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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 53306 matches for " David Greenberg "
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Anticholinergic delirium following Datura stramonium ingestion: Implications for the Internet age
Vearrier David,Greenberg Michael
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock , 2010,
Abstract: Recreational use of Datura to deliberately induce an anticholinergic delirium is not uncommon. We present a case of Datura intoxication in a young adult who learned about the recreational use of Datura on the Internet and subsequently purchased Datura stramonium seeds from an online vendor. Using the Google search engine, we conducted searches for "Datura," "jimson weed" and "Datura seeds" and reviewed the first 200 search results for each search term. We found 16 websites recommending the recreational use of Datura, 12 vendors selling seeds of genus Datura and one website that both promoted the recreational use of Datura and also sold Datura stramonium leaves. The promotion of recreational use of Datura on the Internet represents a danger to public health and the ability to purchase Datura seeds from Internet vendors may increase the prevalence of Datura abuse.
Acute Otitis Media in Children: Current Epidemiology, Microbiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Treatment.
Eugene Leibovitz,David Greenberg
Chang Gung Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: An accurate differential diagnosis of AOM is essential for ensuring appropriate treatment,since overdiagnosis of disease is common and antibiotics are not indicated for otitismedia with effusion. Although antibiotic therapy is required in only 20-30% of all AOMcases (high rate of spontaneous recovery), most of the patients are treated since this smallproportion cannot be quickly and easily identified. The main determinant of the efficacy ofantibiotics in AOM is the time that drug concentration at the site of infection exceeds theminimal inhibitory concentration for the pathogen. The major problems encountered in theantibiotic therapy of AOM are the tremendous increase in the resistance to antibiotics of itsmain pathogens and the lack of tight criteria in the selection of the appropriate antibioticdrugs for the treatment of this disease. The recently published Center for Disease Controland Prevention (CDC) guidelines for the treatment of AOM represent a major step forwardin the rational approach to the management of this disease by establishing a clear hierarchyamong the various therapeutic agents used in the treatment of simple and complicated AOM.A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine recently licensed in the United States foruniversal immunization of infants < 2 years has demonstrated efficacy for prevention ofserotype-specific pneumococcal AOM.
Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: From Diagnosis to Treatment
David Greenberg,Eugene Leibovitz
Chang Gung Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children is a leading cause of childhoodmorbidity and mortality mainly in the developing world. Its etiology can be viral, bacterial,or mixed infection. The etiological agents are different in different age groups and duringthe various seasons of the year. Chest X-rays and inflammatory laboratory tests have lowdiagnostic sensitivity and specificity. CAP in children has an important impact on societyand is a frequent cause of physician visits, work loss, and reduction of quality of life of thechildren and his/her family. The use of treatment algorithms in the developing countries hasled to lower mortality rates, but the future of this approach, given the rate of development ofantimicrobial resistance, is uncertain. The wider use of pneumococcal vaccines may representan important advance in the prevention of pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Using Linkage Analysis to Detect Gene-Gene Interaction by Stratifying Family Data on Known Disease, or Disease-Associated, Alleles
Barbara Corso, David A. Greenberg
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093398
Abstract: Detecting gene-gene interaction in complex diseases is a major challenge for common disease genetics. Most interaction detection approaches use disease-marker associations and such methods have low power and unknown reliability in real data. We developed and tested a powerful linkage-analysis-based gene-gene interaction detection strategy based on conditioning the family data on a known disease-causing allele or disease-associated marker allele. We computer-generated multipoint linkage data for a disease caused by two epistatically interacting loci (A and B). We examined several two-locus epistatic inheritance models: dominant-dominant, dominant-recessive, recessive-dominant, recessive-recessive. At one of the loci (A), there was a known disease-related allele. We stratified the family data on the presence of this allele, eliminating family members who were without it. This elimination step has the effect of raising the “penetrance” at the second locus (B). We then calculated the lod score at the second locus (B) and compared the pre- and post-stratification lod scores at B. A positive difference indicated interaction. We also examined if it was possible to detect interaction with locus B based on a disease-marker association (instead of an identified disease allele) at locus A. We also tested whether the presence of genetic heterogeneity would generate false positive evidence of interaction. The power to detect interaction for a known disease allele was 60–90%. The probability of false positives, based on heterogeneity, was low. Decreasing linkage disequilibrium between the disease and marker at locus A decreased the likelihood of detecting interaction. The allele frequency of the associated marker made little difference to the power.
Steady-State Size Distributions for Collisional Populations: Analytical Solution with Size-Dependent Strength
David P. O'Brien,Richard Greenberg
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00145-3
Abstract: The steady-state population of bodies resulting from a collisional cascade depends on how material strength varies with size. We find a simple expression for the power-law index of the population, given a power law that describes how material strength varies with size. This result is extended to the case relevant for the asteroid belt and Kuiper belt, in which the material strength is described by 2 separate power laws--one for small bodies and one for larger bodies. We find that the power-law index of the small body population is unaffected by the strength law for the large bodies, and vice versa. Simple analytical expressions describe a wave that is superimposed on the large body population because of the transition between the two power laws describing the strength. These analytical results yield excellent agreement with a numerical simulation of collisional evolution. These results will help to interpret observations of the asteroids and KBOs, and constrain the strength properties of those objects.
Inherent enumerability of strong jump-traceability
David Diamondstone,Noam Greenberg,Daniel Turetsky
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We show that every strongly jump-traceable set obeys every benign cost function. Moreover, we show that every strongly jump-traceable set is computable from a computably enumerable strongly jump-traceable set. This allows us to generalise properties of c.e.\ strongly jump-traceable sets to all such sets. For example, the strongly jump-traceable sets induce an ideal in the Turing degrees; the strongly jump-traceable sets are precisely those that are computable from all superlow Martin-L\"{o}f random sets; the strongly jump-traceable sets are precisely those that are a base for $\text{Demuth}_{\text{BLR}}$-randomness; and strong jump-traceability is equivalent to strong superlowness.
Enforcing Bulk Mail Classification
Evan P. Greenberg,David R. Cheriton
Computer Science , 2005,
Abstract: Spam costs US corporations upwards of $8.9 billion a year, and comprises as much as 40% of all email received. Solutions exist to reduce the amount of spam seen by end users, but cannot withstand sophisticated attacks. Worse yet, many will occasionally misclassify and silently drop legitimate email. Spammers take advantage of the near-zero cost of sending email to flood the network, knowing that success even a tiny fraction of the time means a profit. End users, however, have proven unwilling to pay money to send email to friends and family. We show that it is feasible to extend the existing mail system to reduce the amount of unwanted email, without misclassifying email, and without charging well-behaved users. We require that bulk email senders accurately classify each email message they send as an advertisement with an area of interest or else be charged a small negative incentive per message delivered. Recipients are able to filter out email outside their scope of interest, while senders are able to focus their sendings to the appropriate audience.
A novel bacterium associated with lymphadenitis in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease.
Greenberg David E,Ding Li,Zelazny Adrian M,Stock Frida
PLOS Pathogens , 2006,
Abstract: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system causing defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life-threatening infections. We identified a novel gram-negative rod in excised lymph nodes from a patient with CGD. Gram-negative rods grew on charcoal-yeast extract, but conventional tests could not identify it. The best 50 matches of the 16S rRNA (using BLAST) were all members of the family Acetobacteraceae, with the closest match being Gluconobacter sacchari. Patient serum showed specific band recognition in whole lysate immunoblot. We used mouse models of CGD to determine whether this organism was a genuine CGD pathogen. Intraperitoneal injection of gp91(phox) (-/-) (X-linked) and p47 (phox -/-) (autosomal recessive) mice with this bacterium led to larger burdens of organism recovered from knockout compared with wild-type mice. Knockout mouse lymph nodes had histopathology that was similar to that seen in our patient. We recovered organisms with 16S rRNA sequence identical to the patient's original isolate from the infected mice. We identified a novel gram-negative rod from a patient with CGD. To confirm its pathogenicity, we demonstrated specific immune reaction by high titer antibody, showed that it was able to cause similar disease when introduced into CGD, but not wild-type mice, and we recovered the same organism from pathologic lesions in these mice. Therefore, we have fulfilled Koch's postulates for a new pathogen. This is the first reported case of invasive human disease caused by any of the Acetobacteraceae. Polyphasic taxonomic analysis shows this organism to be a new genus and species for which we propose the name Granulobacter bethesdensis.
Endoscopic Adenoidectomy Secondary to Druginduced Trismus  [PDF]
Mark Greenberg, Daniela Carvalho
Surgical Science (SS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2010.11006
Abstract: We present the case of a 4 year old girl whose adenoidectomy had to be performed via an endoscopictrans oral approach due to the unexpected inability to fully open the mouth during the procedure. The patient had previously been taking Risperidone for behavioral symptoms associated with her autism. The jaw tone returned to normal following the procedure and there were no complications. An interaction between the Risperidone and the anesthetics were the likely cause of the trismus.
Hedging with Stock Index Options: A Mean-Extended Gini Approach  [PDF]
Haim Shalit, Doron Greenberg
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.31011

One of the more efficient methods to hedge portfolios of securities whose put options are not traded is to use stock index options. We use the mean-extended Gini (MEG) model to derive the optimal hedge ratios for stock index options. We calculate the MEG ratios for some main stocks traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange and compare them to the minimum-variance hedge ratios. Computed for specific values of risk aversion, MEG hedge ratios combine systematic risk with basis risk. Our results show that increasing the risk aversion used in the computation reduces the size of the hedge ratio, implying that less put options are needed to hedge away each and every security.

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