on the association between ABPI and cardiovascular risk, as well as ABPI as a predictor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, highlighting the evidence that can inform practice. The review looks critically at the limitations of the ABPI test, providing practitioners with an evidence-based update on the importance and challenges of standardizing ABPI methodology. This paper highlights the influence of the key technical aspects of the ABPI test that all practitioners need to consider in order to be able to make more reliable and informed management decisions based on ABPI findings.
Imaging of peripheral vascular disease
Mo Al-Qaisi, David M Nott, David H King, Sam Kaddoura, Mo Hamady
Reports in Medical Imaging , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMI.S4868
Abstract: ging of peripheral vascular disease Review (33572) Total Article Views Authors: Mo Al-Qaisi, David M Nott, David H King, Sam Kaddoura, Mo Hamady Published Date March 2009 Volume 2009:2 Pages 25 - 34 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMI.S4868 Mo Al-Qaisi1, David M Nott1, David H King1, Sam Kaddoura2, Mo Hamady3 1Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK; 2Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK; 3St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK Abstract: This illustrated review article gives an evidence-based update on the different modalities used for imaging peripheral vascular disease (duplex ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography). After discussing the latest technological developments for each modality, their limitations are also highlighted. The evidence is presented for the various modalities’ roles in the imaging of peripheral vascular disease, including problem-solving applications. The strengths and weaknesses of each modality are therefore critically appraised, including the salient technological, clinical, and financial aspects. This review allows the general and specialist practitioner to make an informed decision on how best to deploy imaging tests in peripheral vascular disease as part of an evidence-based approach. The article concludes with a rational imaging algorithm for the investigation of peripheral vascular disease.
Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI): An update for practitioners
Mo Al-Qaisi,David M Nott,David H King,et al
Vascular Health and Risk Management , 2009,
Abstract: Mo Al-Qaisi1, David M Nott1, David H King2, Sam Kaddoura11Imperial College, London, UK; 2Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, Essex, UKAbstract: Peripheral vascular disease affects some 12%–14% of the general population, and the majority of people with the disease are asymptomatic. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) test is widely used by a diverse range of practitioners (in the community and hospital setting) in order to screen asymptomatic patients, diagnose patients with clinical symptoms, and to monitor patients who have had radiological or surgical intervention. This paper explains the theoretical basis of the ABPI test, as well as the relevance of the common modifications of the test. It explores the background to the quoted normal ranges for the ABPI test. It reviews the large body of literature that has developed on the association between ABPI and cardiovascular risk, as well as ABPI as a predictor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, highlighting the evidence that can inform practice. The review looks critically at the limitations of the ABPI test, providing practitioners with an evidence-based update on the importance and challenges of standardizing ABPI methodology. This paper highlights the influence of the key technical aspects of the ABPI test that all practitioners need to consider in order to be able to make more reliable and informed management decisions based on ABPI findings.Keywords: ankle, brachial, pressure, index, ABPI, update
Imaging of peripheral vascular disease
Mo Al-Qaisi,David M Nott,David H King,Sam Kaddoura
Reports in Medical Imaging , 2009,
Abstract: Mo Al-Qaisi1, David M Nott1, David H King1, Sam Kaddoura2, Mo Hamady31Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK; 2Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK; 3St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UKAbstract: This illustrated review article gives an evidence-based update on the different modalities used for imaging peripheral vascular disease (duplex ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography). After discussing the latest technological developments for each modality, their limitations are also highlighted. The evidence is presented for the various modalities’ roles in the imaging of peripheral vascular disease, including problem-solving applications. The strengths and weaknesses of each modality are therefore critically appraised, including the salient technological, clinical, and financial aspects. This review allows the general and specialist practitioner to make an informed decision on how best to deploy imaging tests in peripheral vascular disease as part of an evidence-based approach. The article concludes with a rational imaging algorithm for the investigation of peripheral vascular disease.Keywords: imaging, peripheral, vascular, duplex, angiography, arterial
The New Internationalists: World Vision and the Revival of American Evangelical Humanitarianism, 1950–2010
David King
Religions , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/rel3040922
Abstract: International relief and development agencies consistently rank among the largest evangelical organizations, and in recent decades, they have gained increased exposure and influence within the greater humanitarian community. World Vision, the largest evangelical agency, is also the largest Christian humanitarian organization in the world. Themes of politics and culture wars have led many to scholars to categorize American evangelicals into distinct conservative and liberal parties. Yet the history of American evangelicals’ humanitarianism demonstrates how they often resisted such dichotomies. As evangelical humanitarian agencies expanded exponentially over the past five decades, they came to embrace a “holistic gospel” that helped shape evangelical mission debates concerning the relationship between evangelism and social action; they engaged international evangelicals that forced Americans to reconsider their own categories; and many modeled a practical ecumenism that allowed evangelicals to expand beyond a limited subculture to work alongside other religious and even secular NGOs. While other evangelical progressives fragmented over identity politics or remained tethered to small alterative communities, the leading aid agencies have achieved broad support across evangelicalism, making them some of the most influential voices.
Reisikirjeldus eesti tantsust
David King
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 2011,
Abstract: PremiseThis essay is an elaboration of a paper read at the Imagining Bodies conference at Tallinn University in 2010, where the author considered differing meanings of the concept of productivity, and market force’s impact on dance in Estonia. The premise was that a cultural tourist might be able to view and describe cultural production in Estonia in novel and possibly productive ways, because of his geographic and social displacement. After making notes while touring in Estonia, during autumn and winter of 2009/2010, on his observations of similarities and differences between how dance is created and funded in Estonia and California, the author gathered them into a travelogue and subjected them to a variety of cultural, economic and political critiques.ObservationsThe scale and direction of cultural production in Estonia and California are vastly different but capital market forces foreground similar resource allocations in dance production:Women provide the central core of the social infrastructure of the Estonian Dance and dance education. It is this self-subsidized labour pool, operating at discounted labour costs, that provides the social infrastructure that is the primary dance resource for the nextgeneration of Estonian dancers. The social good that dance produces is often defined as a positive externality, secondary to internal/cash transactions, operating outside of the capital economy and probably not included in measures of the gross domestic product of the nation. Externalizing the costs of dance education and production allows for “free riding” by individuals and institutions that profit from the goods dance practices produce for the country without making personal investment. Dance is further subject to what William Baumol calls the “productivity lag” in the performing arts wherein dance, because it requires a fixed number of labour hours toproduce and perform, seems cost more than the consumer goods that have become easier and quicker to produce since industrialization.Training citizens’ bodies to be moved, and to move together, to dance and perform acts that create a common good, seems to be an externality – outside the bounds of market forces, something that is obfuscated and not talked about. These definitions lead us to profligately expend the social capital it takes to create and maintain the organizational infrastructures that sustain communities.Conclusions The peoples of Estonia, from the sea-islands to the inland lakes, northern towns, and southern hills, are producing a rich and diverse cultural product. The culture of Estonia is
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